# Knowledge and Process Standards

August 9, 2017 Teaching

Axia College Material Appendix A National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Principles and Process Standards Worksheet Directions: Go to the NCTM website by using the following directions: 1. Go to http://www. nctm. org/standards/content. aspx? id=4294967312 2. Click on the Standards and Focal Points section from the top navigation bar. 3. Click the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics navigation bar on the left of the page. 4. Click on the Overview section. 5. Click on Standards for Grades Pre-K–2. . Click on Standards for Grades 3–5. 7. Click on Standards for Grades 6–8. 8. Click on Standards for Grades 9–12. Review the information in the Overview section and select two significant process standards. Explain in 100- to 200- words why you choose these two standards. |I chose equality and learning and I chose these two because equity is needed in our schools for our students to understand what is going on and learning is needed for them to understand the | |concepts of what they are learning.

The NCTM highlights the most important mathematical topics of each grade. It is a cluster of related knowledge, skills and concept. I chose the Standards | |for grades 6-8 I looked at the standards for Fractions and decimals in these area students apply their understandings of fractions and fraction models to represent various types of addition | |and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators. The second standard in which I chose was 3 D shapes. This allows students to relate two-dimensional shapes.

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It helps them to understand | |and recognize the total number of same sized units of volume that they need to fill a space without gaps or overlaps. They use these shapes and find surface areas and volumes, they will do | |this and work with surface area and they find and justify relationships among many formulas and will learn to measure necessary attributes of shapes to use the area formulas to solve problems. | Directions: Review the NCTM Principles and Process Standards for School Mathematics, and complete the following two tables.

Table 1: NCTM Principles Description Provide a short description of each of the six NCTM principles for school mathematics. |NCTM Principles | | |Principle |Description | |1 |Equity |Is excellence in mathematics education, has high expectations and strong support for all students. |2 |Curriculum |More than a collection of activities, it must be coherent, focused on important mathematics as well as well articulated across the grades. | | | | | |3 |Teaching |Is effective mathematics that requires understanding what students know and need to learn and then challenging and supporting them to learn it as well. | | | | |4 |Learning |Students must learn mathematics with understanding, actively building new knowledge from experience and prior knowledge. | | | | | |5 |Assessment |Is something that should support the learning of important mathematics and furnish useful information to both teachers and students. | | | | |6 |Technology |It is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances the students learning. | | | | | Table 2: NCTM Process Standards Complete the following table by providing a brief description and a real-world example of the five NCTM Process Standards for School Mathematics. NCTM Process Standards | | |Standard |Description |Real-World Example | |1 |Problem solving | | | | | | | | |2 |Communication | | | | | | | | |3 |Representation | | | | | | | | |4 |Reasoning and proof | | | | | | | | |5 |Connections | | | | | | | |

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