July 11, 2018 Management

Leadership The process, by which a person exerts influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organizational goals. When leaders are ineffective, their influence does not contribute to, and often detracts from, goal attainment. Effective leadership increases an organization’s ability to meet all challenges, including the need to obtain a competitive advantage, the need to foster ethical behavior, and the need to manage a diverse workforce fairly and equitably.

The Nature of Leadership Leader An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve roof or organizational goals. Personal Leadership Style The specific ways in which a manager chooses to influence others shapes the way that manager approaches the other principal tasks of management. The challenge is for managers at all levels to develop an effective personal management style. Distinction between managers and leaders Managers establish and implement procedures to ensure smooth functioning Leaders kick to the future and chart the course for the organization.

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Sources of Managerial Power Legitimate Power The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in the firm. Reward Power The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards. Coercive Power The ability of a manager to punish others emitted in effectiveness and application; can have serious negative side effects Examples: verbal reprimand, pay cuts, and dismissal Expert Power power that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that the leader possesses.

Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching manner Referent power Power that comes from subordinates’ and coworkers’ respect , admiration, and loyalty Possessed by managers who are likable and whom subordinates sis to use as a role model Empowerment The process of giving employees at all levels in the organization the authority to make decisions, be responsible for their outcomes, improve quality, and cut costs (knowledge). It is sustain effective leadership for several reasons: It increases a managers ability to get things done.

It often increases workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitment. It gives managers more time to concentrate on their pressing concerns because they less time on day-to-day supervisory responsibilities. The personal leadership style of managers who empower subordinates often entails evolving their ability to make good decisions as well as being subordinates’ guide, coach, and source of inspiration. Traits and Behavioral Models of Leadership The Trait Model The trait model of leadership focused on identifying the personal characteristics that are responsible for effective leadership. . Decades of research indicate that certain personal characteristics do appear to be associated with effective leadership. 2. However, traits alone are not the key to understanding leader effectiveness. 3. Some effective leaders do not possess all of the traits identified in this model, and some leaders who do assess them are not effective in their leadership roles. This lack of a consistent relationship between leader traits and leader effectiveness led researchers to shift their attention away from what leaders are like (their traits) to what effective managers actually do, i. E. Their behaviors. Behavioral Model Identifies the two basic types of behavior that many leaders engaged in to influence their subordinates Consideration, initiating structure Consideration when they show their subordinates that they trust, respect, and care about them. Managers who truly look out for the well-being of heir subordinates and do what they can to help subordinates feel good and enjoy their work perform consideration behaviors. Initiating Structure: Leaders engage in initiating structure when they make sure that work gets done, and the organization is effective and efficient.

Assigning tasks to individuals or work groups, making schedules, encouraging adherence to rules are examples of initiating structure. Contingency Models of Leadership Contingency Models Contingency models of leadership take into account the situation or context within which leadership occurs. They propose that whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the interplay between what the manager is like, what he or she does, and the situation in which leadership takes place.

Three prominent contingency models are discussed: Fiddler’s contingency model, Hershey and Blanchard, House’s path-goal theory, and the leader substitutes model A. Fiddles Model Fiddler’s Contingency Model: Fiddler’s contingency model helps explain why a manager may be an effective leader in one situation and ineffective in another. 1 – Leader Style. 2- Situational Characteristics. 1. Leader Style: Fiddler hypothesized that personal characteristics can influence leader effectiveness.

He uses the term leader style to refer to a manager’s characteristic approach to leadership and identified two basic leader styles: relationship-oriented and task-oriented. All managers can be described as having one style or the other. 1. 1 Relationship-oriented leaders are primarily concerned with developing good relationships with their subordinates and being liked by them. They get the job done while focusing on maintaining high-quality interpersonal relationships with suborn innate. . 2 Task-oriented leaders are primarily concerned with ensuring that subordinates perform at a high level.

Task-oriented managers focus on task accomplishment and making SSL_Jeer the job gets done. 2. Situational Characteristics: Fielder identified three situational characteristics that are important determinants of how favorable a situation is for leading. They are: leader- member relations, task structure, and position power. 2. 1 Leader-member relations: is the extent to which followers like, trust, and are loyal to their leader. Situations are more favorable for leading when deader-member relationships are good. 2. Task structure is the extent to which the work to be performed is clear-cut so that the leader’s subordinates know what needs to be accomplished and how to go about doing it. When task Structure is high, situations are favorable for leading. When task structure is low, the situation is unfavorable for leading. 2. 3 Position power is the amount of legitimate, reward, and coercive power a leader has by virtue of his or her position in an organization. Leadership situations are more favorable for leading when position power is strong. Putting the Contingency Model into Practice i.

According to Fiddler, managers must be placed in leadership situations that fit their style or the situation must need to be changed to suit the manager’s style, if he or she is to be effective. Ii. Research studies support some aspects of Fiddler’s B. Hershey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory (SLUT) Argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader.

Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent. Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiddler’s two leadership dimensions: Telling: high task-low relationship leadership Selling: high task-high relationship leadership Participating: low task-high relationship leadership Delegating: low task-low relationship leadership Readiness: The final component in the model is the four stages of followers:

RI: people are both unable and unwilling to task responsibility for doing something. … Neither competent nor confident. People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks. They are motivated but lack skills. People able and unwilling to do what leaders wants. People are able and willing to do what is asked of them. Unable / Unwilling….. Telling style unable / willing……… Selling style Able / unwilling………. Participative style Able / willing……. Delegating Telling / Directing Follower: Low competence, low commitment / Unable and

Unwilling : High task focus, low relationship focus. When the follower cannot do the job and is unwilling or afraid to try, then the leader takes a highly directive role, telling them what to do but without a great deal of concern for the relationship. The leader may also provide a working structure, both for the job and in terms of how the person is controlled. The leader may first find out why the person is not motivated and if there are any limitations in ability. They follower may also lack self-confidence as a result.

If the leader focused more on the relationship, the follower may become infused about what must be done and what is optional. The leader thus maintains a clear ‘do this’ position to ensure all required actions are clear. Selling / Coaching Follower: Some competence, variable commitment / Unable but Willing or motivated Leader: High task focus, high relationship focus. When the follower can do the job, at least to some extent, and perhaps is over-confident about their ability in this, then ‘telling’ them what to do may denominate them or lead to resistance.

The leader thus needs to ‘sell’ another way of working, explaining and clarifying decisions. The leader thus upends time listening and advising and, where appropriate, helping the follower to gain necessary skills through coaching methods. Note: SSL and SO are leader-driven. Participating / Supporting Follower: High competence, variable commitment / Able but Unwilling or insecure Leader: Low task focus, high relationship focus.

When the follower can do the job, but is refusing to do it or otherwise showing insufficient commitment, the leader need not worry about showing them what to do, and instead is concerned with finding out why the person is refusing and thence persuading them to cooperate. There is less excuse here or followers to be reticent about their ability, and the key is very much around motivation. If the causes are found then they can be addressed by the leader.

The leader thus spends time listening, praising and otherwise making the follower feel good when they show the necessary commitment. Delegating / Observing Follower: : High competence, high commitment/ Able and willing or motivated Leader: Low task focus, low relationship focus When the follower can do the job and is motivated to do it, then the leader can basically leave them to it, largely trusting them to get on with the job although hey also may need to keep a relatively distant eye on things to ensure everything is going to plan.

Followers at this level have less need for support or frequent praise, although as with anyone, occasional recognition is always welcome. C- House’s Path-Goal Theory A contingency model of leadership proposing that effective leaders can motivate subordinates to achieve goals by: 1 Clearly identifying the outcomes that subordinates are trying to obtain from their jobs. 2. Rewarding subordinates with these outcomes for high-performance and attainment of work goals 3.


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