Theory is defined as a set of interconnected constructs, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic position of phenomena by specifyAing dealingss among variables, with the intent of explicating and foretelling the phenomena. ( Kerlinger 1973 ) It presents a systematic manner of understanding events or state of affairss. Using theory as a foundation for plan planning and development is consistent with the current accent on utilizing evidence-based intercessions in public wellness. Theory provides a route map for analyzing jobs, developing appropriate intercessions, and measuring their successes. ( National malignant neoplastic disease institute 2005 )
Although some directors in different parts of the universe could hold achieved managerial success without holding basic theoretical cognition in direction, it has to be emphasized that those directors who have mixed direction theory in their daily pattern, have had better opportunities of pull offing their organisations more expeditiously and efficaciously to accomplish both single and organisational aims. ( Olum 2004 )
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For the intent of this write up, I will be turn toing the issue of cervical malignant neoplastic disease among adult females concentrating on the theoretical and practical direction, leading and communicating issues to be addressed for the effectual executing of a wellness run to advance pap vilifications among adult females in a local territory in Lagos province, the commercial capital of Nigeria.
Leadership and Management
What is Management?
Management is the art, or scientific discipline, of accomplishing ends through people. It is the procedure of planing and keeping an environment in which persons, working together in groups, expeditiously accomplish selected purposes ( Koontz and Weihrich 1990 ) .
Leadership may be defined as the ability of people to organize work and meld disparate accomplishments. Therefore, the best leaders are those who have the ability to piece a squad consisting of people with different endowments. Directors are non needfully leaders. This construct is explained by John P. Kotter in his book, A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs From Management. He believes that directors must cognize how to take every bit good as manage. ( The Free Press, 1990 ) .
Indeed, there is no cosmopolitan theory of leading and we now have an array of different theories about leading. These include such noteworthy theories as servant leading ( Robert K. Greenleaf ) , collaborative leading ( David D. Chrislip and Carl E. Larson ) , airy leading ( Burt Nanus ) , situational leading ( Kenneth H. Blanchard ) , and principle-centered leading ( Stephen R. Covey ) . Some of these theories support the differentiations between directors and leaders, such as transactional leading ( directors ) as opposed to transformational leading ( leaders ) .
Some cardinal direction theories are:
Scientific Management Theory
The first direction theory is what is popularly referred to as Frederick Taylor ‘s Scientific Management. Taylor systematically sought to subvert direction “ by regulation of pollex ” and replace it with existent timed observations taking to “ the 1 best ” pattern. He besides advocated the systematic preparation of workers in “ the 1 best pattern ” instead than leting them personal discretion in their undertakings. Taylor ‘s strongest positive bequest was the construct of interrupting a complex undertaking down into a figure of subtasks, and optimising the public presentation of the subtasks. ( Taylor F, 1910, Olum 2005 )
Classical Organizational Theory
In this class of direction theory are the plants of Max Weber ‘s bureaucratic theory and Henri Fayol ‘s administrative theory. Weber developed a set of rules for an “ ideal ” bureaucratism as follows: fixed and official jurisdictional countries, a steadfastly ordered hierarchy of super and subordination, direction based on written records, thorough and adept preparation, official activity taking precedence over other activities and that direction of a given organisation follows stable, cognizable regulations. The bureaucratism was envisioned as a big machine for achieving its ends in the most efficient mode possible. ( Weber 1947, Olum 2005 )
Henri Fayol ‘s administrative theory chiefly focused was more directed at the direction bed. Fayol believed that direction had five principle functions: to calculate and be after, to form, to command, to coordinate, and to command. Fayol developed 14 rules of disposal to travel along with direction ‘s five primary functions. These rules are: specialization/division of labour, authorization with duty, subject, integrity of bid, integrity of way, subordination of single involvement to the general involvement, wage of staff, centralisation, scalar chain/line of authorization, order, equity, stableness of term of office, enterprise, and esprit de corps. Fayol clearly believed personal attempt and squad kineticss were portion of an “ ideal ” organisation ( Wren, Bedeian & A ; Breeze 2002 ) .
Scholars here believed that work satisfaction and hence public presentation was fundamentally non economic. It depends more on working conditions and attitudes – communications, positive direction response and encouragement, working environment. He was able to show that showed that the group kineticss and societal make-up of an organisation were an highly of import force either for or against higher productiveness. This result caused the call for greater engagement for the workers, greater trust and openness in the working environment, and a greater attending to squads and groups in the work topographic point. ( Efere 2005 )
Situational or eventuality theory
The situational or eventuality theory asserts that when directors make a determination, they must take into history all facets of the current state of affairs and act on those facets that are cardinal to the state of affairs at manus. ( Bolden, Gosling, Marturano et al 2003 )
Edward Deming ‘s modern quality direction.
Edward Deming is the laminitis of modern quality direction. He placed great importance and duty on direction, believing direction to be responsible for 94 % of quality jobs. He postulated several premises: create stability of intent for continual betterment of merchandises and service ; follow the new doctrine created in Japan ; cease dependance on mass review ; build quality along with monetary value ; better invariably and everlastingly every procedure planning, production, and service ; institute modern methods of developing on-the-job for including direction ; adopt and institute leading aimed at assisting people to make a better occupation ; drive out fright, promote effectual bipartisan communicating ; interrupt down barriers between sections and staff countries ; extinguish exhortations for the work force – they merely create adversarial relationships ; extinguish quotas and numerical marks ; take barriers to plume of craft, including one-year assessments and Management by Objectives ; promote instruction and self-reformation for everyone ; and specify top direction ‘s lasting committedness to of all time bettering quality and productiveness and their duty to implement all these rules. ( Edward Deming Institute 2002 )
Douglas McGregor ‘s theory
Douglas McGregor ( 1906-1964 ) postulated direction thoughts as contained in “ Theory X ” and “ Theory Y ” . Using human behaviour research, he noted that the manner an organisation runs depends on the beliefs of its directors. “ Theory Ten ” gives a negative position of human behaviour and direction. “ Theory Y ” , the antonym of “ Theory X ” , argues that people want to carry through themselves by seeking self-respect, self-development, and self-realization at work as in life in general ( Bolden, Gosling, Marturano et al 2003 )
The National Institutes of Health in 2005 reviewed the major theories in wellness publicity. In this study, three degrees of influence were discussed in which wellness behaviour may be modified
The three degrees of influence are:
Interpersonal e.g. Social cognitive theory
Community- e.g. Diffusion of invention
For the intent of this study, merely the theoretical accounts at the intrapersonal degree will be discussed.
At the Individual/intrapersonal degree:
There are four chief theories that can be used to explicate how individual/intrapersonal degrees of influence affect wellness results. They are:
The Health belief theoretical account
Phases of change/Trans-theoretical theoretical account
Theory of planned behaviour
Precaution acceptance procedure theoretical account
Three cardinal constructs cut across these theoretical accounts:
Behavior is mediated by knowledges ; that is, what people know and think affects how they act. i.e. consciousness of cervical malignant neoplastic disease and influences use of pablum vilification services.
Knowledge is necessary for, but non sufficient to bring forth, most behavior alterations. The fact that a adult female knows that pablum vilifications are utile in early sensing of cervical malignant neoplastic disease does non vouch the fact that she will hold a pablum vilification done.
Percepts, motives, accomplishments, and the societal environment are cardinal influences on behaviour.
The Health Belief Model ( HBM ) addresses the person ‘s perceptual experiences of the menace posed by a wellness job ( susceptibleness, badness ) , the benefits of avoiding the menace, and factors act uponing the determination to move ( barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy ) . ( Hochbaum 1958 ) Researchers expanded upon this theory, finally reasoning that six chief concepts influence people ‘s determinations about whether to take action to forestall, screen for, and control unwellness. ( Mc Cormick-Brown1999 ) .
They argued that people are ready to move if they:
Believe they are susceptible to the status ( sensed susceptibleness ) i.e. the run should concentrate on increasing consciousness of the increasing prevalence of malignant neoplastic disease of the neck among adult females in the community.
Believe the status has serious effects ( perceived badness ) i.e. the effects of untreated malignant neoplastic disease must be clearly defined.
Believe taking action would cut down their susceptibleness to the status or its badness ( sensed benefits ) i.e. the benefits of pablum vilifications as an effectual tool in the early sensing of malignant neoplastic disease of the neck.
Believe costs of taking action ( sensed barriers ) are outweighed by the benefits. We must show to the community that the costs of non taking action far outweigh the costs of testing.
Are exposed to factors that prompt action ( e.g. a commercial or a reminder from a wellness worker to acquire a pap vilification ) ( cue to action )
Are confident in their ability to successfully execute an action ( self-efficacy ) . ( McCormick-Brown 1999, NCI 2005 )
The Theory of Planned Behavior ( TPB ) examines the dealingss between an person ‘s beliefs, attitudes ; purposes, behaviour, and perceived control over that behavior.The Theory of Planned Behavior ( TPB ) and the associated Theory of Reasoned Action ( TRA ) explore the relationship between behaviour and beliefs, attitudes, and purposes. Both the TPB and the TRA presume behavioural purpose is the most of import determiner of behaviour. Harmonizing to these theoretical accounts, behavioural purpose is influenced by a individual ‘s attitude toward executing a behaviour, and by beliefs about whether persons who are of import to the individual O.K. or disapprove of the behaviour ( subjective norm ) . The TPB and TRA assume all other factors ( e.g. , civilization, the environment ) operate through the theoretical accounts ‘ concepts, and do non independently explain the likeliness that a individual will act a certain manner. ( Azjen & A ; Fishbein 1980 )
The Precaution Adoption Process Model ( PAPM ) names seven phases in an person ‘s journey from consciousness to action. ( Weinstein 1998, Weinstein & A ; Sandman 2002 ) It begins with deficiency of consciousness and progresss through subsequent phases of going cognizant, make up one’s minding whether or non to move, moving, and keeping the behaviour. ( Weinstein et al 1998 ) The PAPM recognizes that people who are incognizant of an issue, or are unengaged by it, confront different barriers from those who have decided non to move. It prompts practicians to develop intercession schemes that take into history the phases that precede active decision-making.
For illustration, a adult female who is unaware of her hazard of malignant neoplastic disease of the neck is different from a adult female who will non travel for a pablum vilification due to cultural grounds.
Communication and organisational schemes for the successful publicity of pap vilification among adult females in Ikorodu Community.
In order to hold an effectual communicating plan, the undermentioned issues must be addressed:
Engagement of a multi disciplinary squad: It is imperative that a multi disciplinary direction squad is selected with the engagement of non merely technocrats but the local governments and the representatives of the mark audience.
Adequate Planning: This will be carried out by the squad and it involves choosing missions and aims and the actions to accomplish them. It requires decision-making – i.e. , taking future classs of action from among options.
Organizing and staffing: An effectual plan must be good organized and have the appropriate people to transport out the needed undertakings. Staff functions have to be defined and structured. The undertakings to be carried out will hold been outlined in the program and specific functions for each person to put to death these activities will be developed. They must either hold the experience or be trained for their specific undertakings for the effectual executing of the undertaking.
Leading is the influencing of people so that they will lend to organisation and group ends. Leading involves motive, leading manners and attacks and effectual communicating.
The external environment: an effectual plan must take into consideration the external environment in which it operates. For illustration the publicity of Pap smear in a rural portion of a 3rd universe state will be different from the same plan in an urban industrialised metropolis.
The three M ‘s: Angstrom director must besides pay attending to three 3 M ‘s of direction known as: Manpower ; Material ; Money.
-Manpower: Human resources are the most of import factor in the success of any plan and a good director must cognize how to efficaciously act upon people to accomplish the coveted organisational aims.
-Materials: The demands for any wellness publicity issue needs to be identified. E.g. in this market consciousness run, points like nomadic clinics, disposable speculums, spatula etc must be identified and sourced for prior to the plan.
-Money: Money is required non merely to engage the right people and authorise them with necessary accomplishments but besides to buy all the needed stuffs for the run. Important inquiries will be: What will be our beginning of financess? Will it be authorities bureaus, private givers, international bureaus, NGO ‘s etc. if the beginning of support is from givers ‘ directors must observe that the givers frequently have their ain docket and this may act upon the result of the plan.
Other practical issues to observe
Resources are frequently limited so it is of import to do optimum usage of our resources
Community engagement is non ever every bit easy as it seems. There may be built-in power hassles in the community and the choice of the right representatives may be hard. Furthermore, community members may happen it hard to understand the deductions of the wellness issue at manus and cultural or spiritual barriers are frequently hard to interrupt.
There is frequently diverseness in populations and non all groups benefit from a message every bit so the run should be tailored in such a manner as to deduce maximal benefit for the mark audience.
Schemes for the success of the communicating plan
The undermentioned activities will be carried out to guarantee the success of the communicating plan:
A thorough state of affairs analysis
This is one of the first stairss in planing an effectual communicating run. We need to happen out what is on land now. Important inquiries would be:
What is the current load of cervical malignant neoplastic disease in the community? What is the degree of consciousness of the wellness issue by the populace, what sort of communicating scheme is in topographic point, Is it effectual, if non why non?
Besides, a thorough apprehension of the mark audience is necessary. It is of import to cognize their demographic, societal, political, cultural and economic features.
This can be carried out through cardinal interviews, observations, focal point group treatments surveys etc. what is their current cognition about malignant neoplastic disease of the neck, have they of all time heard of a pablum smear trial, current use rates, bing services that carry out the trials, the conditions of these services etc. to cognize how they perceive ca cervix and pap vilifications. We must place possible cultural barriers, societal barriers, fiscal, geographical etc. and the possible grounds for this.
Puting ends and Aims:
Our end for this run is to cut down the load of malignant neoplastic disease of the neck in the Ikorodu community by the publicity of early sensing among adult females utilizing a pablum smear trial.
The aims must be SMART. i.e. it should be specific, mensurable, accomplishable. Realistic and clip edge.
The aims will include:
To increase the degree of consciousness and cognition of malignant neoplastic disease of the neck and of pap vilification as an effectual showing tool for its early sensing by 80 % in the Ikorodu community by December 2011.
To advance positive attitudes towards pap smear as a showing tool for malignant neoplastic disease of the neck.
To increase the proportion of adult females who have of all time had a pap vilification in the Ikorodu community by 50 % by December 2011.
Identify the audience:
We need to cognize every bit much as we can about our audience. Their age, societal category, business, civilization, values, current beliefs about cervical malignant neoplastic disease, mis-conceptions etc. Besides factors like instruction degrees, entree to communicating channels etc are all of import. The possible barriers to the success of the plan should besides be identified. For illustration, the community may believe that malignant neoplastic disease is caused by religious forces and that it can non be prevented.
We are interested non merely in the primary audience ( the adult females ) but besides influencers ( like the hubbies of these adult females ) who may play a major function in their determination to take the trial. Who are these people what is their civilization, what motivates them etc. This is one of the most critical phases in developing an effectual wellness publicity run.
Identifying the audience besides includes schemes like:
Market segmentation-This involves a interrupting down of the possible audience into smaller populations of common involvement. e.g. what motivates younger adult females may be different from older adult females.
The cardinal message and the coveted action to follow must be clearly outlined. In this instance, we want to allow them cognize the undermentioned cardinal points:
Cervical malignant neoplastic disease is common among adult females ;
Cervical malignant neoplastic disease putting to deaths ;
Early sensing makes it preventable ;
Pap vilification is an first-class manner of early sensing ;
A pablum smear Centre is available near you ;
Travel for your pablum smear today!
Choice of appropriate communicating channels:
What are the bing channels? Which 1s are appropriate for this audience? Which 1s have the highest range? At what cost,
It is of import to place the channels that are available to the mark audience and expression for how best we may work these channels for maximal impact. Communication channels may be inter personal like reding or aggregate media like measure boards, postings, wireless jangles etc.
Evaluation and Feedback
A baseline appraisal would hold been carried out and indexs would be set. E.g. the plan may be assessed based on alterations in the degrees of consciousness, proportion of adult females who have had a pap vilification in the old 12 months etc. an appropriate feedback is besides necessary we need to cognize what we have learned, How could the plan have been more effectual etc. the lessons learnt will be fed back for betterments in future intercessions.
Developing and pull offing an effectual wellness communicating run is no easy undertaking. A thorough apprehension of the theoretical issues underlying behavioural alteration and the assorted schemes for effectual execution are of import issues to see. However theory entirely can non vouch the success of any plan. An effectual director must besides understand the practical issues involved and cognize how best to cover with these issues for successful results.
Besides equal plan planning is indispensable but even the best laid programs may non be good executed if the people do non hold the right managerial accomplishments. Development of effectual leading and direction accomplishments are hence of import and must besides be considered in the success of the plan.