Chapter 2 Literature Review
Introduction to Literature Review
This chapter will chiefly discourse on the survey that are done by old research of other writers in the similar country of the present survey. Throughout this chapter, there will be comprehensive treatment on theoretical and practical positions of old surveies done in online shopping and offline shopping for dresss. This survey combines factors that other surveies have done that will act upon the consumer ‘s buying determination in online and offline shops for dresss. It includes the monetary value attraction, clip economy, perceived hazard, enjoyment and exhilaration, tangibleness and high interactivity. All of these factors will lend to the survey of client ‘s buying purpose for dresss on both shops which includes online and offline shopping. Pan, ( 2007 ) defined buying purpose as the avidity of buying the merchandise. Similarly, Engel, Blackwell and Miniard, ( 1990 ) defines buying purpose as a psychological procedure of decision-making. In on-line shopping, it is expected that shoppers are more likely to tie in monetary value attraction and clip salvaging with their purpose to shop while in offline shopping, consumers are more likely to tie in tangibleness, high interactivity and enjoyment with their purpose to shop. As a consequence, on-line sellers or retail merchants should be cognizant of the jobs faced by the consumers and their perceived hazard to increase their purpose to shop in online. Interior designers must take note of consumers ‘ demands because the serviceability is the get downing point to acquire the assurance and support of the consumers ( Alzola et. al. , 2006 ) .
In this portion of the survey, definition and commendations from other writers of the dependant and independent variables in the similar country of research will be presented here.
From the survey of Pan ( 2007, p.5 ) , the writer cited from Engel, Blackwell and Miniard ( 1990 ) , that defines buying purpose as a psychological procedure of decision-making. Harmonizing to Pan ( 2007 ) , “ buying determination procedure ” is when the relevant information is searched by the consumers that are motivated by the fulfilment of demands harmonizing to personal experience and the external environment ; so after roll uping a certain sum of information, they begin to measure and see ; and eventually after comparing and opinion, they make the determination on certain merchandises.
In the recent survey of Chen, Ching and Tsou ( 2007 ) , the writers cited from Azjen ( 1988 ) ; Azjen and Fishbein ( 1980 ) , that the theory of reasoned action ( TRA ) states that behavioural purposes formed through the attitude toward a behaviour and subjective norms lead to existent behaviour given the handiness of resources and chances. A individual ‘s involvement in executing a peculiar behaviour is reflected by the attitude toward a behaviour and it is determined through behavioural beliefs ; these beliefs are obtained through a cognitive rating of results associated with executing the behaviour and the strength of the association between results and behaviour ; while the rating produces either a favourable or unfavourable response to the object, individual, thing or event ( Chen, Ching and Tsou, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter ( 2004 ) , there are five external factors to understand consumer ‘s purpose to buy in the cyberspace which is the consumer personality, situational factors, merchandise features, old online shopping experiences and the trust in online shopping. Consumer ‘s trait includes their demographic factors such as age, income, gender and educational degree will take them to hold the purpose to shop online. For age factor, consumers that are aged under 25 has more possible to shop in online because of their involvement in utilizing new engineerings to seek for merchandise information and comparison and measure options ( Wood, 2002 ) . For educational degree, higher educated consumers are more likely to utilize the cyberspace for their shopping medium because they are more computing machine literate ( Burke, 2002 ) .
Situational factors will besides take a consumer to hold the purpose to shop in the cyberspace such as clip force per unit area, deficiency of mobility, geographical distance, demand for particular points and attraction of options ( Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter, 2004 ) . Time force per unit area can be the deficient clip for consumers to shop in traditional shops because of their feverish life style. Consumers are able to shop any clip of the twenty-four hours or dark in the comfort of their place ; particularly for consumers who have small sum of free clip because of drawn-out working hours ( Wolfinbarger, et, Al, . 2001 ) . For consumers that lack of mobility might be caused by their inability to make the traditional shop. Geographic distance is referred to as the far distance between the consumer ‘s residential country and the shopping promenade. Necessitate to particular points could be the consumer ‘s demands of customized merchandises to accommodate their demand ( Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter, 2004 ) .
Product feature is besides another factor that will act upon the consumer ‘s purpose to buy in the cyberspace. Product characteristic can be touchable or intangible ; standardized or customized. In an online context, lower tangibleness of a merchandise is caused by the deficiency of physical contact and aid in the shopping procedure ; consumer ‘s purpose to shop on the cyberspace will be low when there is a demand to seek advice from a sales representative sing the considered merchandise ( Monsuwe, et. al. , 2004 ) . Merchandises such as auto, computing machines, aroma, aroma or lotion has the lower potency to be purchased by the consumer because it requires more personal cognition and experience ( Elliot, et. al. , 2000 ) .
Another factor that influences the consumer ‘s purpose to buy in online is the old online shopping experiences. Consumers will go on to shop in the cyberspace in the hereafter is because they are satisfied with the on-line shopping experience and it was evaluated positively ( Shim, Eastlick, Lotz and Warrington, 2001 ) . Consumer ‘s perceived hazard will be given to cut down when they are satisfied from the shopping experiences ( Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter, 2004 ) .
The last factor that will act upon consumer ‘s purpose purchase in online is the trust in online shopping. Harmonizing to Lee and Turban ( 2001 ) , grounds that consumers choose non to shop online is because consumers lack of trust in online shopping. Attitude towards security dealing such as payment security, consumer information privateness, return policy, and merchandise transportation warrant predicts on-line buying purposes for dresss merchandise ( Kim, et. al. , 2003 ) . Similarly, consumer ‘s trust towards online shopping is based on the degree of security and privateness.
Monetary value is a signifier of pecuniary that people use for any minutess. It is predicted that monetary value of a merchandise differs in online and offline shopping. Harmonizing to Xia and Monroe ( 2009 ) , consumers will salvage in pecuniary when there are monetary value publicities on specific merchandises. In an online context, consumers are more likely to depend on the monetary value cues to find the quality of a merchandise which are presented in the web site because they can non see or touch the existent merchandise ( Jiang and Rosenbloom, 2005 ) . The survey of So, Wong and Sculli ( 2005 ) resulted that when there is the presence of promotional offers, consumers will hold higher purpose to buy in web-shopping ; buying determinations and pick devising from alternate ratings can be made easy when there is the presence of promotional offers.
Harmonizing to Xia and Monroe ( 2009 ) , their survey resulted that consumers with a shopping end are more antiphonal towards promotional messages such as “ wage less ” and “ price reduction ” while consumers without shopping end are antiphonal towards promotional messages such as “ salvage more ” and “ free gift ” . Xia and Monroe ( 2009, p.691 ) cited from ( Monroe, 2003 ) that monetary value publicity have several benefits such as to increase demand, adjust fluctuations in supply and demand, and increasing consumers ‘ buying over clip.
As we know that online shopping requires transporting fees for merchandise bringing. It is expected that some consumers intention to buy a peculiar merchandise because they have to pay excess charges for the bringing service. But harmonizing to Jiang and Rosenbloom ( 2005 ) , e-tailers can utilize charges for transporting and managing as a tool to pull backing by fiting consumers ‘ bringing demands ; for illustration, some consumers who would prefer a speedy bringing will hold to pay higher cost while others may prefer to wait if they pay lower transportation and handling charges.
Harmonizing to Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry ( 1988 ) , perceived quality and monetary value are thought if as a cue to presume a merchandise ‘s value. Xia and Monroe ( 2009 ) viewed that at a certain point, perceptual experience of lower quality of the merchandise will arouse when there is a monetary value decrease or there will be inquiries on the retail merchant ‘s purpose to cut down the monetary value. Price will be a primary factor when consumers search merchandise in a web and this would demo that client behavioural purpose are related to the monetary value cues that are more readily accessible from memory ( Jiang and Rosenbloom, 2009 ) .
Harmonizing to Liu, He, Gao and Xie ( 2008 ) , it is of import for e-tailers to supply varied types of ware and discriminatory monetary value because client satisfaction is still based on merchandise monetary value and merchandise assortment ; to make competitory advantage, little e-tailers should offer more merchandise picks for the consumers and offer competitory prices.. In online shopping, consumers are able to compare monetary values on the cyberspace in different web sites and they will hold the stuff benefit because they can analyse and compare monetary values based to heighten their determination to buy ( Liu, He, Gao and Xie, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Jin and Kim ( 2003 ) , diverse consumer groups with assorted motives and economic conditions can be satisfied through price reduction shops that are available in Korea.
Pricing factor will besides lend to the shopping convenience. Price perceptual experience is positively and strongly correlated with shopping convenience ( Jiang and Rosenbloom, 2005 ) . Similarly agreed by Jayawardhena and Wright ( 2009 ) , shoppers who value convenience can obtain the benefits of merchandise and services with less money spent and this would hold a positive relationship with shoppers ‘ exhilaration ; increasing hunt efficiency by extinguishing going costs and psychological costs brings convenience in e-shopping.
Time is besides perceived as one of a factor that relates with purpose to buy in a shopping context. It is believed that consumers have their ain perceptual experience of clip, whether or non to shop from the cyberspace. Harmonizing to Hansen and Jensen ( 2009 ) , carry throughing the shopping trip every bit shortly as possible refers to the time-saving oriented consumers and they prefer shop picks prefering speedy shopping ; people who dislike shopping and nearing for clip salvaging retail shops refers to the economic shoppers or known as “ problem-solvers ” .
In on-line shopping, it requires less attempt and better determination devising for consumers who opt to buy at the e-store ( Jiang and Rosenbloom, 2005 ) . Shoppers may salvage their clip in e-shopping because they do non hold to travel through any attempt on going to a promenade or salvaging their clip in other psychological science factors such as traffic jam etc. Online shopping additions search efficiency by extinguishing going costs and psychological costs brings convenience in e-shopping ( Jayawardhena et. al. , 2009 ) . Comparing online and traditional shopping, Alreck and Settle ( 2002 ) found that cyberspace shopping was viewed as salvaging more clip.
Shoppers who value convenience can obtain the benefits of merchandise and services with less attempt and this would hold a positive relationship with shoppers ‘ exhilaration ( Jayawardhena et. al. , 2009 ) . Ordered merchandises are straight delivered to the door is the greatest involvement to many consumers because on-line shopping does non requires us to go forth the hours or office ( Chen and Chang, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter ( 2004 ) , the chief thrust of on-line shopping is that the cyberspace is clip salvaging and accessible 24 hours a twenty-four hours. Shopping in the cyberspace saves clip and attempt because consumers are able to shop any clip in the comfort of their place ; particularly for consumers who have small sum of free clip because of drawn-out working hours ( Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2001 ) .
Consumers expect timely bringing in the online shop as they browse and “ cyberspace shopping ” is merely likewise as they visit the “ offline shops ” and they “ create order dealing ” merely like they “ buy the merchandise ” ( Ahn, Ryu and Han, 2004 ) . In the old survey of Koyuncu and Bhattacharya ( 2004 ) , the research workers found that online shopping offers better monetary values on the merchandises and it allows consumers to shop more rapidly than other shopping options, and this will take single to be inclined to increase their shopping from the cyberspace. Harmonizing to Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter ( 2004 ) , on-line shopping requires least attempt, incommodiousness and clip investing for consumers to shop the whole product-assortment ; consumers can do the right determinations expeditiously because they can derive critical cognition about houses, merchandises and trade names.
Consumers besides expected that merchandise bringing in online shopping will be faster compared to offline shops and timely bringing on their convenience clip ; factors that keep consumers satisfy in utilizing cyberspace as a tool for shopping is seasonably and dependable bringing ( Ahn, Ryu and Han, 2004 ) . Broekhuizen and Huizingh ( 2009 ) expected the relationship between clip or attempt nest eggs and purchase purposes is strengthen ; consumers will put more accent on the clip and attempt nest eggs one time they have experienced how small clip and attempt takes to do an on-line purchase. Liu, He, Gao and Xie ( 2008 ) suggested that to salvage client ‘s clip and to the full reflect the convenience of online shopping, e- sellers should beef up the web site ‘s dealing capableness and do certain all operations can be completed online.
Perceived hazard is defined as consumer sing effects or the sum of uncertainness in contemplating as peculiar purchase determination. ( Cox and Rich, 1964 ) . Similarly, Gronhaug, ( 1976 ) ; Newall, ( 1977 ) ; Upah, ( 1980 ) defined perceived hazard as the potency of unfavourable effects and the degree of uncertainness in a buying state of affairs. Stone and Gronhaug ( 1993 ) defined perceived hazard additions psychological costs when feelings of uncomfortableness occur in an person. Harmonizing to Walker and Johnson ( 2006 ) , they stated that perceived hazard has two chief concerns. First is refering the service bringing system ‘s proficient public presentation or functional dependability ; and second is concern on privateness and security. Functional or public presentation ends, psychological ends, or the agencies of money, clip and attempt invested to achieve those ends may be regarded as the effects ( Park and Stoel, 2005 ) .
There is certain hazard that consumers will confront when doing on-line purchase. Shoping on the cyberspace which is a new medium for consumers will be a challenge for them because shopping on the cyberspace is comparatively new and consumers have less experience with it ( Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Sorce, Perotti and Widrick ( 2005 ) , perceptual experience of convenience in the cyberspace and its enlightening beginnings will positively impact good determination devising for on-line shopping but the determination will be negatively influenced when there is high perceived hazard. From the research of So, Wong and Sculli ( 2005 ) , overly concerns of security from the perceived hazard will take a consumer to make up one’s mind non to carry on web-shopping. When consumer ‘s perceived hazard is lower, so their buying purpose will be higher ( Park and Stoel, 2005 ) .
When buying occurs in an on-line environment particularly for merchandises such as dresss, it ca n’t be denied that consumers will hold the feeling of unsecure sing the merchandise information and the existent stuff and colour that they will have by sing the show in the web site. This is besides agreed by Park and Stoel ( 2005 ) , dressing such as skirts and jumpers are high hazard points where size, colour and fit affairs to the consumer. Harmonizing to Burke, ( 2002 ) ; Parasuraman and Zinkhan, ( 2002 ) , in cyberspace shopping, there will be hazard involved, privateness, security, ocular entreaty, bringing footings, signifier of payment and merchandise information. Besides that, quality of a merchandise can non be physically checked by the consumers and the security of directing sensitive personal and fiscal information while carry oning on-line shopping can non be monitored by the consumers ( Lee and Turban, 2001 ) . For dress shoppers, they should utilize the cyberspace to seek for excess information to cut down hazard in determination devising because of they are unable to seek on the garment ( Park and Stoel, 2005 ) . Attitude towards security dealing such as payment security, consumer information privateness, return policy, and merchandise transportation warrant predicts on-line buying purposes for dresss merchandise ( Kim and Kim, 2003 ) .
Perceived hazard is expected to be more distinguishable in on-line shopping compared to offline shopping. Perceived hazard in on-line shopping can be reduced in footings of appropriate description the merchandise. To cut down hazard, merchandise information and its description should be clearly stated every bit good as the shop policies ( Kwon, 1991 ) . Internet sellers must besides make trust with on-line purchasers so to take down the purchaser ‘s perceived hazard. There is an of import moderating consequence on trust with the relationship between consumers ‘ attitude toward Internet shopping and purpose to shop online ( Monsuwe, Dellaeart and Ruyter, 2004 ) .
Perceived hazard can be reduced when the consumers are more familiar with the online engineerings ( Kleijnen, 2007 ) . Similarly, Bucklin and Sismeiro ( 2003 ) province that consumer ‘s accomplishments are more advanced when they learned how to shop through a site this will increase their efficiency in shopping. Past experience and on-going use of internet-based purchase will increase consumer ‘s acquaintance and therefore, feeling of anxiousness and perceived hazard should be reduced of such purchases ; to decrease consumer ‘s anxiousness, cognition about the existent experience with the cyberspace should be increased ( Kuhlmeier and Knight, 2005 ) .
Enjoyment and exhilaration
Exhilaration is defined as high degree of enjoyment and stimulation that has the positive emotional province ( Russell, 1980 ) . Exhilaration can besides be associated as to fulfill retail results ( Dawson, 1990 ) . Harmonizing to Lotz, Eastlick and Shim ( 1999 ) , the emotion that has been considered as the cardinal experience that attracts client to a shopping promenade is excitement. Jeong, Fiore, Niehm and Lorenz ( 2009, p.109 ) cited from ( Eroglu, Machleit and Davis, 2003 ; Mano and Oliver, 1993 ) that emotional pleasance is defined as the grade of felicity and pleasantness and rousing as the grade of stimulation, exhilaration, and alertness ; hence, dimensions of emotional pleasance and rousing may intercede consumer experiences and web site backing purpose. Similarly, as the web site ‘s shopping is more gratifying, consumers are more likely to buy a merchandise ( Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter, 2004 ) .
Consumer besides associate shopping with enjoyment and exhilaration which they would believe is a merriment activity to them irrespective in an online or offline context. Enjoyment is defined as the extent to which online shopping is perceived to be personally gratifying and merriment ( Chiu, Chang, Cheng and Fang, 2009, p.767 ) . Shoppers today tend to be more leisure driven compared to the shoppers in the early 1990 ‘s ( Nicholls, Li, Kranendonk and Roslow, 2002 ) . For some consumers, shopping for dresss is fun, bask, loosen uping, pleasance or leisure. In offline shopping, consumers may tie in enjoyment and exhilaration in the shopping promenade environment with their friends or household. Harmonizing to the research of Dennis ( 2002 ) , he suggests that offline shopping will be more gratifying than on-line shopping as regarded by the consumers. Hunter, ( 2006 ) suggested that retail merchants should increase the degree of positive emotions in their shopping promenade by making an exciting and happy experience.
The research of Millan and Howard ( 2007 ) resulted that Magyar shoppers visited shopping centres for both useful and experiential grounds ; some viewed shopping as a leisure activity accompanied by person and enjoyed looking about while carry throughing their shopping undertaking. Rajamma, Paswan and Ganesh ( 2007 ) suggested that there is a higher importance to the enjoyment facet of shopping for consumers who prefer to shop in offline shops compared to those consumers who feel comfy buying from the cyberspace. Otieno, Harrow and Lea-Greenwood ( 2005 ) stated that adult females enjoyed shopping because of the manner, tendencies, merriment, for browse, felt particular, looked good on the dresss, claimed to be “ shopaholic ” , retail therapy, bury other jobs, love for apparels, etc.
While in online shopping, consumers is expected to associate enjoyment and exhilaration with the experience absorbed in the buying procedure and the excitement degree is expected to originate during the merchandise bringing procedure. Harmonizing to Broekhuizen and Huizingh ( 2009 ) , on-line shopping causes enjoyment which is merriment and playful instead than from shopping undertaking completion ; clients may see the purchase of goods in on-line shopping as an experience and the sensed amusement will be regarded as enjoyment to them.
Consumers tend to shop more, prosecute in more unplanned buying and seek out more stimulating merchandises when they feel pleasant and aroused in the shopping environment ( Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter, 2004 ) . Consumer ‘s purpose to return should increase as the extent a consumer associate exhilaration with an e-tailer addition ; as the psychological cost reduces, the on-line shopping experience will be more gratifying and hence creates exhilaration ( Jayawardhena and Wright, 2009 ) . Consumers will hold more positive attitude when they enjoy the experience of online shopping and are more likely to follow cyberspace as a shopping medium ; potency of amusement of online shopping will reflect consumers ‘ enjoyment ( Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter, 2004 ) . From the research of Jayawardhena and Wright ( 2009 ) , it resulted that the appraisal of the e-tailing environment leads the clients to bask the shopping experiences ; they besides found that positive word of oral cavity will be created when it is influenced by the exhilaration positively.
Regardless of online or offline shopping, retail merchants should set in more attempt to make better environment so that shoppers are able to shop in positive emotions and bask the shopping procedure. The survey of Liu, He, Gao, and Xie ( 2008 ) stated that the page desigh, layout and colour lucifer will convey the first feeling to the visitants ; therefore e-tailers should plan comfy and delighting pages to pull clients and protract their stay so that it will increase the possibility of purchase.
Regardless of on-line shopping or offline shopping, tangibleness is expected to be a factor that consumers will see during the buying procedure. Tangibility merchandises including places and apparels ; although it is considered as standardised merchandises, consumers need to experience it and touch it to do their buying determinations ( Rajamma, Paswan and Ganesh, 2007 ) . Consumers are peculiar about the tangibleness of a merchandise is because they need the security and confidence of the merchandise purchased is in a good status and confidence of buying the right thing.
Harmonizing to Kotler ( 1974 ) ; Bitner ( 1992 ) ; Solomon, Suprenent, Czepiel and Gutman ( 1985 ) , confidence is of import to capture confidentiality, shopping security, ailment declaration, job resolution and guarantees. In an online shopping environment, consumers are non associated with a physical location while they are merely pass oning with a machine and non human being ( Ekeldo and Sivakumar, 2004 ) . With the inability of consumers to experience and touch the merchandise in an online context because on-line retailing lacks the touchable characteristics, it makes it hard to market those merchandises on the cyberspace. ( Lindstrom, 2001 ) .
Rajamma, Paswan and Ganesh ( 2007 ) stated that offline shopping will be perceived in higher tangibleness degree because of its physical location and edifices that consumers can attached with the centripetal cues ; while in on-line shopping are by definition but in practical. Monsuwe, Delleart and Ruyter ( 2004 ) provinces in an online context, lower tangibleness of a merchandise is caused by the deficiency of physical contact and aid in the shopping procedure ; consumer ‘s purpose to shop on the cyberspace will be low when there is a demand to seek advice from a sales representative sing the considered merchandise. The ground why consumers like to shop in an offline context is because the shops fulfill the realistic outlooks ( Rajamma, Paswan and Ganesh, 2007 ) .
For cyberspace shopping, merchandise such as books, Cadmium ‘s, videotapes, food markets and flowers which is more familiar will hold higher potency to be purchased by the consumers ( Grewal, Iyer and Lavy, 2004 ) while merchandises such as auto, computing machines, aroma, aroma or lotion has the lower potency to be purchased by the consumer because it requires more personal cognition and experience ( Elliot and Fowell, 2000 ) . Rich, sensory-oriented merchandise information on the screen is provided for vesture to replace the haptic experience, so that it may be utile to fulfill the consumer ‘s buying standards ( Park and Stoel, 2005 ) . Personal contact is required or expected when there is event of something traveling incorrect or making uncertainness in the head of the clients ( Walker and Johnson, 2006 ) . Some consumers may comprehend that the points offered in on-line shopping will be hard to take than offline shopping because they need to seek advice from gross revenues forces ( Hansen and Jensen, 2009 ) .
To cut down insecurity in online shopping, interior decorators must take note of consumers ‘ demands because the serviceability is the get downing point to acquire the assurance and support of the consumers ; besides that, tangibleness besides helps to cut down heterogeneousness of the web site in the supply of the service and to better quality control ( Alzola and Robaina, 2006 ) . This statement is besides parallel with the survey of Liu, He, Gao, and Xie, ( 2008 ) where they suggested that because the merchandises are intangible in the online shopping environment, detailed and complete merchandise information should be provided ; to cognize the quality of a merchandise, consumer can merely trust on the images and description on the web page because they are unable to experience and touch the merchandise. Furthermore, to guarantee client can do buying determinations, the web site should supply complete description of a peculiar good, including its colour, functionality, theoretical account, etc ( Liu, He, Gao, and Xie, 2008 ) .
Interactivity is defined as the grade to which two or more communicating parties can move on each other, on the communicating medium, and on the messages and the grade to which such influences are synchronized ( Liu and Shrum, 2002, p.54 ) . Harmonizing to McMillan and Hwang ( 2002 ) , interactivity is defined as way of communications, user control and clip. Interactivity can be applied in online and offline shopping. The footings of interactivity in an on-line context is based on the elaborate information given, easy-to-read or descriptive information is available ( Park and Stoel, 2005 ) and besides the grade of communicating between the purchaser and the marketer. In an offline context, interactivity will be based on the ambiance of the shopping promenade and besides the interaction between the consumer and the store ‘s booster.
To foreground the term of “ atmospheric ” , consumer ‘s buying chance is enhanced through purposefully plan the purchasing environment to bring forth specific affectional responses in shoppers ( Kotler, 1973-1974 ) . When buying on the cyberspace, perceived trustworthy will be higher when the web site has greater interactivity ( Merrilees and Fry, 2003 ) . A commendation has been done on Hoffman and Novak ( 1996 ) by Ballantine, ( 2006, p.463 ) , there are two chief types of interactivity are considered to be applicable to the web. The first, person-interactivity, is the ability for a individual utilizing the web to pass on with other single. The 2nd, machine-interactivity, refers to the ability for an person to entree interactive multimedia content.
Consumers are so able to do better buying determination because of the increased handiness of information provided in the web site, doing a consumer to be more knowing. ( Cook and Coupey, 1998 ) . The research of Ballantine ( 2006 ) resulted that the satisfaction of client additions when the degree of interactivity provided by an online shopping environment addition ; and likewise the consumer ‘s satisfaction is besides increased when the greater figure of properties provided on a per-product footing ; likewise, Dholakia and Zhao ( 2009 ) agreed that the shoppers were more satisfied when there are higher interactivity degree compared to lower interactivity degree web site.
Research done by Dholakia and Zhao ( 2009 ) resulted that on-line shoppers ‘ satisfaction and behavioural purpose is influenced by both nonsubjective and subjective interactivity. Objective interactivity refers to the types of communicating mediums available in an single web site while subjective interactivity refers to comprehend interactivity. To demo that on-line sellers are customer-oriented, a speedy response is requested to cut down uncertainness of the clients ( Gummerus, Liljander, Pura and new wave Riel, 2004 ) . Interactivity is besides known as contact which refers to the handiness of aid through telephone or online representatives ( Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Malhotra, 2005 ) . However, Hansen and Jensen, ( 2009 ) found that client have troubles in choosing points because forces advice is non available through the cyberspace and this will forestall them from buying the dress.
Harmonizing to Chen and Chang, ( 2006 ) , interactivity is one of the conditions to accomplish flow ; if there were unequal interactivity, it will do a company to happen lost. For illustration, consumers long delay for the system feedback and trouble in manoeuvre within some Web sites that causes defeat ; undependable connexion of system break from ISP will besides do defeat of the consumers. Response clip of a web site is besides really of import as the velocity in the interaction procedure will give users a negative perceptual experience if the response clip is slow ( Lin and Lu, 2000 ) . In order to heighten interactivity in an online context, a web site should convey the exhilaration of shopping, pulling consumers to shop more and allow them cognize more about the merchandises than other stores ( Demangeot and Broderick, 2006 ) .
Last, interactivity is a factor that must be augmented in cyberspace shopping. Assorted constituents of the shopping procedure that will impact one ‘s on-line experience ad overall shopping procedure must be cognizant by the cyberspace sellers ( Chen and Chang, 2006 ) . Besides that, company representatives must be able to reply client enquiries and work out jobs every bit shortly as they occur because client deficiency of direct, face-to-face interaction with the service supplier ( Liu, He, Gao and Xie, 2008 ) . Hansen and Jensen, ( 2009 ) suggested that company should supply forces advice via confab suites to supply counsel to the consumers so that it can intercede the consequence of trouble in choosing points
Shop type ( Moderating variable )
In this survey, shop type is divided into two, which is on-line shop and offline shop. Online shops are shops that sells merchandise but through a practical medium ; offline shopping is besides known as bricks and howitzer that sells merchandise and has a face-to-face communicating between the purchaser and marketer. Bricks and mortar mercantile establishments are known as more touchable to the consumers because it has a physical location which is a edifice that everyone can see and hold all the affiliated sensory cues ( Rajamma, et al. , 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Lindstrom, ( 2001 ) which was cited by Rajamma, Paswan and Ganesh ( 2007 ) , it is easier to market the merchandise on traditional shops than the cyberspace because consumers can experience and touch the merchandise, and they can even have on it on the topographic point. Bricks and howitzer is besides known as shopping promenades because it has a physical location where consumers can see. Consumer ‘s life style is affected by the function of shopping promenades ( Terblanche, 1999 ) because it can move as a community Centre for public and other recreational activities ( Ng, 2003 ) . Shoping promenade besides offers amusement and provides other useful demands to consumers such as shops, nutrient tribunals and eating house, kids ‘s amusement Centre, film and relaxation infinites ( Terblanche, 1999 ) .
Assurance is besides considered as the perceived hazard when buying merchandises and services. In the factor of confidence which acts as the shopping security and consumer ‘s assurance in buying a merchandise, bricks and howitzer shops has higher degree of confidence due to their higher grade of tangibleness and face-to-face communicating ( Rajamma, et al. , 2007 ) ; consumers who prefers to shop in traditional shops is because those shops do carry through their realistic outlooks. In the research of El-Adly ( 2007 ) , the factors contribute to shopping mall attraction is comfort, amusement, diverseness such as handiness and assortment of merchandise offered, mall kernel such as merchandises ‘ quality, convenience such as easiness of making the promenade and in conclusion is luxury which includes that popularity of the promenade and attractive visual aspect of the promenade.
On the other manus, shop types consists of online shopping which defines as consumers use the online shops until the transactional phase of buying and logistic ( Monsuwe, et al. , 2004 ) . Shoping in the cyberspace can allow consumers take assortment of merchandises that are available ( Rajamma, Paswan and Ganesh, 2007 ) ; besides that, consumers do non hold to alter to street apparels and thrust to a shop when shopping in online. Therefore, it will make less hassle because shopping on-line saves clip and cost. Harmonizing to Pan ( 2007 ) , on-line shopping is convenient for busy people because consumers can purchase stay-at-home and they do non necessitate to travel out.
There are five advantages of online shopping stated by Grewal, Iyer and Lavy ( 2004 ) . First, consumers can shop through the cyberspace for merchandise mixture with less attempt, less incommodiousness and less clip engagement. Second, with the being of online shopping, consumers can obtain the cognition of a merchandise expeditiously so that they can do better buying determination while shopping. Third, consumers can compare merchandise characteristics, handiness and monetary values easy, efficaciously and expeditiously than traditional shopping shops. Fourth, consumers can be assured of namelessness when buying sensitive merchandises because cyberspace shopping provides a degree of namelessness. Fifth, consumers can make online shopping if they perceived that traditional shopping has a high degree of clip and cost to put because the degree of convenience for online shopping is higher.
However, there are besides disadvantages that we can happen in on-line shopping. Some consumers may hold high perceived hazard when they shop in the cyberspace. Harmonizing to Pavlov, Liang and Xue ( 2007 ) , consumers are really concerned in on-line dealing because they are concern about the uncertainness and hazard. If consumers are non assure that their recognition card information is unafraid and protected, they will be hesitate to shop in the cyberspace. Besides that, contact and interactivity between the marketer and purchaser in an on-line context is besides really of import and it is critical to be applied in e-shopping. When a purchaser is non able to reach with the marketer when they meet jobs sing the merchandise, they will easy go defeated ( Chiu, Chang, Cheng and Fang, 2009 ) .
However, both online and offline shopping has its ain advantages and disadvantages. It is merely a affair of how consumers are willing to take the hazard and take the better manner for them to obtain certain merchandises or services utilizing different shop type.
Summary of Literature Review
In the literature reappraisal, many writers have done their research on the client ‘s perceived hazard when shopping in the cyberspace. There is few articles available which compares the factors lending the purpose to buy in online and offline shopping for dresss. This survey will discourse more on the factors that will lend to the consumer ‘s buying purpose for dresss which comprises of monetary value attraction, clip economy, perceived hazard, enjoyment and exhilaration, tangibleness and high interactivity.