Looking At The Economy In The Agricultural Sector Finance Essay

Monsoon does play an of import function on the economic system of a state. Economy of a state depends on Agricultural, Industrial sector particularly in a state like India. In India, agribusiness provides around 70 % of employment either straight or indirectly. This is the major ground for the economic growing of India to depend on Monsoon season. Monsoon season in India starts from June and go on till September. If the monsoon is good, it boosts up the economic system of the state and helps in keeping GDP growing. But if monsoon rains get delayed even by 15 yearss as was the instance last twelvemonth in 2009, it became a cause of concern for the authorities to keep GDP growing. But as per the estimations given by India Meteorological Department, rains this twelvemonth in 2010 are expected to be 98 per centum of the long-run norm, which could promote authorities to ease kerbs on export of wheat and rice, and good rainfall will hike end product of grain and oil seeds, and assist quiet rising prices.

Monsoon season has a direct impact on agricultural sector, which has an impact on industrial sector as good, peculiarly for FMCG companies which depends on agricultural and rural market. It besides causes deficit of H2O supply for production of power and electricity. Electricity deficit has a strong consequence on about all sectors, which besides causes hold in productions or increase in bing of merchandises.

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Globalization of Indian economic system has changed the landscape of Indian concern by increasing the figure of alternate merchandises in the market. One among them is Derived functions ‘ market. Trading in derived functions has been late introduced in India. Derived functions are so sensitive that if they are in right custodies, they are fantastic vehicles and if non, they are really unsafe. Hence before trading, it is really indispensable for the bargainers to cognize about derived functions and their market.

Weather derived functions are fiscal instruments that can be used by organisations or persons to cut down hazard associated with inauspicious or unexpected conditions conditions. The difference from other derived functions is that the implicit in plus ( rain/temperature/snow ) has no direct value to monetary value the conditions derived function. Weather exerts a great influence on concerns such as bring forthing energy and agribusiness.

Weather Derivative still has non been introduced in the Indian Market. With the recent amendments to the Securities Contract Regulation Act, derivatives trading are allowed in trade goods. It was banned till last twelvemonth. But trading in conditions derived functions is yet to have a formal nod from the authorities. The bank is selling upwind derived functions as an nonprescription merchandise to companies whose operations are significantly dependent on conditions conditions. ABN-Amro Bank is researching gross revenues of conditions derived functions and calamity bonds for the first clip in the state. The bank is speaking to companies in the drink and cement sectors, to air hoses and oil big leagues to acquire them interested in the merchandise.

Types of Weather Derived functions

Assorted securities firm and trading houses customize the conditions derivatives to the client’sA needs. Merely certain parties may be interested in merchandising a specific type of weatherA trade good based on their concern construction. Some of the common conditions derivativeA merchandises include

1. Barters

Barters are contracts where two parties agree to interchange their hazards. This will bring forth aA more stable hard currency flow when conditions conditions are volatile. In simple footings one partyA agrees to pay the other if the contracted index settees above a certain degree while the otherA agrees to pay if the index settles below that degree. Barters have no premium but supply protection from inauspicious conditions in return for givingA up some of the top of a favorable season. A

2. Collars

Collar is similar to trade in that protection against inauspicious conditions is provided in returnA for giving up some of the returns generated in favorable conditions. The difference is thatA the payments to and from the parties ‘ takes topographic point outside an upper and lower degree. ThisA allows grosss to fluctuate within a normal scope of conditions conditions but protectsA either party against utmost conditions.

3. Puts ( Floors )

Put options or floors are contracts that compensate a purchaser if a conditions variable fallsA below a preset degree. This type of protection involves a premium being paidA upfront. It provides protection against inauspicious conditions whilst leting net incomes to beA retained in a favorable period. For case, a ski resort may purchase a Put option on the degree ofA snowfall over a skiing period. This would so counterbalance the resort if the degree ofA snowfall is low discouraging a big figure of skiers. If the degree of snowfall is high, theA resort loses merely the premium paid.

4. Calls ( Caps )

Name option or Caps are contracts that compensate a purchaser if a conditions variable fallsA above a preset degree. This type of protection besides involves a premium being paidA upfront. It provides protection against inauspicious conditions whilst leting net incomes to beA retained in a favourable period. To exemplify, a commercial landing field might purchase a call optionA when the figure of yearss that the mean air current velocity exceeds a certain degree. This would counterbalance the landing field for the loss of gross during yearss when they had to halt flight.

Two of the non-standard conditions contracts, which are deriving popularity, are:

Compounds is a construction that provides the purchaser with the option to buy or sell aA conditions contract on an in agreement day of the month in the hereafter. This future day of the month must be prior to the startA day of the month of the underlying conditions contract. This requires a premium payment. If the buyerA exercises the compound at the ulterior day of the month, a 2nd premium payment would be required.A

It provides the purchaser an option to call off the purchase of the contract if he feels weather protection is non required.A Digital is a contract that has linear payouts. In other words it provides a fixed sum ofA payout if a peculiar conditions event occurs. If the event does non happen there is no payout, A merely the premium stands lost.

How is it different from insurance?

Insurance contracts cover high hazard, low chance scenarios whereas weatherA derived functions cover low hazard, high chance scenarios.

With conditions derived functions the payout is designed to be in proportion to theA magnitude of the phenomenon whereas insurance pays a one off ball amount whichA may or may non be relative and hence deficiencies flexibleness.

A Insurance usually will payout if there has been harm or loss. WeatherA derivatives require merely that the index has passed on a certain point.

Weather derived functions are index-based securities, which allow many participants toA take part in the market. This increases liquidness.

It is possible to supervise the public presentation of the hedged conditions derived functions duringA the life of the contract.

Extra shorter term prediction towards the terminal of theA contract might intend that one can take himself from the conditions derivative.A Because it is a traded security at that place will ever be a monetary value at which one can sell or

redemption the contract.

Indian Relevance

In the Indian context conditions hereafters would turn out to be vastly good, especiallyA to the agricultural sector, which is dependent on the vagaries of monsoon? This derivativeA merchandise would be an effectual option to the harvest insurance merchandise, the premium for this, at around 18 % , is seen as dearly-won by the agriculture community.

ABN AMRO Bank is researching the sale of conditions derived functions for the first clip in theA state. Currently the bank is in negotiations with the cement and drink sector. Airlines andA oil big leagues of the state have besides shown involvement in these securities. ICICI Lombard hasA besides come up with the sale of conditions derived functions, its first client being Malana PowerA Company for coverage of Rs.10 crore. The screen puts a floor on the uncertainnesss in the

event that adequate rainfall is non available.

With a broad range for conditions derived functions in India, a figure of trading houses are expected to offer customized conditions derivative merchandises and batch more industries are expected to be covered in this net. A husbandman ‘s common ailment “ Everybody negotiations aboutA the conditions, but cipher does anything about it ” will shortly go a thing of the past withA conditions. The cognition of derived functions in itself is limited to certain sections of the society, leave entirely the conditions derived functions. In malice of the challenges, it is clip the Government speeded up the procedure of establishing conditions derived functions in India excessively.

Commodity trading

The function of trade good hereafters markets becomes even more compelling with India traveling toward greater trade liberalisation, peculiarly in the context of agribusiness, and acquiring farther exposed to the volatilities of international trade and finance. Commodity hereafters is a market mechanism that is feasible for hazard direction and monetary value find, and such establishments can assist “ bail out ” the economic system from the vagaries of international trade. Despite the realisation of the demand for trade good derivative trading in India and the subsequent recommencement of trade in the new millenary, the legislative acts ordering derivative trading are old and outmoded. Derivative markets have been working under the Forward Contracts Regulation Act ( FCRA ) .

An amendment to the FCRA will show in a new epoch in trade good derivative trading by spread outing the range and instruments of trading, and by beef uping the regulative powers of the FMC. Among the alterations proposed in the Bill, an of import intercession is to convey about a alteration in the definition of “ trade goods ” to ease trading in derivative contracts for intangibles like trade good indices, conditions derived functions, etc.

In an agricultural economic system like India, where Fifty per cent of irrigation is rain-fed and monsoons determine rural demand forms, fertilizer off return, agricultural trade good monetary values, H2O public-service corporations, energy ingestion and building costs, Weather derivatives can competently be positioned as hedge instruments for husbandmans. These chances in Weather hazard direction will besides profit the Utility and energy companies to protect their volume-related grosss against unnatural conditions, Distributors of rough oil to do up for decreased concern in the winter, Agricultural companies to understate the uncertainness in gross due to deluge, freezing or drouth and besides Insurance companies to cut down their ain exposure to weather-related claims.


In India, RaboBank and ABN Amro have been the first off the block to present conditions derived functions help pull off weather hazard, which has now expanded to include stop user industries such as drink gross revenues, agribusiness, power coevals, oil geographic expedition, touristry, insurance, cold drink breweries, air current farms and sugar industries.


As a start ( Jan 11, 2005 ) , With all the necessary substructure to offer bringings through dematerialized warehouse grosss by associating up with panchayets and expecting a strong demand, NCDEX is in favor of establishing this merchandise. More demand can be generated by an amendment of the bing Securities Contract ( Regulation ) Act, where derivative trading is allowed in a trade good, which can be physically delivered.

The stage I, whereby NCDEX will offer trading in hereafters of bullion and seven agri-products – soya bean, Soya oil, mustard seed and its oil ; petroleum thenar oil, RBD palmolein and cotton, is expected to pull many opposite numbers who would be more than willing to absorb the hazard


The institutional section of the capital market has non yet begun to utilize derived functions for hazard hedge or for place pickings in the manner that such investors should. First, the development of derived functions has so far been overly skewed toward derived functions used in the equity instead than debtor forex markets. Second, One the one side India have foreign and in private owned ( new coevals ) domestic Bankss who run a ( involvement rate ) derivative trading book but do non hold the ability to put important counter party recognition bounds on a big section of corporate clients of PSBs. On the other side, are PSBs who have the ability to put important counter party recognition bounds, but are unable or unwilling to compose IRS ‘ or FRAs with them.


Regulative conservativism and failure are suppressing the outgrowth of more types of derived functions – e.g. currency, interest-rate and recognition derived functions every bit good as long-run tailored every bit good as traded barters and swaptions.

Without bad counter-parties, fiscal markets would be illiquid, inefficient and uneffective in carry throughing their chief intent as resource mobilizing and apportioning mechanisms. In fiscal markets it is speculators ( or, in more impersonal idiom, insurance companies, market-makers and options-writers ) who enable efficient price-discovery in real-time and let for efficient, uninterrupted two-way, ‘bid-ask ‘ market-making.


Measure of Weather derivative

A degree-day ( DD ) has emerged as a common step of temperature, and measures the divergence of a twenty-four hours ‘s mean temperature from the mention. An HDD occurs when the mean temperature is below the mention, and a CDD when the mean temperature is above. The CME contracts are based on an index that measures the extent and frequence that the mean temperature drops below 65 grades Fahrenheit ( the mention ) cumulated monthly across the relevant metropolis.

The hereafters contracts pay $ 100 per each point motion in the index. Earth Satellite Corporation, an independent entity, calculates the HDD index guaranting transparence and independency in the benchmark. Weather derived functions are fiscal merchandises that enable an administration to countervail the fiscal hazard due to a conditions variable. They emerged as an outgrowth of insurance. Insurance is expensive and requires a presentation of loss ( of assets or of net incomes ) .

While good suited to catastrophes and utmost conditions events such as temblors and typhoons, insurance does non work good with the uncertainnesss in normal conditions. See sing the loss in grosss for an umbrella maker if the monsoons are a month tardily, or of the air-conditioner company if they are a month early.

Weather derived functions could easy be adapted for usage within India utilizing rainfall, which is a more of import variable in our context, as a benchmark.

A rain twenty-four hours ( RD ) , defined as a 24-hour period during which precipitation was in surplus of the mention ( 20 millimeter ) , and an index conglomerating the figure of RDs between June 1 and September 30 can be used to calculate pay-off.

Not everybody ‘s exposure to monsoons is the same, and countervailing exposures of different entities will assist in the outgrowth of a robust market. In the US, conditions affects an estimated 20 per cent of the economic system. In India, the figure would be higher. Fifty per cent of agribusiness is based on rain-fed irrigation, and monsoons determine rural demand forms. On a cursory glimpse, one can see that there are many industries besides agribusiness that are straight impacted by rainfall. For illustration, fertiliser off return, agricultural trade good monetary values, H2O public-service corporations, energy ingestion, building demand/costs, etc.

The US conditions market was driven chiefly by energy manufacturers and public-service corporations, confronting deregulating and competition and seeking to pull off conditions hazards. However, its usage is more generic — for protecting grosss when conditions depresses demand or consequences in increased costs. And if the market is to develop or spread out, there has to be demand from more diversified concerns like retail, fabrication, and agribusiness.

Once end-users determine that weather excessively is a hazard they would wish to actively pull off and fudge, there is improbable to be a deficit of opposite numbers. Institutional investors looking for new plus classes non correlated with bing markets and Bankss offering incorporate hazard, the direction would be more than willing to absorb the hazard.

The pricing of conditions derived functions is, of class, another issue. One can non purchase or sell the underlying, be it sunshine or rain. Positions have to be hedged with countervailing places and one can non make a riskless portfolio by uniting the derivative with its underlying ( as done for other derived functions ) . Though Caps, Collars and other exotics in conditions are offered, the closed-form solution of classical Black-Scholes option theory has no application. Weather contracts are based more on calculating than on mathematical derivation ; it is the meteorologist who holds the sway and non the mathematician. Information on past conditions behavior and an apprehension of the kineticss of the environment is indispensable.

Predictability of even large-scale conditions systems beyond a hebdomad is hard at best. Even though it is a nascent market and has non as yet extended beyond the US, about 2,000 “ conditions ” barters ( private, off-exchange contracts between single entities ) with an estimated value of close to $ 3 billion have been negotiated. India needs to take some lead from events in other markets. Can we get down with simple but delinquent ( equity ) index trading?



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