Lulu Hypermarkets belongs to EMKE Group which is a taking pool in Dubai. There are 78 hypermarkets of the group that are runing within the GCC – Gulf Cooperation Council Countries ( Bahrain, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE ) . The hypermarket competition in Oman is composed of: Lulu Hypermarkets with the Gallic company Carrefour Hypermarkets, the Kuwait-based Sultan Center Hypermarkets, Oman-based Safeer Hypermarkets, the Dubai-based KM Trading Hypermarkets, and the new entrant from Dubai Al Maya Hypermarkets ( opened in April 2009 ) .
Lulu is runing presently four ( three in Muscat, one in Sohar ) hypermarket retail mercantile establishments ( in the metropolitan countries ) and eight supermarket retail mercantile establishments ( in little towns and interior countries ) in Oman and will be opening its fifth hypermarket in Salalah the 3rd largest metropolis in Oman after Muscat and Sohar. The Company ‘s cardinal warehouse for Oman is located in the capital metropolis Muscat.
The Problem Situation
Lulu Hypermarkets has been confronting tough monetary value competition from the Dubai-based: KM Trading Hypermarkets and the new entrant Al Maya Hypermarkets. With the current planetary economic crisis and fluctuating oil monetary values Oman excessively is confronting the demand to fasten fundss and the same applies to consumers in Oman. The consequence is consumers have become more careful and economical in disbursement and sometimes stop up cutting their volume of purchases and are more motivated here in Oman by discounted monetary values and ‘Sale ‘ since the center of twelvemonth 2008.
A major proportion of the stock list of Lulu Hypermarkets is made up of imported food market points and consumer electronic points, manner goods, apparels, letter paper, playthings, and furniture ) from Australia, India, China, the EC, Malaysia, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Thailand. This ware goes into carrying via Lulu ‘s vertically incorporate supply concatenation.
The shops staff in Lulu hypermarkets and supermarkets report to their floor supervisors and each of the supervisors ( there are 3 floor supervisors one for each floor in each of the hypermarkets and 1 floor supervisor ( merely land floor ) in each of the supermarkets ) straight study to the buying supervisor in each hypermarket and supermarket. The buying supervisors straight report to the Purchasing Manager ( see Figure 1 below for a simplified Lulu ‘s administration construction of its buying section ) .
Figure 1: Administration Structure of Lulu ‘s Purchasing Department, Oman
The buying director receives orders from the buying supervisors who base their order requisitions from the informational end product generated from the EPOSs at each hypermarket/supermarket mercantile establishment. Thereafter the buying director orders stocks from abroad and liaises with abroad providers through and with the Tendering & A ; Contract Specialist. [ As is common here in the GCC states, Lulu excessively has a really conservative top direction that includes its Board of Directors ] .
However, presently Lulu is actively engaged in replacing the old IT architecture and revamping its Management Information Systems ( MISs ) , including a Inventory Management System, shortly ( around terminal of September 2010 ) to take advantage of on-line telling systems with the debut of its ain web-portal.
Customer keeping is a cardinal factor for successfully runing any concern at all times ( Hurley, 2004 ) . This is all the more critical now given the planetary economic crisis which most of the states worldwide, including Oman, are traveling through.
Of late ( since mid 2008 ) there have been frequent deficits of stocks ( spray dried milk and other staple food market points – taking international trade names ) and as a consequence Lulu ‘s clients ( both the Omanis and exiles ) are unhappy over the non-availability of items/brands of their pick that were retailed by Lulu.
In certain lines of food market points there were extra stocking and on others there were deficits. And in order to get the better of the deficits orders were made to be transported by air which significantly increased the cargo cost of imported goods.
On the other extreme, some food market points ( low majority ) that are supplied to little institutional purchasers ( e.g. java stores in Muscat ) could non be sourced from the exporters in clip for bringing as several orders had to wait to be bunched to do up the majority to obtain low cost cargo from the transportation companies. These errors have been caused by weak or bad determination doing ensuing from hapless information and communicating flows between the shop mercantile establishments ( gross revenues ) and buying section ( purchases ) . For illustration, the ‘Inventory Status Analysis Report ‘ and ‘Customer Gross saless History ‘ have been found to be non that accurate during a specially commissioned operational audit in February 2009.
Furthermore, Lulu ‘s warehousing infinite in ( Muscat ) Oman is limited. Although the EMKE Group is capable of constructing a new warehouse in Muscat, the cragged terrain makes it hard to build warehouse edifices in the short tally.
In effect, hapless stock list direction is a serious issue which is endangering Lulu ‘s attempts in client keeping and trueness and the profitableness of its concern in Oman.
An effort has been made in this paper to analyze the above issue in Lulu, Oman by using Checkland ‘s ( 1981 ; Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 ) Soft Systems Methodology ( SSM ) .
Problem state of affairss such as the above can be efficaciously tackled by the application of critical systems believing ( Jackson, 2003 ) . Critical systems believing attack employs a broad scope of organizational metaphors ( ‘images ‘ ) which can assist in understanding the administrations every bit good as to research and analyze the hard job state of affairss which directors need to undertake ( Flood & A ; Jackson, 1991 ) .
Metaphors can be viewed as cognitive lenses through which people make feel their state of affairss for obtaining a better apprehension of the same ( Kendall & A ; Kendall, 1993 ) .
The most common archetypical metaphors that can be used to steer systems believing are ( Jackson, 1993 ; Morgan, 1997 ) :
Administrations as machines
Administrations as beings
Administrations as encephalons
Administrations as civilizations
Administrations as political systems
Administrations as psychic prisons
Administrations as flux and transmutation
Administrations as instruments of domination
Metaphorical look of the administration helps to understand how its stakeholders make sense of their administration and their worldviews and besides encourages its directors to believe creatively about their administrations as good ( ibid ) . This is because metaphors provide a utile avenue to do originative premises in organizational analysis for depicting and researching the job state of affairs efficaciously ( Morgan, 1980 & A ; 1997 ) .
To steer the critical systems believing, in relation to the above job state of affairs, the ‘organisms ‘ metaphor has been chosen at the dominant metaphor and the ‘machines ‘ metaphor as the dependent metaphor. The ‘organisms ‘ metaphor represents unfastened position and the ‘machine metaphor represents closed position ( Flood & A ; Jackson, 1991 ) .
Harmonizing to Jackson ( 1993 ) an administration when viewed as a ‘machine ‘ is seen as a tool created for accomplishing the intents of the proprietors of the administration. Directors are assumed to be rational in their decision-making ( ibid ) . Control in the administration is enforced through rigorous regulations and processs within a stiff organizational hierarchy of authorization ( ibid ) .
An administration when viewed like an ‘organism ‘ appears as a complex system composed of sub-systems that coexist together ( ibid ) . The chief purpose of the administration is survival from which the derivatory aims are set for each of the administration ‘s sub-systems to carry through ( ibid ) . If there are functional failures so the sub-systems should be examined as whether they continue to run into the administration ‘s aims and demands and besides the administration should be cross-checked as to whether it is decently aligned with and well-balanced to its environment ( ibid ) . To this terminal the managerial sub-system must be entrusted with this of import undertaking ( ibid ) .
Consequently with respect to the Lulu ‘s job state of affairs above, the ‘organism ‘ metaphor is considered as the dominant metaphor as the stock list direction and costs involve external environmental participants ( for e.g. providers and clients ) and the ‘machine ‘ metaphor as the dependant metaphor since it produced negative effects through hapless information and communicating flows in relation to purchases and gross revenues every bit good as incorrect determination devising in relation to telling supplies.
Difficult Systems Thinking and Soft Systems Thinking
Problem state of affairss in administrations can be tackled by directors by utilizing a ‘hard ‘ systems believing attack or soft thought attack.
Difficult systems believing attack is utile when systems exist and the aims of the system/s can be easy defined ( Checkland, 1981 & A ; 1988 ) . Difficult systems believing attack is based upon rational and scientific methods where a individual optimum solution is found ( Checkland, 1981 ) . However, the difficult systems believing attack is non utile to manage messy, unpredictable, and ill-structured job state of affairss wherein the human participants constitute an of import variable in the complex job state of affairs ( Checkland, 1981 & A ; 1989 ) .
‘Soft ‘ systems believing attack does non necessitate systems to be and see the human activity systems ( HAS ) , which indicates the human activity to carry through a certain ends, rather distinguishable from other systems in the administration ( Checkland, 1981 ) .
The strong accent placed upon ‘systemness ‘ sets difficult systems believing attack clearly separate and different from soft systems believing attack ( Checkland & A ; Holwell, 1998 ) .
The System of Systems Methodologies ( SoSM )
For researching the complex job state of affairs of Lulu Checkland ‘s ( 1981 ; Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 ) Soft Systems Methodology has been chosen from Jackson and Keys ( 1984 ) the System of Systems Methodologies ( see Table 1 below ) .
The ground behind taking SSM was that Lulu ‘s job context involved alone participants separated by locations and the alone nature of the stock list system which is important both in the job context every bit good as for Lulu to fulfill its clients ‘ demands.
Table 1: The System of Systems Methodologies ( Jackson & A ; Keys, 1984 ) .
Soft Systems Methodology – SSM
Checkland ‘s ( 1981 ; Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 ) Soft Systems Methodology is a utile methodological analysis for using systems believing to complex job state of affairss in administrations to analyze both qualitative and quantitative information for the same, since Lulu ‘s job state of affairs involves complex homo, political, and societal elements.
The SSM is a 7 phase procedure of question wherein the logical connexions of the SSM procedure aid the existent ‘problem work outing ‘ activity to travel more flexibly between one phase and the other in the SSM ( Flood & A ; Jackson, 1991 ) .
Although the SSM is a 7 phase procedure the phases need non needfully to be used in a rigorous consecutive order ( Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 ) . Figure 2 below illustrates the 7 phase SSM procedure.
Figure 2: 7 Stage Model of SSM
( Beginning: Adapted from Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 )
Phase 1- The Problem Situation
In this first phase of the SSM the participants of the HAS start look intoing the ill-structured job state of affairs without any premises which finally lead to a common apprehension of the messy-problem which requires immediate attending ( Jackson, 2003 ) .
Lulu ‘s messy job state of affairs represents the shared demand of the participants of the organizational ( Lulu ) homo activity system ( HAS ) to roll up the available information together as a squad in order to research.
The HAS in Lulu ‘s job state of affairs is represented in the signifier of a Review-Group composed of: the Director and Assistant Director – Purchasing & A ; Warehousing – , Purchasing Manager, Buying Supervisors ( Muscat merely ) , one floor staff from each of the Lulu Hypermarkets, two general shops staff members from Lulu hypermarkets and supermarkets, and the Tendering & A ; Contract Specialist.
Consequently, the information was gathered and sorted through informations aggregation on physical and societal constructions and procedures ( departmental, for e.g. Accounts & A ; Finance ) by analyzing the stock list records, big samples of day-to-day boulder clay axial rotations, proceedingss of the buying section meetings, interacting with clients, etc. In add-on to this 3 workshops were conducted, at Lulu ‘s Head Office ( its first Hypermarket at Darsait – a tube in Muscat ) with the above participants where unfastened treatments were encouraged.
Phase 2- Problem Situation Expressed through Rich Pictures
Rich picture/s is/are used to stand for the available information which was gathered from phase 1 of the SSM procedure to picture the existent state of affairs affecting the human activity ( Paucar-Caceres & A ; Rodriguez-Ulloa, 2007 ) .
In other words, the rich image helps to visualize the generalized features of the job state of affairs better. The undermentioned key features emerged from the workshop with the participants of the Review-Group:
Poor Inventory Management
Stock-out state of affairss
Limited stock list storage infinite
May lose clients to rivals
Poor information and communicating flows between the shop mercantile establishments and buying section
Insufficiency of the bing stock list direction system.
The rich image shown in Figure 3 ( on the following page ) illustrates the reappraisal groups feelings and point of views on Lulu ‘s job state of affairs.
Figure 3: Rich Picture for Lulu
The above rich image in Figure 3 illustrates the concerns of the Lulu staffs and the members of the Purchasing Department in the job state of affairs. Dotted line indicates the inadequacy/ deficiency of good communicating and information flows.
Phase 3- Root Definitions
After analyzing the rich image in item, a systematic description of the point of views or ‘the worldviews ‘ from different angles are made. Root definitions help capture the nucleus intent of the activity systems to research efficaciously into the job state of affairs and better it ( Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 ) . Root definitions in consequence are verbal descriptions about the systems which are being examined ( Hicks, 1991 ) . The root definitions help to depict the transmutation processes and the situational-changes in the existent universe ( Paucar-Caceres & A ; Rodriguez-Ulloa, 2007 ) .
Consequently a individual root definition was derived from the above rich image and has been reproduced below:
An stock list direction system owned by the Company with the aim of bettering the stock list control through seasonably and efficient procuring and buying of goods by using the available resources efficaciously in order to sell productively. This stock list direction system will be used to pull off the purchase routines efficaciously through better communicating and exchange of information among all the staffs for fulfilling clients by supplying improved client services.
The abbreviation ‘CATWOE ‘ is dwelling of the six cardinal elements: Customer, Actor, Transformation, Worldview, Owner, and Environment, are used for explicating the root definitions.
The CATWOE elements for the above root definition are:
Customers: Lulu and its clients
Actors: The full staffs of Lulu
Transformation: Improved stock list control and better communicating flows
World position: Provision of improved client services
Owners: The Managing Director and Shareholders
Environment: Market competition and the organizational sub-systems.
Phase 4- Building Conceptual Models
The root definitions serve as the footing for constructing the conceptual theoretical accounts for the job state of affairs.
The conceptual theoretical account ( see Figure 4 on the following page ) from the above root definition indicates the followers:
The buying section of Lulu must set up an effectual feedback system to better determination devising in buying every bit good as in stock list control.
Effective direction of information and communicating flows.
Motivate the staffs to take part positively in the stock list direction.
This feedback system should besides inform Lulu about its clients ‘ demands.
Figure 4: Conceptual Model
The conceptual theoretical account in Figure 4 depicts the activities that are required to transport out the transmutation processes from the above root definition. The conceptual theoretical account indicates that for timely imports to be made a figure of cardinal activities have to be carried out like inputting the client history, keeping an active cooperation with the abroad providers etc for bettering the stock list direction system and therefore guarantee that Lulu ‘s concern operations run expeditiously and efficaciously with least perturbations.
Phase 5- Comparing Conceptual Models with the Real World
This phase is to advance constructive argument ( unfastened treatment among the Review-Group participants ) based on the conceptual theoretical account. This is carried out by comparing the conceptual theoretical account with the existent universe and placing the differences therein to find any alterations for implementing them successfully in such a manner that the world matches closely to the conceptual theoretical account derived from the application of systems believing attack ( Jackson, 2003 ) .
Phase 6- Systematically Desirable and Culturally Feasible Changes
The argument in the signifier of unfastened treatment is continued in this phase every bit good. The chief purpose of this argument is to place ‘systematically desirable ‘ alterations – relevancy – and ‘culturally executable ‘ – people oriented – . The intent here is to find alterations that need to be made for bettering the job state of affairs instead than the conceptual theoretical accounts ( Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 ) .
The Review-Group identified the following systemically desirable and culturally executable alterations for intercession:
Introduction of an up to day of the month Inventory Management System ( new application package ) which is capable of maintaining the stock degrees under control such that adequate ( optimum ) measure degrees and lines of stocks are available at all times.
Ensure that the staffs are motivated to work in a concerted manner, particularly, the staffs that are involved in Lulu ‘s buying map.
It would be necessary to integrate client gross revenues history for holding control over slow traveling points ( that still have clients who buy them but non often ) .
Although Lulu maintains an first-class resonance with all its abroad providers, the group felt that more active cooperation from the providers should be elicited.
Seasonably imports through enhanced buying processs.
With improved buying processs and optimum re-order sizes better price reduction trades from the providers should be actively negotiated and obtained. This could give a competitory advantage for Lulu over its challengers in Oman through competitory pricing.
Increasing the capacity of storage infinite for keeping stocks would affect capital budgeting processs by the Top Management.
Phase 7- Taking Actions to Better the Problem Situation
This phase involves taking consistently desirable and culturally executable actions for bettering the job state of affairs. The pickings of consistently desirable and culturally executable actions can assist farther to better the job state of affairs ( Jackson, 2003 ) .
Consequently, the information gathered from the 3 workshops with the Review-Group participants was helpful for Lulu in making recommendations that require intercession in the existent universe for bettering the job state of affairs, through the possible execution of the systemically desirable and culturally executable alterations identified in Stage 6 above.
This paper attempted to use the ‘Soft Thinking ‘ attack to complex job work outing in the instance of Lulu Hypermarkets, Oman through the application of Checkland ‘s ( 1981 ; Checkland & A ; Scholes, 1990 ) Soft Systems Methodology. Lulu ‘s operations in Oman is driven by the demand to totally import all of its stocks from abroad ( which is inevitable in Oman as the industrialization is being developed merely since 1995 after the execution of denationalization by the Omani Government ) and the aim of Lulu to maintain all its clients satisfied with handiness of goods as and when the client requires.
( Separate A: 3,021 words without Contents & A ; Mentions )
The present twenty-four hours concern environment is dominated by rapid and uninterrupted planetary alterations, which concerns and other administrations every bit good as their directors can non afford to disregard these alterations today and continue ( Turban et al, 2005 ) . Further administrations have become and are going more complex due to the alterations in the concern environment in economic activity, population, and engineering as a consequence of which administrations need to construct their ability to accommodate to these alterations in order to run into the challenges imposed by the alterations ( Sterman, 1994 ) .
Today ‘s directors require effectual schemes to ease their administrations to accommodate to the altering concern environment and let their administrations to go on their operational being successfully into the hereafter ( Hitt, 1996 ) .
In order to confront the alterations in the concern environment an administration demand to be a ‘learning administration ‘ ( Senge, 1990 ) . A learning administration is one which is spread outing its capacity continually for the intent of obtaining a sustainable continued operational being into future ( ibid ) . In other words a learning administration is one where it continually renews itself to remain in measure with the altering times in the present every bit good as into the hereafter.
A learning administration is clearly alone from the other signifiers of traditional administrations in footings of the undermentioned five subjects ( ibid ) :
Building shared vision
Mental theoretical accounts
The Five Disciplines of Learning Organisation
Building Shared Vision
‘Shared vision ‘ harmonizing to Senge ( 1990 ) is the common common image /view which people in an administration have in respect to the activities of the administration they are in and the administration itself. The chief intent of the shared vision subject is to guarantee that the person ‘s ends and aims are aligned with the organizational ends and aims in order to advance a common shared apprehension of the administration to which they belong. The subject of shared vision is aimed at conveying about voluntary and willful committedness from the people in an administration.
Mental theoretical accounts are the incarnation of deeply seated generalizations and premises, images and images as to the worldview held by single from his or her ain positions ( ibid ) . In other words, the mental theoretical accounts allow an single carry out self-contemplation for deeper geographic expedition within him or her for the common benefit of the person and the administration.
This subject involves the continual elucidation and beef uping one ‘s personal vision to ease concentrated focal point of human energies by larning to be patient and developing the ability to see the existent universe in an nonsubjective manner ( ibid ) . This is normally the highest of human aspirations which we all strongly endeavour to accomplish.
The squad acquisition subject is about persons believing in a incorporate manner where ‘US ‘ is more of import than ‘I ‘ . The nucleus of the squad acquisition subject is about common duologue that permits s ‘thinking together ‘ ( ibid ) . Team acquisition is indispensable for the acquisition administration where squads are the dominant resource for larning in order to stay adaptable to alterations in the organizational environment.
Systems believing is a modern attack to determination devising that is composed of valid cognition that aid in the apprehension of the job patterns more clearly to explicate better improved solutions ( ibid ) .
Systems thought is the cardinal subject of the learning administration. That ‘s why Senge ( 1990 ) calls it as the ‘Fifth Discipline ‘ in his book. Senge states that the systems believing subject integrates the old four subjects of the learning administration. In his position the systems believing subject facilitates directors to obtain a better apprehension of their organizational systems in order to be after and transport out action that are more appropriate to the job state of affairss in inquiry.
‘Systems believing ‘ implies and indicates to the modern attack to believing approximately systems that systems are of import ( Forrester, 1994 ) . Systems believing can assist directors to manage complex jobs more efficaciously by leting them to see their organizational systems holistically ( Checkland, 1981 ) . In other words, the systems believing attack helps directors to reconceptualise complex issues every bit good as discovery feasible solutions to them ( Senge & A ; Sterman, 1992 ) .
Using the conventional attack, presuming one-dimensionality, directors used to interrupt a job into their separate component parts to explicate a solution by analyzing each of these parts and signifier decisions in a scientific manner ( Kofman & A ; Senge, 1993 ) . However, the modern job state of affairss which directors face in today ‘s complex universe do non give to the conventional additive attack and hence would necessitate systems believing that forces to look into the disk shape of the variables that make up the job state of affairss ( ibid ) .
Further ‘systems position ‘ manifest systems believing attack by assisting and banding people to do their mental theoretical accounts that can further group larning and obtain a shared apprehension of the intent ( Turban et al, 2005 ) .
Given the current globalised universe it is imperative to understand the importance of systems believing in doing determinations to turn to the challenges imposed by the alterations in the planetary concern environment ( ibid ) .
Harmonizing to Senge ( 1990 ) systems believing has three nucleus elements that provide the footing for systems position of the administrations. These are ( ibid, p.373 ) :
“ Practices: What you do,
Principles: Steering thoughts and penetrations,
Kernels: The province of being those with high degrees of command in the subject. ”
Leaderships and directors can convey about the coveted behavior from their people in the administration by concentrating on the four degrees of the behavioral positions of their people ( ibid ) . These are ( ibid ) :
Events – discernible behaviors and actions ;
Forms of behaviour – insistent behaviors and actions ;
Systemic structures – the interrelatednesss between the forms of behavior ; and
‘Purpose narrative ‘ – forming mental theoretical accounts that keep that hold the systemic constructions.
The basis of Senge ‘s learning administration is ‘systems believing ‘ subject and systems believing helps the persons to larn in their administrations with a holistic position of their administration as a ‘system ‘ . This is because systems believing is a consolidative subject which integrates all the other subjects ( the subjects of: shared vision, mental theoretical accounts, personal command, and squad acquisition ) of the larning administration to run into the challenges of altering and disruptive concern environment in order to prolong the administration ‘s continued being.
Systems in the acquisition administration are composed of interconnected mental theoretical accounts ( composed of each of the person ‘s perceptual experiences ) from its people. For a successful acquisition administration to take topographic point persons must portion their mental theoretical accounts without suppression in order to obtain a co-ordinated apprehension of the existent system holistically through a ‘shared vision ‘ . It should be noted here that the construct of ‘shared vision ‘ aid persons to larn more volitionally and actively in a concerted manner. However, to make so directors should be free willing and every bit actively extend their cooperation as good. Besides directors should come out of their traditional mentalities to let new systems believing to acquire in ( Senge, 1990 ) .
Fifth Discipline – Lulu Hypermarkets ( Muscat, Oman )
Application of the Soft Systems Methodology, the soft systems believing attack to Lulu ‘s complex job state of affairs, in Part A of this paper is good illustration of using Senge ‘s Fifth Discipline – ‘Systems Thinking ‘ .
Global Economic Crisis
The current planetary economic crisis has impacted Oman besides. As a consequence the private sector every bit good as the populace sector is confronting challenges due to the planetary economic crisis. One of the major consequence of the current planetary economic crisis is concerns in Oman, including Lulu Hypermarkets, are cutting back on their investings every bit good as their current pending capital undertakings.
A cardinal challenge faced by Lulu is the decreased disbursement form that has become noticeable since August 2008 in Oman ( as is indicated by the drastic autumn in the resale-value of the beach-side esteemed belongingss of the ‘Wave ‘ undertaking in Muscat ) .
Lulu wrongly estimated that its gross revenues would stay either unaffected or marginally affected by the impact of the planetary economic crisis. This is because about 78 % of Lulu ‘s gross revenues gross comes from selling nutrient and food market points.
But the stock list direction job state of affairs coupled with decreased client disbursement on nutrient and food market points threatened non merely Lulu ‘s gross revenues but besides made it vulnerable to tough monetary value competition from its rival hypermarkets.
Together these bespeak the unpreparedness of Lulu to alterations in the external environment such as the one caused by the current planetary economic crisis.
Systems thought is the critical component for larning administrations that aim to continually hold administration reclamation ( Senge, 1990 ) . And the usage of systems believing subject implies that the administration and its directors in inquiry are willing to accommodate to alterations and run into the challenges posed by those alterations to get the better of them successfully.
Systems believing presupposes ( although non needfully ) the usage of shared vision, mental theoretical accounts, personal command, and squad acquisition subjects. The above SSM survey for Lulu from Part A can be used to exemplify these subjects in order to obtain a better apprehension of the decreased disbursement originating from the impact of the planetary economic crisis.
The formation of the ‘Review-Group ‘ for using the SSM procedure brought together the participants from Lulu ‘s different locations in Oman, though many of them were sharing similar occupation duties, in a face-to-face and peer-to-peer contact with one another as a group every bit good as workshop participants, allowed direct personal and unfastened interactions with the members of the top direction ( the Purchasing Director and the Purchasing Manager ) . During the full period of each of the workshop debates within the SSM procedure the unfastened interactions helped one another to portion their thoughts and sentiments sing the job state of affairs, more so due to the close propinquity of the factors that revealed the stock list direction job.
In making so the Review-Group members and the members of the top direction and therefore Lulu were on the same path to turn to the job state of affairs.
The exercising of constructing the ‘Rich Picture ‘ ( see Figure 3 ) and the Conceptual Model ( Figure 4 ) were successful due to the free and unfastened sharing of each of the participant ‘s ain personal point of view and thoughts without suppression and fright.
With more unfastened duologues and free informational exchange among the participants their personal vision about Lulu and its constitutional systems improved profoundly.
Work at the hypermarkets and supermarkets involve go toing clients all the clip and traveling goods, stocking, and postponing and replenishing the shelves. In effect, the range to work as a squad was non known to the participants. However, the formation of the Review-Group provided an first-class avenue for this to go on as the participants learned how it is to be a group and how it is to be a squad from merely being working as persons.
The SSM exercising which the Review-Group underwent vividly illustrated the application of the ‘Systems Thinking ‘ – Senge ‘s Fifth Discipline for a ‘Learning Organisation ‘ . And through this SSM exercise the participants learned to portion and pass on their thoughts and point of views from different positions.
Presently the directors of Lulu Hypermarkets are conservative. Therefore, developing Lulu into a Learning Organisation whereby organizational reclamation is possible to continually accommodate to the challenges imposed by alterations in the environment, both domestic and planetary.
On the other manus, if Lulu has been a ‘Learning Organisation ‘ it would hold had progress warning systems or at least steps to run into the challenges driven by a crisis.
( Part B: 1,903 words without Contents & A ; Mentions )