Methods of Phonological Analysis.
The Main Trends in the Phoneme Theory It is by and large acknowledged that the phoneme is one of the basic linguistic communication units. However. it is described by different bookmans and representatives of different lingual schools in different ways. Before we look at the most important theories. Lashkar-e-Taibas say a speedy word on the history of phonological surveies and reference the names of outstanding bookmans who contributed to the apprehension of this complicated linguistic communication phenomenon. In the 1960s at that place appeared the alleged new phonemics which was aimed at explicating how address is really produced and understood by the worlds. Generative phonemics represented by a well-known American linguist N. Chomsky viewed phonemics in close connexion with sentence structure and semantics. The thoughts of productive phonemics were represented in the book by Chomsky and M. Halle The Sound Pattern of English. Classical inactive phonological theoretical accounts were aimed at making categorizations of the sound system of a peculiar linguistic communication. Dynamic theoretical accounts were aimed at set uping the sound form of an vocalization on the footing of its semantic and grammar features.
Now lets attempt to group these schools into bigger classs and see what is the chief standard in the attack of linguists to the phoneme. In fact. the chief standard is three facets of the phoneme. Some linguists exaggerate the abstract facet of the phoneme and disregard the stuff facet. Others. on the contrary. pay more attending to the stuff facet and disregard the abstract one. We must acknowledge that no theories ignore the functional facet. I. Conceptions that pay particular attending to the abstract facet. Harmonizing to mentalistic and psychological position. the phoneme is an ideal mental image. it doesnt exist objectively. it exists merely in the head of the talker. Actual address sounds are imperfect realisation of it. These ideals were expressed by Baudauin de Courtenay and by Sommerfelt. II. Concept that can be called functional because particular focal point is given to the ability of the phoneme to distinguish the significance. III. The group concerned with the stuff facet.
The physical position represented by Daniel Jones and B. Bloch regards the phoneme as the household of related sounds. In other words the phoneme is a mechanical amount of its allophones. So. similarity between sounds is considered to be the chief standard for imputing them to a peculiar phoneme. We see that the representatives of this attack ignore the abstract and functional facet of the phoneme. 1 ) to set up typical difference between sounds. that is to set up relevant characteristics 2 ) to make the stock list of the phonemes and set up the phonemic system of a linguistic communication.