Hazy Joy L. Dela Cruz II-Science Class OUTPUT NO. 3 I. Background of the Related Topic A. Malunggay Malunggay leaves was once considered a “poor man’s vegetables” but now it is known as a “miracle tree” or “nature’s medicine cabinet” by scientists and health care workers from around the world because it is loaded with vitamins and minerals that can be an effective remedy against many kinds of ailments. All parts of the malunggay tree are usable for nutritional and medicinal purposes – from the roots, trunk, and branches to the leaves, flowers, and seeds.
The small, oval, dark-green leaves are famous vegetable ingredient in soup, fish and chicken dishes. The leaves can actually be eaten raw, but best added in meals due to its high concentration of nutrients. The roots is used to make tea, while the trunk, after it’s scraped and squeezed for its juice is used to clean wounds. Malunggay trees are generally grown in the backyards in countries of Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Africa. It is said that these plants are “low maintenance,” requiring little to no care. Health Benefits: Malunggay leaves help strengthens the immune system.
Malunggay can help restores skin condition, controls blood pressure, and relieves headaches and migraines. Malunggay tea can help strengthen the eye muscles. Malunggay tea can help heal inflammation of the joints and tendons. Malunggay tea can prevent intestinal worms. Malunggay can help increase semen count. Malunggay help normalize blood sugar level therefore preventing diabetes. Malunggay has anti-cancer compounds (photochemical) that help stop the growth of cancer cells. Malunggay helps relax and promotes good night sleep. Malunggay tea is used to treat fever and asthma.
Malunggay help heals ulcers. Malunggay is high in calcium (four times the calcium in milk); therefore lactating mothers are advised to consume malunggay leaves to produce more milk for their babies. The young malunggay leaves are also boiled and taken as tea. Malunggay contains three times the potassium in bananas. Malunggay contain four times the vitamin A in carrots. An ounce of malunggay has the same Vitamin C content as seven oranges. Malunggay leaves contain two times the protein in milk. Malunggay seed is used to clean dirty or polluted water. Malunggay it is a popular tree.
Many Asians use the leaves of Malunggay (Sajina) like spinach and also the fruit it produces as a vegetable, like asparagus. It only used to be known as a vegetable for lactating mothers. But new scientific studies say that malunggay’s medicinal and market possibilities. Touted by scientists as a “miracle vegetable,” malunggay has been promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the past 20 years as a low-cost health enhancer in poor countries around the globe. Malunggay trees are generally grown in the backyards. The small, oval, dark-green leaves are famous vegetable ingredient in soup, fish and chicken dishes.
Scientifically, called ‘Moringa oleifera. ’ this vegetable, despite its legendary potentials, is still relatively unknown. “The sale of all forms of vitamins, minerals, and health supplements is a big business,” points out Moringa Zinga, an American company that promotes and sells malunggay products in capsules. “If you are a company selling hundreds of nutritional products, why would you sell a product that will wipe out all your other products? This is true for the pharmaceutical industries as well. These industries would rather that the general public remains ignorant about the moringa leaves. According to the Biotechnology Program Office of the Department of Agriculture, the malunggay has been found by biochemists and molecular anthropologists to be rich in vitamins C and A, iron, and high density lipoprotein or good cholesterol. Due to its high calcium content (four times the calcium in milk); lactating mothers in the Philippines are often advised to consume malunggay leaves to produce more milk for their babies. The young malunggay leaves are being boiled and drink as tea. Malunggay leaves are loaded with nutrients. Gram for gram, malunggay leaves also contain two times the protein in milk.
Likewise, it contains three times the potassium in bananas and four times the vitamin A in carrots. Health nutritionists claim that an ounce of malunggay has the same Vitamin C content as seven oranges. An important function of vitamin C not known to many is its being an antioxidant. In fact, it has been recognized and accepted by the US Food and Drug Administration as one of the four dietary antioxidants, the others being vitamin E, beta-carotene and selenium. (A dietary oxidant is a substance in food that significantly decreases the adverse effects of harmful chemicals). There are more health benefits.
Vivencio Mamaril, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, told a national daily that in India, malunggay is used in treating various ailments. A 2001 study in India has found that the fresh root of the young tree can be used to treat fever. Asthmatics are advised to drink the infusion from the roots of the plant. Tender malunggay leaves also reduce phlegm and are administered internally for scurvy and catarrhal conditions, while the flowers are used to heal inflammation of the tendons and abscesses. Unripe pods of malunggay are also reported to prevent intestinal worms, while the fruit also prevents eye disorders.
Other studies have shown that eating malunggay fruits can lead to higher semen count. This is good news for men who are having problems in siring children. They can now count on the malunggay to cork its magic on them. Because of its nutritional content, malunggay strengthens the immune system, restores skin condition, controls blood pressure, relieves headaches and migraines, manages the sugar level thereby preventing diabetes, reduces inflammations and arthritis pains, restricts the growth of tumors, and heals ulcers. This information comes from Dr.
Kumar Pati, an Indian doctor who is an expert in natural medicine. The “next big thing” in Philippine agriculture. That is how the agriculture department considers malunggay. Malunggay can save lives, increase incomes, generate millions of jobs, utilize vast tracts of idle agricultural lands, make the Philippines globally competitive, impact local and international market, and help attain socioeconomic equity,” explained Alice Ilaga, director of the DA’s Biotechnology Program. Besides being sold in the public market as a vegetable, is there really a market for malunggay products? The Philippines is currently in the midst of developing the local market for malunggay and its products,” said a statement released by Biotechnology Program, which aggressively aims to develop the agribusiness potentials of various crops as part of the government’s poverty-alleviation program. “Despite being behind other countries such as India and Nicaragua, the Philippines’ malunggay industry is on its way to becoming a global competitor. ” In a press statement, Ilaga reported that the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is setting its sights on fortifying different types of food. Given its nutritional value, it can be utilized in fortifying sauces, juices, milk, bread, and most importantly, instant noodles,” Ilaga says. According to Ilaga, a multinational food company reportedly has expressed keen interest in putting up a processing plant in the Philippines for this purpose. “A noodle company is also eyeing malunggay for bio-fortification of noodles as part of its commitment to support the program to fight malnutrition, which is prevalent in the countryside,” she added.
The seeds of malunggay contain 40% oil, which is considered excellent massage oil. As part of its program to promote biotechnology, the agriculture department has strategically positioned itself for the commercial planting of seeds for malunggay oil production. “The Philippines can penetrate the international market in producing malunggay oil from its seeds using advance technology to extract oil from enzymes,” Ilaga disclosed. One local company that is leading in malunggay production is SECURA International.
After entering into malunggay production for more than a year, it expects a bright future for the malunggay industry. In an interview with a news dispatch, SECURA president Danny Manayaga admits that for the country to really take advantage of the market, it should first ensure that there is enough supply to support it. “‘The market is developing, but up to now, we still don’t know the extent of this market because we have not yet defined our capacity to produce malunggay,” he disclosed. We are involved with contract growers from different towns all over the country such as Valencia in Negros Oriental, Masinloc and Botolan in Zambales, Alaminos and Infanta in Pangasinan, and Bamban in Tarlac, which accounts for 150 hectares of our malunggay supply for our current market but it is not enough to sustain the demands for other products such as moringa oil,” Manayaga said. SECURA needs at least 20,000 hectares to be able to support the available market for malunggay products.
Currently, it is involved in processing dehydrated malunggay leaves to produce tea and as an additive to other medicinal plants to produce herbal tea. “This is the only active market that is running for malunggay now,” Manayaga said. Unknown to many Filipinos, malunggay has the ability to purify water. “The crushed moringa seeds can clear very turbid water,” said Dr. John Sutherland, of Leicester University’s Department of Environmental Technology. He added that powdered malunggay seeds are appropriate for water purification in rural areas of tropical countries.
Planting malunggay trees can also help stabilize soil and contribute to fight against deforestation. The malunggay tree is highly resistant to drought and needs little care. It is fast-growing and lives for average of 50 years. Each tree can produce approximately 10,000 seeds a year. It also makes an excellent fuel and fertilizer. A tropical species, malunggay can tolerate temperatures up to 48 degrees Centigrade, but 15 degrees to 35 degrees Centigrade is considered best. It grows in areas with annual rainfall of 760 to 2250 millimeters.
Is planting malunggay profitable? According to Ilaga, for a hectare of malunggay, the estimated net income per year is P150,000. B. High Blood Pressure High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Arteries are vessels that carry blood from the pumping heart to all the tissues and organs of the body. High blood pressure does not mean excessive emotional tension, although emotional tension and stress can temporarily increase blood pressure.
Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called “pre-hypertension”, and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high. The top number, the systolic blood pressure, corresponds to the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts and pumps blood forward into the arteries. The bottom number, the diastolic pressure, represents the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes after the contraction. The diastolic pressure reflects the lowest pressure to which the arteries are exposed.
An elevation of the systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure increases the risk of developing heart (cardiac) disease, kidney (renal) disease, hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis), eye damage, and stroke (brain damage). These complications of hypertension are often referred to as end-organ damage because damage to these organs is the end result of chronic (long duration) high blood pressure. For that reason, the diagnosis of high blood pressure is important so efforts can be made to normalize blood pressure and prevent complications.
It was previously thought that rises in diastolic blood pressure were a more important risk factor than systolic elevations, but it is now known that in people 50 years or older systolic hypertension represents a greater risk. The American Heart Association estimates high blood pressure affects approximately one in three adults in the United States – 73 million people. High blood pressure is also estimated to affect about two million American teens and children, and the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that many are under-diagnosed.
Hypertension is clearly a major public health problem. Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. It is the opposite of hypotension. Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension; about 90–95% of cases are categorized as “primary hypertension,” which means high blood pressure with no obvious medical cause. The remaining 5–10% of cases (Secondary hypertension) is caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of associated health complications, although drug treatment may prove necessary in patients for whom lifestyle changes prove ineffective or insufficient. Hazy Joy L. Dela Cruz II-Science Class Output No. 4 II. Background of the Methodology
A. Leaf Processing Tea processing is the method in which the leaves from the tea plant are transformed into the dried leaves for brewing tea. The categories of tea are distinguished by the processing they undergo. In its most general form, tea processing involves different manners and degree of oxidation of the leaves, stopping the oxidation, forming the tea and drying it. The innate flavor of the tealeaves is determined by the type of cultivar of the tea bush, the quality of the plucked tea leaves, and the manner and quality of the production processing they undergo.
Although each type of tea has different taste, smell, and visual appearance, tea processing for all tea types consists of a very similar set of methods with only minor variations: 1. Picking: Tea leaves and flushes, which include a terminal bud and two young leaves, are plucked from Camellia sinensis bushes typically twice a year during early spring and early summer or late spring. Autumn or winter pickings of tea flushes are much less common, though they occur when climate permits. Picking is done by hand when a higher quality tea is needed, or where labour costs are not prohibitive.
Hand-picking is done by pulling the flush with a snap of the wrist and does not involve twisting or pinching the flush, since doing the latter reduces the quality of the leaves. Tea flushes and leaves can also be picked by machine, though there will be more broken leaves and partial flushes. It is also more difficult to harvest by machine on mountain slopes where tea is often grown. 2. Withering/ Wilting: The tea leaves will begin to wilt soon after picking, with a gradual onset of enzymatic oxidation. Wilting is used to remove excess water from the leaves and allows a very slight amount of oxidation.
The leaves can be either put under the sun or left in a cool breezy room to pull moisture out from the leaves. The leaves sometimes lose more than a quarter of their weight in water during wilting. The process is also important in promoting the breakdown of leaf proteins into free amino acid and increases the availability of freed caffeine both of which changes the taste of the tea. 3. Bruising: In order to promote and quicken oxidation, the leaves may be bruised by shaking and tossing in a bamboo tray, tumbling in baskets or by being kneaded or rolled over by heavy wheels.
The bruising breaks down the structures inside and outside of the leaf cells and allows from the co-mingling of oxidative enzymes with various substrates, which allows for the beginning of oxidation. This also releases some of the leaf juices, which may aid in oxidation and change the taste profile of the tea. 4. Oxidation / Fermentation: For teas that require oxidation, the leaves are left on their own in a climate-controlled room where they turn progressively darker. This is accompanied by agitation in some cases.
In this process the chlorophyll in the leaves is enzymatically broken down, and its tannins are released or transformed. This process is sometimes referred to as “fermentation” in the tea industry. The tea producer may choose when the oxidation should be stopped, which depends on the desired qualities in the final tea as well as the weather conditions (heat and humidity). For light oolong teas this may be anywhere from 5-40% oxidation, in darker oolong teas 60-70%, and in black teas 100% oxidation.
Oxidation is highly important in the formation of many taste and aroma compounds, which give a tea its liquor colour, strength, and briskness. Depending on the type of tea desired, under or over-oxidation/fermentation can result in grassy flavours, or overly thick winey flavours. 5. Fixation / Kill-green: Kill-green or shaqing (?? ) is done to stop the tea leaf oxidation at a desired level. This process is accomplished by moderately heating tea leaves, thus deactivating their oxidative enzymes and removing unwanted scents in the leaves, without damaging the flavor of the tea.
Traditionally, the tea leaves are panned in a wok or steamed, but with advancements in technology, kill-green is sometimes done by baking or “panning” in a rolling drum. In some white teas and some black teas such as CTC blacks, kill-green is done simultaneously with drying. 6. Sweltering / Yellowing: Unique to yellow teas, warm and damp tea leaves from after kill-green are allowed to be lightly heated in a closed container, which causes the previously green leaves to yellow. The resulting leaves produce a beverage that has a distinctive yellowish-green hue due to transformations of the leaf chlorophyll.
Through being sweltered for 6–8 hours at close to human body temperatures, the amino acids and polyphenols in the processed tea leaves undergo chemical changes to give this tea its distinct briskness and mellow taste. 7. Rolling / Shaping: The damp tea leaves are then rolled to be formed into wrinkled strips, by hand or using a rolling machine which causes the tea to wrap around itself. This rolling action also causes some of the sap, essential oils, and juices inside the leaves to ooze out, which further enhances the taste of the tea. 5] The strips of tea can then be formed into other shapes, such as being rolled into spirals, kneaded and rolled into pellets, or tied into balls, cones and other elaborate shapes. In many type of oolong, the rolled strips of tea leaf are then rolled to spheres or half spheres and are typically done by placing the damp leaves in large cloth bags, which are then kneaded by hand or machine in a specific manner. 8. Drying: Drying is done to “finish” the tea for sale. This can be done in a myriad of ways including panning, sunning, air drying, or baking.
However, baking is usually the most common. Great care must be taken to not over-cook the leaves. The drying of the produced tea is responsible for many new flavor compounds particularly important in green teas. 9. Aging / Curing: While not always required, some teas required additional aging, secondary-fermentation, or baking to reach their drinking potential. For instance, a green tea puerh, prior to curing into a post-fermented tea, is often bitter and harsh in taste, but becomes sweet and mellow through fermentation by age or dampness.
Additionally, oolong can benefit from aging if fired over charcoal. Flavored teas are manufactured in this stage by spraying the tea with aromas and flavors or by storing them with their flavorings. Without careful moisture and temperature control during its manufacture and life thereafter, fungi will grow on tea. This form of fungus causes real fermentation that will contaminate the tea and may render the tea unfit for consumption. Hazy Joy L. Dela Cruz II-Science Class Output No. 5 III. Related Studies A. Foreign