This survey evaluated the function of Management Information Systems in determination devising and planning in Universities. This survey uses the descriptive study type research. The sample informations collected sing 600 topics include 400 academic staff and 200 administrative staff through the random trying technique. The collected informations are analysis through the frequence count, means, per centum, standard divergences and t-test statistics. The three hypotheses tested at 0.05 degree of significance. The survey evaluated that Management Information System is non adequately pull off in the decision- devising procedure and planning. There are important differences between federal and province Universities in footings of usage Management Information System in determination devising, planning and budgetary control. It recommended that the Management Information System information should be adequately financed and maintained to make a free flow of information and adequate usage of Management Information System in determination devising, planning and budgeting every bit good.
Management Information System plays a important function in determination devising, planning and budgeting in the organisation. Effective determination doing procedure requires accurate, seasonably and related information. Harmonizing to Aminu ( 1986 ) , information resource is one of the major issues and indices of university planning. Where the relevant information required for be aftering non available at the appropriate clip, there is bound to be hapless planning, inappropriate determination devising, hapless precedence of demands, faulty scheduling or programming of activities. Hence, the university system will non be efficient and effectual in its operation. Poor direction information system has been placing as a constriction in the successful direction of universities. ( NUC, 1987 ) .
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The more complex construction of an organisation requires the greater demand for coordination within the organisation and between assorted sections. However, cardinal to the needed coordination of information. This position is buttressed by Murdick and Ross ( 1971 ) , when they opined that: Information is necessary to the endurance of an organisation. As organisations grow, the force per unit area of graduated table, complexness and an increased rate of alteration make equal informations processing capacity inevitable, if effectual control, attendant upon coordination of single activities is to be achieved.
Therefore, the information needed for effectual determination devising in universities can non be provided from people ‘s often-deficient memories. Furthermore, it is hard to be after activities over a long clip efficaciously without effectual information. Information created through the subject of probe and research with equal alteration to guarantee cogency and social impact. The information to be created or established must be stored to certain continuity of ground, and adaptative academic chase. The stored informations must so be recalled at will and be dispersed for usage in doing determinations, which are in the interested by the society at big. Harmonizing to Knight ( 2005 ) , there are systems that drive uninterrupted investing in bricks & A ; mortar instruction, and fling the outgos that would advance effectual universities by agencies of telecommunication webs. Even if, they wanted to, the top direction restricted in their freedom to move in this way by traditional support expression. Promotion and term of office processs have seen as barriers in the universities. In many Universities and establishments, the primary demands for publicity and, keeping processs are publications in diaries and, learning in regular schoolrooms.
A major federal authorities grant is its supporter coder to computerized information in the integrity schools ( Ekwere, 1990 ) . With these betterments, the information resource still presents a major issue in educational direction in the state. Particularly with the universities, one wonders the nature of their geting communicating appliances and the range of their applications. Surveies have revealed that in most complex construction both manual and, computer-based systems used ; in fact, both held to be compatible in information handling processs ( Sanders, 1983 ) . Obi ( 2003 ) , Fabunmi ( 2003 ) and Adebayo ( 2007 ) had stressed the demand for Management Information Systems in doing sound determinations in educational establishments. In acknowledgment of the important function of information to the endurance of the university system, the University introduced the computerized direction information system to the universities. The MIS thought conceived during a conference jointly organized by University and the British Council. The purpose of Management Information System is to develop a feasible manner to maximise the effectual usage of advanced informations attack to pull offing patterns. It is besides aimed at helping directors and runing workers, to supply seasonably and accurate information non merely to do determinations for current and future operations, but besides to observe possible jobs that need to be rectified. Harmonizing to NUC ( 1987 ) , the aims of MIS undertaking in the universities are:
A. To standardise the process of obtaining studies and statistical information from the assorted universities on: pupils, staff, fiscal affairs, and library.
B. To enter the information on floppies or in other storage at universities and direct to Universities for budgeting, information storage, analysis and retrieval intents.
C. To find that such information are accurate and timely.
D. To pull off information for planning, budgeting and determination devising.
E. To assist the universities in efficient direction construction and better use of resources. Based on these aims, it expected that MIS will assist the universities in determination devising on assorted issues in their operations. To this terminal, attempts made by the universities in the countries of the aggregation and usage of computing machines in informations processing, computing machine literacy, installing of computing machine services units among others.
Experience has shown that where MIS installations are readily available in universities, they are non efficaciously used to back up determinations on long and short term be aftering issues. In a university establishment, where information can non be stored when it needed, it becomes hard or impossible to obtain accurate and timely determinations sing long and short term planning, such as: outgo estimations, gross estimation, cost of each plan of the universities and the similar. Ineffective usage of Management Information System in determination devising by some of the universities normally result in failure of educational plans, uneffective budgeting, wastage of resources, inaccurate projection of pupils ‘ registration and work force demands, hapless motive of staff, hapless resource allotment among others.
It appears the Federal universities use Management Information System to take determinations sing short-run and long-run planning and budgeting more than State universities. It besides appears that there is inordinate concentrating on low informations processing package peculiarly in the accounting country. This seems to decelerate down activities and do determination result longer than necessary.
MIS and decision-making
Management Information System ( MIS ) is fundamentally concerned with the procedure of roll uping, processing, hive awaying and conveying relevant information to back up the direction operations in any organisations. Therefore, the success of decision-making, which is the intent of the administrative procedure, is extremely dependent partially on available information, and partially on the maps that are the constituents of the procedure of the determination devising. For illustration, if managerial aims are losing or ill-defined, likely due to deficient information, there is no ground for a hunt. Without information informations obtained through a hunt, there are no other options to compare and, without a comparing the pick of a peculiar class of action is improbable to bring forth the coveted consequence. Harmonizing to Alabi ( 1997 ) the hunt could be through:
Undirected viewing-this involves a broad exposure to information where. The hunt could be that the spectator has no specific end in head.
Conditioned viewing-the directed map does non necessitate active hunt to a more or less clearly identified country or type of information.
Informal search-this is a comparatively short and unstructured effort to obtain elaborate information for a specific intent. The information wanted is actively sought.
Formal search-this is a calculated attempt, normally following a reestablished program, technique or methodological analysis to obtain specific information relating to a specific issue.
It is appropriate to observe that the being of options, based on relevant information, is a necessary status for doing a determination. This attack buttressed by Ogunsaju ( 1990 ) , when he pointed out that instruction determination must be based upon sound and good informed grounds that are extremely intelligent, instead than those that are weak and undependable. For efficient determinations to turn in an organisation, hence, having information from the people and, providing information to the people within the group are an indispensable. The information so communicated must be accurate and up-to-date to cover with uncertainness. Uncertainty is the state of affairs in which the decision maker has less information relevant to a decision- devising procedure and, there is no manner to foretell the result of the determination. In confirming the critical function of Management Information System in the decision-making procedure, Sisodia ( 1992 ) advanced the impression of decision-making as the overall procedure affecting seeable and different activities. The first of such activities is information assemblage, which followed by analysis of options and eventually a choice. The first undertaking of the director is to develop and pull off the flow of information in ways that would increase productiveness and decision-making. Information must be collected, decently stored, and synthesized in such a manner that it will reply of import operating and strategic inquiries. Adesina ( 1988 ) corroborated this by exposing that the sum of relevant information available to a decision-making and be aftering subdivision affects the merchandise of that group. Hence, an decision maker must be concerned with smoothing the free flow of information upward, downward within the organisation. To make this successfully, the determinations should be based on accurate information gettable with the operation of an effectual direction information system.
Harmonizing to Obi ( 2003 ) , Management Information System is utile in the country of decision- doing procedure and planning as it can analyze by itself instabilities in a system, set up a class of action and take action to entree the overall system in control. It is besides relevant in non programmed determinations as it provides support by providing information for hunt, the analysis, rating, choice and execution procedure of determination devising. Fabunmi ( 2003 ) besides maintains that MIS is utile in doing determinations solve many of the jobs confronting educational establishments. Such jobs include short public presentation programming, hapless rating of work force demands, deficiency of accurate information on pupils, forces and installations, piling-up of administrative affairs, wastage of infinites, deficiency of suited budget estimations among others. Adebayo ( 2007 ) stressed the demand for Management Information System in determination devising as it provides information that needed for better determination doing on issues impacting the organisation sing human and material resources.
Importance of Management Information System:
The information sharing enhanced the productiveness of the organisation. It allows the concern to find the demands of clients in an accurate mode and run into those demands quickly. MIS permits clients to be informed continuously sing their involvements. Importance of information sharing as blow:
Identify the client ‘s demands and run into their demands.
Inform clients sing new chances.
Expend surplus to service and merchandises
Enhance clients comfortss
Improve efficiency and lower the costs
Deducts and prevent fraud.
The survey used the elaborate research of the study type. The population for the survey was all the public universities. Stratified random trying process used to find 4 universities consists 2 province and, 2 federal universities. Stratified random trying method used to find 600 topics dwelling of 400 academic staff executive and, 200 main administrative staff division. An instrument tagged “ MIS and Decision- Making Questionnaire MISDQ ” was used to roll up relevant information from the topics. The questionnaire contained two subdivisions. Section A sought information on personal bio informations of the respondents while “ Section B ” contained 21 points on the usage of direction information systems for decision- doing on long- term and short-run planning and, budgeting. The dependability coefficient of the MISDQ was 0.9243 and, the information collected analyzed utilizing frequence counts, agencies, per centum, standard divergence ( SD ) and, t-test statistics. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 degree of significance.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 reveals that less than 40 % of the respondents indicated that, information from MIS is ever used to execute executive determinations on long-run planning in most of the points listed on Table 1, while merely 40.8 % indicated that Management Information System is ever used to execute administrative determination on ( point 2 ) that is “ pupils ‘ registration projection ” . On the norm, 36.9 % of the respondents indicated that Management Information System is ever used to analyze administratively be aftering. The consequences hence, show that Management Information System is inadequately used to execute executive determinations on long-run planning in the universities. Figure 1 other shows the usage of Management Information Systems in determination devising on long -term planning.
As revealed in Table 2, over 40 % of the respondents indicated that, administrative determination on ( points 1-3 ) that is, “ publicity of staff ” , “ staff preparation and development ” and “ choice of Deans/HODs/Directors ” are ever based on informations from MIS while, the staying ( points 4-9 ) had below 40 % of the respondents bespeaking that informations from MIS is sometimes used to back up determinations on short-run planning. On the norm, 36 % of the respondents indicated that informations from Management Information System is used to do determinations on short-run design while 32.7 % indicated that Management Information System is sometimes used for managerial determination on short-run planning and 31 % indicated that Management Information System is ne’er used to execute executive determinations on short-run planning. The consequences hence, revealed that information from Management Information System is non adequately used for direction determinations on short-run planning within the universities.
Figure 2 shows the usage of Management Information System for determinations on short-run planning in the universities. Table 3 shows that above 40 % of the respondents to item 1, 2, and 5 indicated that, administrative determinations on budgeting issues in the universities are ever based on MIS, while merely 50 % of the respondents indicated that determinations on cost of each plan at the university are sometimes based on informations from MIS and 39.3 % of the respondents indicated that determinations on “ unit monetary value per graduating pupils ” ( item 4 ) is ever decided with the usage of informations from MIS. On the norm, 44.3 % of the respondents indicated that informations from MIS is ever used for direction determinations on budgeting in the universities, 35.3 % indicated that MIS is rare used while, 20.4 % indicated that MIS is ne’er used for determination devising on budgeting. From the consequences, it is clear that determinations on budgeting in the universities are to a little extent based on informations from Management Information System. Figure 3 other shows the usage of MIS in decision-making on budgeting.
It shows that, there are no important differences sing the usage of Management Information System in the decision-making system on be aftering between the Universities.
Table 4 shows the difference in the usage of Management Information System installations in the decision-making procedure on long-run planning in the Federal and, State universities. The consequence shows that the value of t-calculated ( 0.58 ) is less than the t-table value ( 1.96 ) . Therefore, the void hypothesis is non rejected. This means that there are no important differences in the use of MIS on decision- doing procedure on long-run planning within the Federal and State universities.
There is no important difference in the usage of Management Information System in the decision-making procedure on short-run planning between Federal Universities and State Universities.
Table 5 shows the difference in the usage of Management Information System installations in the decision-making procedure on short-run planning in the Federal and, State universities. The consequence obtained from the analyzed tabular array that the value of t-calculated ( 1.91 ) & lt ; t-table ( 1.96 ) that is, t-cal is less than the t-table. Therefore, the void hypothesis is non rejected at 0.05 degree of significance. That means there are no important differences in the use of MIS on decision-making procedure on short-run planning between the Federal and, State universities
There is no important difference in the usage of Management Information System in the decision-making procedure on budgeting between Federal Universities and State Universities. Table 6 shows the difference in the usage of Management Information System installations in the decision-making procedure on budgeting between universities. The consequence of the analysis reveals that the value of t-calculated is greater than the t-table value that is, ( 2.27 ) & gt ; t-table ( 1.96 ) ; hence, the void hypothesis is rejected at 0.05 degree of significance. This means that there is a important difference between the use of MIS installations in the decision-making procedure on budgeting in the Federal and State universities. The average tonss of State universities ( 21.91 ) is less than that of Federal universities ( 22.85 ) which show that, Federal universities use MIS installations in decision-making on budgeting more than the State universities.
The survey revealed that Management Information System was non adequately used to do determinations on long-run planning in the universities. Less than 40 % of the respondents indicated that MIS was ever used in doing determinations on edifice building, manpower projection, staff enlisting exercisings, constitution of new modules, planing academic scheme and carrying library with books and diaries. This shows that the degree of use of Management Information System for determination devising on long-run planning falls below outlook in the universities. It must be emphasized that unequal usage of MIS in doing determinations on long- term planning could decelerate down the gait of growing and development of the universities. The unequal usage of MIS in doing determinations in these countries could be as a consequence of unequal Management Information System installations, computing machine illiteracy among staff and other logistics. The determination agrees with that of Shuabu ( 1995 ) , that be aftering in universities was non based on adequate and, current information. It was besides found that information from Management Information System was non adequately used for administrative determinations on planning. On norm, merely 36 % of the respondents indicated that MIS was ever used in doing determinations on short- term planning. The unequal usage of Management Information System in determination devising on short- term planning may non ease accurate and up-to-date informations and information required for efficient and effectual planning in the universities. Adequate usage of MIS will heighten accurate and, timely information which are needed for effectual determinations on issues related to staff publicity, staff preparation and development, assignment of staff to responsibility stations, allotment of resources among others.
The survey besides revealed that determinations on budgeting were to a small extent based on MIS. Though, it is reasonably better than other determination countries examined in this survey. It must be emphasized that attention is normally taken by the universities to establish their budgeting on appropriate information, perchance because fiscal direction is a major country of focal point by the support agents, i.e. Federal and State authoritiess. The consequences besides justify the fact that all Nigerian universities perform similar functions as stipulated in the National Policy on Education ( FRN, 2004 ) . Budget readying requires the usage of accurate and timely information which MIS can readily supply. Nwamarah ( 1995 ) believes that for effectual budgeting in universities, linkage is necessary between the Bursary and the MIS unit. Expressing a contrary position, Dewelt ( 1977 ) believes that the most of import component in fiscal determinations is the demand to associate outgo to income available to units, based on precedences and non whether the process is manual or computerized. The survey revealed that there was no important difference between the universities in the usage of MIS for determination -making procedure on both long and short term planning. The findings reiterate the fact that needs to be after realistically utilizing equal information might non be affected by the proprietary of the universities ( Federal and State-owned ) . However, as submitted by Dyer, Davies and Giagu ( 1990 ) , without equal application of computing machine and manual methods of information storage, it would be hard to be after efficaciously.
It was besides found that, there was a important difference in the usage of MIS in decision- doing procedure on budgeting between the universities in favour of the Federal universities. The ground for this might be due to the fact that the Federal universities are better equipped with Management Information System installations as a consequence of better support. Harmonizing to Aminu ( 1986 ) , Federal universities are better funded and more financially accountable to NUC than State universities.
Decision and Recommendations
Based on the findings of this survey, MIS was non adequately used for decision- devising on planning and budgeting in the universities. Furthermore, while Federal and State Universities did non do a difference in the usage of Management Information System for decision- doing procedure on planning, it made a difference in decision- doing procedure on budgeting. Therefore, it is recommended that the Management Information System units should be adequately financed and maintained to certain free flow of information and adequate usage of Management Information System in determination devising on long-run and short-run planning and budgeting. Proper orientation should be given to directors of the organisation at all degrees and in-service preparation for secretaries to guarantee proper and equal usage of Management Information System installations in bring forthing information for better determinations in the universities.