Many Minority Languages Are On Danger List English Language Essay

In the Native American Navajo state, which sprawls across four provinces in the American south-west, the native linguistic communication is deceasing. Most of its talkers are middle-aged or aged. Although many pupils take categories in Navajo, the schools are run in English. Street marks ‘ , supermarket goods and even their ain newspaper are all in English. Not surprisingly, linguists uncertainty that any native talkers of Navajo will stay in a hundred old ages ‘ clip.

Navajo is far from entirely. Half the universe ‘s 6,800 linguistic communications are likely to disappear within two coevalss – that ‘s one linguistic communication lost every 10 yearss. Never before has the planet ‘s lingual diverseness shrunk at such a gait. ‘At the minute, we are heading for about three or four linguistic communications ruling the universe, ‘ says Mark Pagel, an evolutionary life scientist at the University of Reading. ‘It ‘s a mass extinction, and whether we will of all time bounce from the loss is hard to cognize ‘ .

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Isolation breeds lingual diverseness: as a consequence, the universe is peppered with linguistic communications spoken by merely a few people, Merely 250 linguistic communications have more than a million talkers, and at least 3,000 have fewer than 2,500. It is non needfully these little linguistic communications that are about to vanish. Navajo is considered endangered despite holding 150,000 talkers. What makes a linguistic communication endangered is non merely the figure of talkers, but how old they are. If it is spoken by kids it is comparatively safe. The critically endangered linguistic communications are those that are merely spoken by the aged, harmonizing to Michael Krauss, manager of the Alassk Native Language Center, in Fairbanks.

Why do people reject the linguistic communication of their parents? It begins with a crisis of assurance, when a little community finds itself alongside a larger, wealthier society says Nicholas Ostler, of Britain ‘s Foundation for Endangered Languages, in Bath. ‘People lose religion in their civilization ‘ , he says. ‘When the following coevals reaches their teens, they might non desire to be induced into the old traditions ‘ .

The alteration is non ever voluntary. Quite frequently, authoritiess try to kill off a minority linguistic communication by censoring its usage in public or detering its usage in schools, all to advance national integrity. The former US policy of running Indian reserve schools in English, for illustration, efficaciously put linguistic communications such as Navajo on the danger list. But Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics section at the University of Chicago, argues that the deadliest arm is non authorities policy but economic globalization. ‘Native Americans have non lost pride in their linguistic communication, but they have had to accommodate to socio-economic force per unit areas ‘ , he says. ‘They can non decline to talk English if most commercial activity is in English ‘ . But are linguistic communications worth salvaging? At the really least, there is a loss of informations for the survey of linguistic communications and their development, which relies on comparings between linguistic communications, both life and dead. When an unwritten and live linguistic communication disappears, it is lost to scientific discipline.

Language is besides closely bound up with civilization, so it may be hard to continue one without the other. ‘If a individual displacements from Navajo to English, they lose something ‘ , Mufwene says. ‘Moreover, the loss of diverseness may besides strip us of different ways of looking at the universe ‘ , says Pagel. There is mounting grounds that larning a linguistic communication produces physiological alterations in the encephalon. ‘Your encephalon and mine are different from the encephalon of person who speaks French, for case ‘ , Pagel says, and this could impact our ideas and perceptual experiences. ‘The forms and connexions we make among assorted constructs may be structured by the lingual wonts of our community ‘ .

So despite linguists ‘ best attempts, many linguistic communications will vanish over the following century. But a turning involvement in cultural individuality may forestall the direst anticipations from coming true. ‘The cardinal to furthering diverseness is for people to larn their hereditary lingua, every bit good as the dominant linguistic communication ‘ , says Doug Whalen, laminitis and president of the Endanger Language Fund in New Haven, Connecticut. ‘Most of these linguistic communications will non last without a big grade of bilingualism ‘ , he says. In New Zealand, classes for kids have slowed the eroding of Maori and rekindled involvement in the linguistic communication. A similar attack in Hawaii has produced about 8,000 new talkers of Polynesian linguistic communications in the past few old ages. In California, ‘apprentice ‘ programmes have provided life support to several autochthonal linguistic communications. Volunteer ‘apprentices ‘ brace up with one of the last life talkers of Native American lingua to larn a traditional accomplishment such as basket weaving, with direction entirely in the endangered linguistic communication. After about 300 hours of preparation they are by and large sufficiently fluid to convey the linguistic communication deceasing out is non the same as giving it new life by utilizing it every twenty-four hours. ‘Preserving a linguistic communication is more like continuing fruits in a jar ‘ , he says.

However, saving can convey a linguistic communication back from the dead. There are illustrations of linguistic communications that have survived in written signifier and so been revived by ulterior coevalss. But a written signifier is indispensable for this, so the mere possibility of resurgence has led many talkers of endangered linguistic communications to develop systems of composing where none existed before.


Questions 1 – 4

Complete the drumhead below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the transition for each reply.

Write your replies in boxes 1-4 on your reply sheet.

There are presently about 6,800 linguistic communications in the universe. This great assortment of linguistic communications came approximately mostly as a consequence of geographical 1aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.. But in today ‘s universe, factors such as authorities enterprises and 2 aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ . are lending to a immense lessening in the figure of linguistic communications. One factor which may assist to guarantee that some endangered linguistic communications do non decease out wholly is people ‘s increasing grasp of their 3 aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ This has been encouraged through programmes of linguistic communication categories for kids and through ‘apprentice ‘ strategies, in which the endangered linguistic communication is used as the medium of direction to learn people a 4 aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ Some talkers of endangered linguistic communications have even produced composing systems in order to assist procure the endurance of their female parent lingua.

Questions 5 – 9

Expression at the undermentioned statements ( Questions 5 – 9 ) and the list of people in the box below.

Match each statement with the right individual A – Tocopherol.

Write the appropriate missive A – Tocopherol in boxes 5 – 9 on your reply sheet.

NB You may utilize any missive more than one time

5. Endangered linguistic communications can non be saved unless people learn to talk more than one linguistic communication.

6. Salvaging linguistic communications from extinction is non in itself a satisfactory end.

7. The manner we think may be determined by our linguistic communication.

8. Young people frequently reject the constituted manner of life in their community.

9. A alteration of linguistic communication may intend a loss of traditional civilization.

A ” Michael Krauss

B Salikoko Mufwene

C Nicholas Ostler

D Mark Pagel

E Doug Whalen

Questions 10 – 13

Make the undermentioned statements agree with the positions of the author in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 10-13 on your reply sheet write

YES if the statement agrees with the position of the author

No if the statement contradicts the positions of the author

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to state what the author thinks about this

10 The Navajo linguistic communication will decease out because it presently has excessively few talkers.

11 A big figure of native talkers fail to vouch the endurance of a linguistic communication.

12 National authoritiess could make more to protect endangered linguistic communications.

13 The loss of lingual diverseness is inevitable.

Reading Passage 2

You should pass about 20 proceedingss on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.


The first pupils to analyze alternate medical specialty at university degree in Australia began their four-year, full-time class at the University of Technology, Sydney, in early 1994. Their class covered, among other therapies, stylostixis. The theory they learnt is based on the traditional Chinese account of this antediluvian mending art: that it can modulate the flow of ‘Qi ‘ or energy through tracts in the organic structure. This class reflects how far some alternate therapies have come in their battle for credence by the medical constitution.

Australia has been unusual in the Western universe in holding a really conservative attitude to natural or alternate therapies, harmonizing to Dr Paul Laver, a lector in Public Health at the University of Sydney. ‘We ‘ve had a tradition of physicians being reasonably powerful and I guess they are pretty loath to let any Pretenders to their position-to come into it ‘ . In many other industrialized states, orthodox and alternate medical specialty have worked ‘hand in baseball mitt ‘ for old ages. In Europe, merely Orthodox physicians can order herbal medical specialty. In Germany, works redresss account for 10 % of the national turnover of pharmaceuticals. Americans made more visits to alternate healers than to Orthodox physicians in 1990, and each twelvemonth they spend about $ US12 billion on therapies that have non been scientifically tested.

Disenchantment with Orthodox medical specialty has seen the popularity of alternate therapies in Australia climb steadily during the past 20 old ages. In a 1983 national wellness study, 1.9 % of people said they had contacted a chiropractor, naturopath, osteopath, acupuncturist or herb doctor in the two hebdomads prior to the study. By 1990, this figure had risen to 2.6 % of the population. The 550,000 audiences with alternate healers reported in the 1990 study represented about an eighth of the entire figure of audiences with medically qualified forces covered by the study, harmonizing to Dr Laver and co-workers composing in the Australian Journal of Public Health in 1993. ‘A better educated and less accepting populace has become disillusioned with the experts in general, and progressively doubting about scientific discipline and through empirical observation based cognition ‘ , they said. ‘The high standing of professionals, including physicians, has been eroded as a effect ‘ .

Rather than defying or knocking this tendency, increasing Numberss of Australian physicians, peculiarly younger 1s, are organizing group patterns with alternate healers or taking classs themselves, peculiarly in stylostixis and herbalism. Part of the inducement was fiscal, Dr Laver said. ‘The bottom line is that most general practicians are concern people. If they see possible patronages traveling elsewhere, they might desire to be able to offer a similar service. ‘

In 1993, Dr Laver and his co-workers published a study of 289 Sydney, people who attended eight alternate healers ‘ patterns in Sydney. These patterns offered a broad scope of alternate therapies from 25 healers. Those surveyed had experienced chronic unwellnesss, for which Orthodox medical specialty had been able to supply small alleviation. They commented that they liked the holistic attack of their alternate healers and the friendly, concerned and elaborate attending they had received. The cold, impersonal mode of Orthodox physicians featured in the study. An increasing hegira from their clinics, coupled with this and a figure of other relevant studies carried out in Australia, all indicating to Orthodox physicians ‘ insufficiencies, have led mainstream physicians themselves to get down to acknowledge they could larn from the personal manner of alternate healers. Dr Patrick Store, President of the Royal College of General Practitioners, concurs that Orthodox physicians could larn a batch about bedside mode and reding patients on preventive wellness from alternate healers.

Harmonizing to the Australian Journal of Public Health, 18 % of patients sing alternate healers do so because they suffer from musculoskeletal ailments ; 12 % suffer from digestive jobs, which is merely 1 % more than those enduring from emotional jobs. Those enduring from respiratory ailments represent 7 % of their patients, and Candida sick persons represent an equal per centum. Headache sick persons and those complaining of general ailment wellness represent 6 % and 5 % of patients severally, and a farther 4 % see healers for general wellness care.

The study suggested that complementary medical specialty is likely a better term than alternate medical specialty. Alternate medical specialty appears to be an accessory, sought in times of disillusion when conventional medical specialty seems non to offer the reply.

Questions 14 and 15

Choose the right missive A, B, C or D.

Write your replies in boxes 14 and 15 on your reply sheet.

Traditionally, how have Australian physicians differed from physicians in many Western states?

They have worked closely with pharmaceutical companies.

They have frequently worked alongside other healers.

They have been loath to accept alternate healers.

They have on a regular basis prescribed alternate redresss.

In 1990, Americans

were prescribed more herbal medical specialties than in old old ages.

consulted alternate healers more frequently than physicians.

spent more on natural therapies than Orthodox medical specialties.

made more ailments about physicians than in old old ages.

Questions 16 – 23

Make the undermentioned statements agree with the positions of the author in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 16-23 on your reply sheet write

YES if the statement agrees with the positions of the author

No if the statement contradicts the positions of the author

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to state what the author thinks about this


Aussies have been turning to alternate therapies in increasing Numberss over the past 20 old ages.

17 Between 1983 and 1990 the Numberss of patients sing alternate healers rose to include a farther 8 % of the population.

18 The 1990 study related to 550,000 audiences with alternate healers.

19 In the yesteryear, Australians had a higher sentiment of physicians than they do today.

20 Some Australian physicians are retraining in alternate therapies.

21 Alternate healers earn higher wages than physicians.

22 The 1993 Sydney study involved 289 patients who visited alternate healers for stylostixis intervention.

23 All the patients in the 1993 Sydney study had long-run medical ailments.

Questions 24 – 26

Complete the perpendicular axis on the tabular array below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading transition 2 for each reply.

Write your replies in boxes 24 – 26 on your reply sheet.

Reading Passage 3

You should pass about 20 proceedingss on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.


Does play assist develop bigger, better encephalons?

Bryant Furlow investigates

A Playing is a serious concern. Children engrossed in a pretend universe, fox cubs play-fighting or kitties badgering a ball of twine are n’t merely holding merriment. Play may look like a carefree and ebullient manner to go through the clip before the difficult work of maturity comes along, but there ‘s much more to ir than that. For a start, drama can even be animate beings their lives. Eighty per cent of deceases among juvenile pelt seals occur because playing whelps fail to descry marauders nearing. It is besides highly expensive in footings of energy. Playful immature animate beings use around two or three per cent of their energy cavorting, and in kids that figure can be closer to fifteen per cent. ‘Even two or three per cent is immense, ‘ says John Byers of Idaho University. ‘You merely do n’t happen animate beings blowing energy like that ‘ he adds. There must be a ground.

B But if drama is non dimply a developmental hiccough, as life scientists one time thought, why did it germinate? The latest thought suggests that drama has evolved to construct large encephalons. In other words, playing makes you intelligent. Gaiety, it seems, is common merely among mammals, although a few of the larger-brained birds besides indulge. Animals at drama frequently use alone marks – tail- wagging in Canis familiariss, for illustration – to bespeak that activity superficially resembling grownup behavior is non truly in earnest. A popular account of drama has been that it helps juveniles develop the accomplishments they will necessitate to run, mate and socialise as grownups. Another has been that it allows immature animate beings to acquire in form for grownup life by bettering their respiratory endurance. Both these thoughts have heen_quesiioned in recent old ages.

C Take the exercising theory. If drama evolved to construct musculus or as a sort of endurance preparation, so you would anticipate to see lasting benefits. Rut Byers points out that the benefits of increased exercising disappear quickly after developing Michigans, so any betterment in endurance ensuing from juvenile drama would be lost by maturity. ‘If the map of drama was to acquire into form ‘ , says Byers, ‘the optimal clip for playing would depend on when it was most advantageous for the immature of a peculiar species to make so. But it does n’t work like that. * Across species, play tends to top out about midway through the Suckling phase and so diminution.

D Then there ‘s the skills-training hypothesis. At First glimpse, playing animate beings do look to be rehearsing the complex tactics they will necessitate in maturity. But a closer review reveals this reading as excessively simplistic. In one survey, behavioral ecologistTim Caro, from the University of California, looked at the marauding drama of kitties and their predatory behavior when they reached maturity. He found that Che manner the cats played had no important consequence on their hunting art in ulterior life.

E Earlier this twelvemonth, Sergio Pellis of Lethbridge University, Canada. , reported that there is a strong positive nexus between encephalon si2e and gaiety among mammals in general. Comparing measurings for 15 orders of mammal, he and his squad found larger encephalons ( for a given organic structure size ) are linked to greater gaiety. The converse was besides found to be true. Robert Barton of Durham University believes that, because big encephalons are more sensitive to developmental stimuli than smaller encephalons, they require more drama to assist model them for maturity. ‘I concluded it ‘s to make with acquisition, and with the importance of environmental informations to the encephalon during development, ‘ he says.

F Harmonizing to Byers, the timing ofthe playful phase in immature animate beings provides an of import hint to what ‘s traveling on. If you plot the sum of clip a juvenile devotes to play each twenty-four hours over the class of its development, you discover a form typically associated with a ‘sensitive period ‘ – a brief development window during which the encephalon can really be modified in ways that are non possible earlier or later in life.Think ofthe comparative easiness with which immature kids – but non babies or grownups – absorb linguistic communication. Other research workers have found that drama in cats, rats and mice is at its most intense merely as this ‘window of chance ‘ reaches its extremum.

G ‘People have non paid plenty attending to the sum of the encephalon activated by drama, ‘ says Marc Bekoff from Colorado University. Bekoff studied coyote whelps at drama and found that the sort of behavior involved was markedly more variable and unpredictable than that of grownups. Such behaviour activates many different parts ofthe encephalon, he grounds. Bekoff likens it to a behavioral kaleidoscope, with animate beings at drama leaping quickly between activities. ‘They use behavior from a batch of different contexts – predation, aggression, reproduction/ he says. ‘Their developing encephalon is acquiring all kinds of stimulation, ‘

H Not merely is more of the encephalon involved in drama than was suspected, but it besides seems to trip higher cognitive procedures. ‘There ‘s tremendous cognitive engagement in drama, ‘ says Bekoff. He points out that drama frequently involves complex appraisals of playfellows, thoughts of reciprocality and the usage of specialized signals and regulations. He believes that drama creates a encephalon that has greater behavioral flexibleness and improved potency for larning later in life. The thought is backed up by the work of Stephen Siviy of Gettysburg College. Siviy studied how boutscf drama affected the encephalon ‘s degrees of a peculiar chemical associated with the stimulation and growing of nervus cells. He was surprised by the extent ofthe activation. ‘Play merely visible radiations everything up, ‘ he says. By leting link-ups between encephalon countries that might non usually pass on with each other, p [ ay may heighten creativeness.

I What might farther experimentation suggest about the manner kids are raised in many societies today? We already know that rat whelps denied the opportunity to play turn smaller encephalon constituents and fail to develop the ability to use societal regulations when they interact with their equal. With schooling get downing earlier and going progressively exam-orientated, drama is likely to acquire even less of a look-in. Who knows what the consequence of that will be?

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has nine paragraphs labelled A-I.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the right missive A-I in boxes 27-32 on your reply sheet.

NB You may utilize any missive more than one time.

the manner drama causes unusual connexions in the encephalon which are good

penetrations from entering how much clip immature animate beings spend playing

a description of the physical jeopardies that can attach to play

a description of the mental activities which are exercised and developed during drama

the possible effects that a decrease in drama chances will hold on worlds

the categories of animate beings for which drama is of import

Questions 33-35

Choose THREE letters A-F.

Write your replies in boxes 33-35 on your reply sheet.

The list below gives some ways of sing drama.

Which THREE ways are mentioned by the author of the text?

A a dry run for subsequently grownup activities

B a method animate beings use to turn out themselves to their equal group

C an activity intended to construct up strength for adulthoood

D a agency of pass oning feelings

E a defensive scheme

F an activity helping organ growing

Questions 36 – 40

Expression at the following research workers ( Questions 36 40 ) and the list of findings below.

Match each research worker with the right determination.

Write the right missive A-H in boxes 36-40 on your reply sheet.

Robert Barton

Marc Bekoff

John Byers

Sergio Pellis

Stephen Siviy

List of Findingss

There is a nexus between a specific substance in the encephalon and playing.

Play provides input refering physical milieus.

Assortments of drama can be matched to different phases of evolutionary history.

There is a inclination for mammals with smaller encephalons to play less.

Play is non a signifier of fittingness preparation for the hereafter.

Some species of larger-brained birds engage in drama.

A broad scope of activities are combined during drama.

Play is a method of learning endurance techniques

End of Class Activity TWO



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