CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methods of research, the sources of data, the data gathering instruments and materials, and the data gathering procedures. Methods of Research The researcher will use the experimental method of research in this study. It involves the manipulation of the variables for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of the experimental product. According to Jose F.
Calderon, it is a highly controlled procedure in which manipulated treatments or actions from a factor or condition called the experimental or independent variable are applied upon another factor condition called the dependent variable, to determine the effect of the former upon the latter, all other factors or variables being considered so that any change in the dependent variable is attributable only to the independent variable. The researcher will depend on the manipulation of the independent variable in order to determine or prove the effectiveness of the experimental product.
The independent variable in the study is the Mayana leaves extract and the independent variable is the effectiveness of the extract of Mayana leaves in treating bruises. The study that will be conducted consists of two phases. The first phase is the detection of triterpenes and other cholesterols that have the abilities to treat bruises. The detection of such substances will prove the effectiveness of Mayana. This phase is the Liebermann-Burchard test. Ten drops of Mayana extract which will be obtained by decoction, will be placed in a dry test tube.
Then, three drops of acetic anhydride and a drop of concentrated sulphuric acid. A green or blue-green color reaction means that the extract is positive of triterpenes and sterols. This also means that the extract is ready to use in making the ointment. In making the experimental product, the researcher will first use the decoction method to get the needed extract from the Mayana leaves. In decoction, the leaves will be boiled in water for about twenty minutes. Afterwards, it will be strained to get rid of the unneeded particles. The herbal oil will be mixed under heat with the beeswax and virgin coconut oil.
It will be cooled and placed in a container to allow it to solidify. In making this study, the researcher first gathered information about the raw material of the study which is the Mayana plant. A number of books and articles have been perused in order to gain information for the present study. Most of the data needed were collected through internet websites and studies and reviews in relation to the present study. Testing will be conducted to get the data needed by means of survey which involves the distribution of questionnaires among 20 selected respondents.
This seeks to determine the acceptability and the effectiveness of Mayana plant as an ointment for treating bruises. The researcher will have to come up with the product, which is an ointment before the testing In making the ointment, the researcher will use various materials and equipments such as casserole, for the extraction of the Mayana leaves; a double boiler, a spoon for the mixing and heating and a container for the storage of the finished product. All the raw materials and equipments will be prepared for the making of the experimental product.
A 60 ml of Mayana leaves extract will be mixed with 250 grams of beeswax and 25 ml of virgin coconut oil. The mixture will be allowed to boil in a double boiler under low heat, to be stirred continuously until the beeswax lumps melt and the mixture is even. A small amount of essential oil will be added. Then it will be left to cool a little and poured in a container for storage. To ensure the safety of the product, the researcher will have it undergo a laboratory testing. Afterwards, it will be distributed to 20 respondents together with the questionnaires.
The result of the questionnaires will prove the acceptability and effectiveness of the Mayana ointment in treating bruises. In order to determine the effectiveness of Mayana leaves ointment in treating bruises and its acceptability in terms of color, odor, texture and viscosity, the statistical treatment that the researcher will use is the weighted mean. It will be determined through the formula: X ? “=” (? -x)/N Wherein: X ? = mean X= scores N= total number of respondents Conceptual Model of the Study
This part of the study shows the processes in the production of the ointment before testing. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure 1 Decoction of Mayana leaves Figure 1 shows that the materials for the input of the study are 100 grams of Mayana leaves and 100 ml of water. The process that will be used is decoction in order to get the needed extract of the Mayana leaves. The output of the study will result to 60 ml of Mayana leaves extract that will then be used in the making of the ointment, to be shown in figure 2.
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure 2 Figure 2 Production of Mayana ointment In figure 2, the materials to be used for the input of the study are 60 ml of Mayana leaves extract, 25 grams of beeswax, 25 ml of virgin coconut oil and 3 ml of essential oil. The process will be mixing the Mayana leaves extract, virgin coconut oil and beeswax together while heating. The beeswax will thicken the ointment. Lastly, a small amount of essential oil will be added for aroma before the storage.