According to the text motivation is defined as inner state that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior. (Ormrod, J. E. , p. 362, (2011). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners. 7th Edition. Pearson Publishing: Boston, MA. ) Motivation theorist describe this a being is a basic need of people for day to day living such as food, water and shelter. So when it comes to explaining the motivational theories this is how process theories are disturbed with shaping how individual behavior is energized, directed, and maintained in the specifically willed and self-directed human cognitive processes.
Process theories of motivation are based on early cognitive theories, which envision that behavior is the result of conscious decision-making processes. The major process theories of motivation are expectancy theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory. First of all, I would tell my friend Emily that her student Drew clearly has lack of competence, self-worth and self-handicapping. For example, Drew is comfortable with not putting forth any more effort to improve his grade in biology which is a clear sign of lack of self-worth.
Next, Drew seems to want to maintain his poor grade in biology and is not alarmed by the “D” he received on the last test. In addition, Drew is even trying to give his opinion to another student on why studying is not important and either you understand biology or you do not. Drew is not putting forth any effort to succeed so he is mainly handicapping himself. Furthermore, I would advise Emily to find out what interest Drew has and try to connect them to Biology.
Also, I would ask Drew is there any part of Biology that interests him. I would even ask Emily had she tried to begin grading on a curve scale, and bringing in hands on activities to life for Drew’s attention to be grasped throughout the biology class in order for Drew to retain some of the lesson. Even give Drew an opportunity to focus on the lesson at hand and have an open by test graded by the students or give a study guide to coincide with the test.
In conclusion, I would encourage Emily to continue to positively communicate with Drew in order to develop the line of communication. So that this can help Emily improve Drew’s level of competence, self-worth and self-handicapping. Emily has to build him up in those areas where the weakness lies. In our first year of teaching we all will be faced with various types of students described in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs but we must stay positive and continue to strengthen the students where they are weak.