Motivational Patterns And Critical Thinking Skills Education Essay

August 31, 2017 Education

With Bachmans Organizational Competence theoretical account as footing, this survey looked into the English Language Competence of the Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology ( ZSCMST ) third freshmen pupils. It looked into the Organizational Competence degrees of the pupils in two classs: grammatical competency and textual competency. Bachman ‘s Language Competence is composed of two major constituents: organisational competency composed of grammatical competency and textual competency and matter-of-fact competency composed of illocutionary competency and sociolinguistic competency. In this survey, merely organisational competency is considered and thereby widening the theory that the pupils ‘ English Language Competence is influenced by their degrees of Motivational Patterns and Critical Thinking Skills and other variables such as gender, abode, female parent lingua, and tri-media exposure to the English linguistic communication.

The sample consisted of 192 respondents selected from among the 368 first-year pupils of the BS classs of ZSCMST. The survey revealed that the freshmen pupils are modest user or norm in grammatical competency, competent user or above norm in textual competency, and limited user or below norm in paragraph composing sub-skills. The pupils ‘ degrees of motivational form and critical thought accomplishments had important influence on the linguistic communication competency of the pupils. Other variables such as gender, abode, female parent lingua, and tri-media exposure to the English linguistic communication besides showed important difference in the pupils ‘ English linguistic communication competency.

Introduction

Poor in English linguistic communication communicating both unwritten and written among pupils has remained an unsolved and a prevailing job in all degrees of our educational system. Harmonizing to Cuevas ( 1996 ) some experts claimed that some pupils can non pass on efficaciously in the linguistic communication schoolroom for the undermentioned grounds: ( 1 ) Students can non understand spoken English because they ne’er had the chance to hear it. ( 2 ) Some pupils are enduring from what Earl Stevik calls “ Lathrophobic Aphasia ” which means unwillingness to talk for fright of errors. ( 3 ) Most English teachers tend to stress on grammar, reading, authorship, and interlingual rendition. ( 4 ) Teachers take a great trade about English, but they seldom speak English. ( 5 ) Classroom activity is monopolized. And ( 6 ) Emphasis is on parroting, inquiries and statements forms alternatively of pass oning thoughts.

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In Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology, instructors in all countries complain of hapless public presentation both in the unwritten and written communications of pupils. Students barely take part orally in category and if they do so, they suffer from hapless grammar, phonemics, and vocabulary accomplishments and their thoughts are limited. Their written plants are faulty in grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and sentence structure. They have besides hapless comprehension accomplishment and concluding ability. They can merely reply simple and factual inquiries.

These conditions may account on the difference in their grade of motive and besides different critical thought abilities. Their public presentation in category peculiarly in English could be influenced by their degree of motive, their attitude towards the English linguistic communication and their critical thought accomplishments. Tucker ( 1981 ) stated that the attitude towards the linguistic communication and the strength of motive to larn the linguistic communication are necessary and sufficient factors in accomplishing competence on the linguistic communication. Likewise, the pupil ‘s thought ability could besides lend to his public presentation in the schoolroom. Along with his motive and attitude towards the linguistic communication, it is necessary that the scholar can readily believe, ground out, justice, or carry through specific mental undertakings ( Bayer, 1987 ) . Rabago, et Al ( 2000 ) stressed that pupils of the twenty-first century have to be equipped with accomplishments to treat incoming information and learn continuously. Therefore, pupils ‘ hapless concluding ability could hold something to make besides with their hapless competency of the linguistic communication.

Along this line, this survey aimed to find the influence of motivational forms and critical thought accomplishments on the English Language of the Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology freshers pupils. To make that, the survey foremost described the degrees of motivational forms, critical thought accomplishments, and English linguistic communication competency of ZSCMST college freshers. The critical thought accomplishments included ( a ) illation, ( B ) acknowledgment of premises, ( degree Celsius ) tax write-off ( vitamin D ) reading, and ( vitamin E ) rating of statements. The English linguistic communication competency was measured in footings of Organizational Competence: ( a ) grammatical, and ( B ) textual. Then, it tried to correlate the motivational forms with critical thought accomplishments and with English linguistic communication competency. Last, it purported to happen out important differences in pupils ‘ degrees of English linguistic communication competency harmonizing to: ( a ) gender, ( B ) abode, ( degree Celsius ) female parent lingua, and ( vitamin D ) exposure to L2 in the tri-media: print, wireless and telecasting.

This survey was chiefly anchored on Bachman ‘s ( 1990 ) Schematization of Language Competence. Bachman considers linguistic communication competency to hold two major constituents: organisational competency and matter-of-fact competency. He places grammatical and discourse ( textual ) competency under one manner, organisational competency while matter-of-fact competency is broken into two separate classs: functional facets of linguistic communication ( illocutionary competency, or, refering to directing and having intended significances ) and sociolinguistic facets ( which trade with such considerations as niceness, formality, metaphor, registry, and culturally related facets of linguistic communication ) .

In this survey, linguistic communication competency was considered a major variable. However, merely one constituent of linguistic communication competency was undertaken, the organisational competency broken down into grammatical and textual competency. Other variables were hypothesized to hold important influence on linguistic communication competency. The bases of sing these variables were the research surveies indicating out that motive and attitude are necessary and sufficient factors in accomplishing English linguistic communication competency by Castillo ( 1979 ) and Tucker ( 1981 ) . Hence, in this survey, the first variable being explored to hold important influence on linguistic communication competency is motivational forms categorized into two countries: motive and attitude of the pupils. Motivation was limited into two types: integrative and instrumental motive and in the same mode, attitude was besides limited into two attitudinal factors: schoolroom engagement and ambiguity tolerance.

Another of import variable posited to act upon 2nd linguistic communication acquisition was critical thought accomplishments. This has supported the claims of Galdon ( 1997 ) and Villamin ( 1999 ) and the survey of Cuevas ( 1996 ) . In this survey, five ( 5 ) trial exercisings were used to analyze the degrees of critical thought accomplishments of the respondents. The five sub-tests were on: illation, acknowledgment of premise, tax write-off, reading, and rating of statements. Furthermore, other variables such as: gender, abode ( rural or urban ) , mother lingua, and exposure to the English linguistic communication in the tri-media ( print, wireless and telecasting ) were included in the survey. These variables were besides posited to act upon pupils ‘ English linguistic communication competency.

The above conceptual model which this survey sought to derive support is summarized in the diagram below:

Motivational Patterns

Motivation

Attitude

English Language Competence

Organizational

Competence

Grammatical

Textual

Critical Thinking Skills

Inference

Recognition of Premise

Tax write-off

Interpretation

Evaluation of Argument

Gender

Residence: Rural/Urban

Mother Tongue

Exposure to L2 in Tri-Media: Print, Radio, Television

The Interplay of the Variables

Method

The Descriptive – Correlational Design was used as agencies of bring forthing, naming, analyzing, and construing the information. The topics of the survey were composed of the BS first-year pupils of Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology enrolled in school twelvemonth 2000-2001. The respondents were chosen through graded proportionate random trying design. The entire sample size was one hundred ninety-two ( 192 ) out of the three hundred sixty-eight ( 368 ) pupils enrolled during the 2nd semester of school twelvemonth 2000-2001 of ZSCMST. The population came from the BS courses viz. : 20 BSE major in General Science, 13 BSE major in Technology and Home Economics, 36 BS in Aquaculture, 75 BS in Marine Technology, 53 BS in Fish Processing, 23 BS in Food Technology, 23 BS in Marine Biology, 72 BS in Marine Transportation, and 53 BS in Marine Engineering.

The instruments used in the survey were the Motivational Pattern Questionnaire-Checklist, Critical Thinking Skills Appraisal, and English Language Competence Test. The Motivational Pattern Questionnaire – Checklist consisted of two sets, Set 1 is Personal Information Sheet and Set II consisted of two checklists: the Instrumental Motivation and Attitudinal Pattern Checklists. To find the degrees of the pupils ‘ motivational forms and attitudinal forms, graduated tables of hiting were devised and validated. The Critical Thinking Appraisal was patterned after Watson-Glaser ‘s Critical Thinking Appraisal Test which had been applied to United Kingdom scene. A new set of trial was prepared to accommodate to the degree of the present users or the respondents of the survey. To find the degrees of critical thought skills a graduated table of marking was devised and validated by a panel of specializers. The English Language Competence Test consisted of two sets. Set I was on grammatical competency and Set II was on textual competency. To find the degree of English linguistic communication competency, a graduated table of marking was devised which was an version and alteration of the International English Language Test System ( IELTS ) and validated by panel of specializers.

The trials underwent pilot testing, point analysis, and alteration twice to set up dependability. The statistical tools used in the survey were as follows: ( a ) Percentage to reply inquiries 1, 2, and 3 ; ( B ) Multiple Regression and Beta coefficient Test to reply inquiry 4 ; and, ANOVA, Scheffe Test, and t-test to reply inquiry 5.

Consequences

Students ‘ Degrees of Motivational Patterns

As shown in Table 1, on the norm, the degrees of motivational forms of the ZSCMST freshmen pupils in both instrumental and integrative motive can be described as strongly motivated to larn the English linguistic communication. They besides had favourable or positive attitude in schoolroom activities like subjecting assignments on clip, paying attending to the instructor in category, acquiring involved in schoolroom treatment and others. This has confirmed the findings of several surveies ( Sartain, et al 1979 ; Munn, 1974 ) . On the other manus, the pupils showed just or impersonal attitude in footings of ambiguity tolerance or in footings of the ability to work rationally or calmly in a state of affairs.

Table 1. Motivational Pattern Scores of the ZSCMST Freshman Students

Motivational Patterns

Horsepower

Scale of Tonss

Nitrogen

%

Degrees

Motivation

1. Instrumental

65

13 – 30

31 – 48

49 – 60

1

67

124

.52

34. 90

64. 58

Ill Motivated

Reasonably Motivated

Strongly Motivated

Sum

192

100. 00

2. Integrative

65

13 – 30

31 – 48

49 – 65

0

71

121

0

36.98

63.02

Ill Motivated

Reasonably Motivated

Strongly Motivated

Sum

192

100.00

Attitude

Classroom

Engagement

39

13 – 21

22 – 30

31 – 39

1

92

99

.52

47.92

51.56

Negative Attitude

Fair Attitude

Positive Attitude

Sum

192

100.00

Ambiguity

Tolerance

39

13 – 21

22 – 30

31 – 39

0

141

51

0

73.44

26.56

Negative Attitude

Fair Attitude

Positive Attitude

Sum

192

100.00

HPS – Highest possible Score N – Frequency of Score/Level

Students ‘ Critical Thinking Skills

The Critical Thinking Skills trial analysis as shown in Table 2, revealed that the ZSCMST pupils ‘ degrees of competency on critical thought were by and large mean peculiarly in illation and in acknowledgment of premise. This proved that they had limited background on these higher- order believing accomplishments.

Table 2. Critical Thinking Skills Scores of the ZSCMST Freshman Students

Critical Thinking Skills

Horsepower

%

Scale of

Tonss in %

Nitrogen

%

Degrees

A. Inference

10

100

1 – 20

21 – 40

41 – 60

61 – 80

81 – 100

19

77

84

12

0

9.90

40.10

43.75

6.25

0

Very Poor

Poor

Average

Good

Very Good

Sum

192

100.00

B. Recognition of

Premise

10

100

1 – 20

21 – 40

41 – 60

61 – 80

81 – 100

2

38

105

34

13

1.04

19.79

54.69

17.71

6.77

Very Poor

Poor

Average

Good

Very Good

Sum

192

100.00

C. Deduction

10

100

1 – 20

21 – 40

41 – 60

61 – 80

81 – 100

4

15

95

66

12

2.08

7.81

49.48

34.38

6.25

Very Poor

Poor

Average

Good

Very Good

Sum

192

100.00

D. Interpretation

10

100

1 – 20

21 – 40

41 – 60

61 – 80

81 – 100

0

11

51

91

39

0

5.73

26.56

47.40

20.31

Very Poor

Poor

Average

Good

Very Good

Sum

192

100.0

E. Evaluation of

Argument

10

100

1 – 20

21 – 40

41 – 60

61 – 80

81 – 100

0

30

78

65

19

0

15.62

40.62

33.85

9.90

Very Poor

Poor

Average

Good

Very Good

Sum

192

100.00

HPS – Highest Possible Score N – Frequency of Scores/Scale

Organizational Competence Degrees

In organisational competency, the trial analysis showed that the pupils were modest user or norm in grammatical competency, competent user or above norm in textual competency and limited user or below norm in paragraph composing sub-skills ( Table 3 ) .

Table 3. Tonss in English Language Competence Among ZSCMST Freshman Students

Language Competence

Scale of

Tonss in %

Nitrogen

%

Degrees

Grammatical

tical

91 – 100

81 – 90

71 – 80

61 — 70

51 – 60

41 – 50

31 – 40

21 – 30

11 – 20

1 – 10

0

4

20

48

73

36

10

1

0

0

0

2.08

10.42

25.00

38.02

18.75

5.21

.52

0

0

Expert User

Very Good User

Good User

Competent User

Modest User

Limited User

Highly Limited User

Intermittent User

Non User

Did n’t Try the trial

Sum

192

100.00

Textual

91 – 100

81 – 90

71 – 80

61- 70

51 – 60

41 – 50

31 – 40

21 – 30

11 – 20

1 – 10

0

9

29

37

54

45

16

2

0

0

0

4.69

15.10

19.27

28.13

23.44

8.33

1.04

0

0

Expert User

Very Good User

Good User

Competent User

Modest User

Limited User

Highly Limited User

Intermittent User

Non User

Did n’t Try the trial

Sum

192

100.00

C. Paragraph Writing

91 – 100

81 – 90

71 – 80

61- 70

51 – 60

41 – 50

31 – 40

21 – 30

11 – 20

1 – 10

0

0

4

17

57

63

33

18

0

0

0

0

2.08

8.85

29.69

32.81

17.19

9.38

0

0

Expert User

Very Good User

Good User

Competent User

Modest User

Limited User

Highly Limited User

Intermittent User

Non User

Did n’t Try the trial

Sum

192

100.00

HPS – Highest Possible Score N – Frequency of Score/Level

The Influence of Motivational Patterns and Critical Skills on

the English Language Competence of the Students

Table 4 shows that, taken jointly, the F-ratio of 2.144 is important at p=.028 which means that motivational forms and critical thought accomplishments had important influence on the English linguistic communication competency.

Table 4. Regression Summary Table on the Motivational Patterns and Critical Thinking Skills As

Independent Variables and English Language Competence as Dependent Variable

Independent Variables

Dependent Variables

Multiple R

R-Square

F value

Sig.

Motivational Patterns

Critical Thinking Skills

ELC

.30961

.09576

2.14402

.028*

When taken individually, the B coefficient of 0.134 for motivational forms had t-value of 2.011 and important at p=.046 and the B coefficient of.374 for critical thought accomplishments had a t-value of 5.609 and important at p=.000. This meant that motivational forms had a meaningful influence on the English linguistic communication competency, and critical thought accomplishments had important influence on the English linguistic communication competency ( Table 5 ) .

Table 5. Beta Coefficient Table: Dependent Variable English Language Competence Scores

Independent V.

Bacillus

T – Value

Significance

Mot. Forms

.134

2.011

.046*

C.T.S.

.374

5.609

.000*

* Significant

The Contribution of Gender, Residence, Mother Tongue and Tri-Media

Exposure to the Students ‘ English Language Competence

As reflected in Table 6, gender has contributed important difference on the English linguistic communication competency of the pupils in favour of the females as indicated by the computed t-value of 3.19 with a degree of significance of.002.

Table 6. Comparison Result between Males and Females as

Indicated in Their English Language Competence

Gender

Nitrogen

% Mean

South dakota

t-value

Significance

Males

128

55.9

10.7

3.19

.002*

Females

64

60.9

9.2

*Significant

As shown in Table 7, abode has contributed a important difference on the English linguistic communication competency of the pupils in favour of the rural pupils as indicated by the computed t-value of 3.19 with a degree of significance of.002.

Table 7 Comparison of Results between Students Coming From the Rural and

Urban Areas in Footings of Their English Language Competence

Location of Res.

Nitrogen

Ten

South dakota

T – value

Significance

Urban

158

56.5

10.1

3.19

.002*

Rural

34

62.7

11.2

* Significant

Similarly, mother tongue showed a meaningful part on the English linguistic communication competency of the pupils in favour of the Bisayan and Chabacano as indicated by the F-value of 2.06 which is non important but is meaningful since p-value of 0.080 is between P & gt ; .05 and p & lt ; .20 ( Table 8 ) .

Table 8. Comparison Results of Students ‘ English Language Competence

When Their Mother Tongue was Considered

Mother Tongue

Nitrogen

Ten

South dakota

F-value

Significance

Tagalog

11

55.0

10.8

2.06

( 0.080 )

Visayan

57

59.5

10.1

Chabacano

91

58.1

10.5

Tausug

23

52.6

8.6

Others

9

56.7

15.1

( ) Meaningful

As shown in Table 9, tri- media exposure contributed a important difference on the pupils ‘ English linguistic communication competency in favour of print, print and wireless, print and telecasting, and wireless and telecasting as indicated by the computed F-value of 2.874 which is important at p=.369. Those who had media exposure such as print and any combination of at least two media tended to be better performing artists.

Table 9. Comparison Results of Students ‘ English Language Competence When Their

Exposure to the English Language in the Tri-Media Was Considered

Tri-Media

Nitrogen

Ten

South dakota

F-value

Significance

( 2 ) Radio

23

54.1

11.0

2.8470

0.0389*

( 3 ) Television

115

56.8

9.7

( 7 ) P, R, Television

31

60.5

11.6

( 1 ) Print

( 4 ) P, R

( 5 ) P, Television

( 6 ) R, Television

23

61.1

11.1

* Significant

Discussion

The ZSCMST pupils were strongly motivated to larn the English linguistic communication, and this has confirmed the surveies of Gazzaniga ( 1980 ) , Brown ( 1994 ) , Noss ( 1996 ) , and Wen ( 1994 ) . They besides had positive attitude in schoolroom engagement and a just attitude in ambiguity tolerance, and this has supported the surveies of Sartain, et Al ( 1979 ) , Munn ( 1974 ) , Brown ( 1994 ) , and Lambert ( 1980 ) . This implied that their positive motive and positive attitude were necessary and sufficient factors in accomplishing their English linguistic communication competency.

On critical thought, the consequence showed that the ZSCMST pupils were mean in their critical thought sub-skills peculiarly in illation and in acknowledgment of premise. This has confirmed the findings of Rabago et Al. ( 2001 ) and of Deauna ( 2000 ) . This implied that they had limited background on these higher – order thought accomplishments, so they lacked the accomplishment to execute aptly in the trial.

The findings which showed that the pupils were largely mean in grammatical competency, above norm in textual competency, and below norm in paragraph authorship indicated that the pupils were by and large weak in paragraph authorship which includes grammar, vocabulary, mechanics and organize following to grammatical competency. This has supported the surveies of Cuevas ( 1996 ) , Tan ( 1980 ) , Yap-Aizon ( 2000 ) , and Gole ( 1983 ) .This implied that the linguistic communication instructors need to give more attending to pupils ‘ linguistic communication failings. Their insufficiency in grammar may besides be attributed to the position of their native linguistic communication in which the grammar of the native linguistic communication is ne’er precisely the same as the mark linguistic communication as confirmed by the surveies of Corder, ( 1967 ) , John ( 1986 ) , Fishman, et Al ( 1977 ) , Saville-Troike ( 1976 ) , and Omaggio ( 1983 ) .

The survey besides revealed that motivational forms and critical thought accomplishments had important influence on the English linguistic communication competency. It implied that attitudinal and motivational factors affected linguistic communication acquisition success. This confirmed the surveies of Gardner and Lambert ( 1980 ) , Castillo ( 1979 ) , and Wen ( 1993 ) ; while the unequal preparation in the development of critical thought made pupils unable to develop this signifier of intelligence ; therefore, linguistic communication usage has non besides been developed which strengthened Watson and Glaser ( 1990 ) , Zohar, et Al ( 1984 ) and Cuevas ( 1996 ) .

Last, gender, abode, and tri-media media exposure contributed a important difference on the English linguistic communication competency of the pupils while female parent lingua contributed meaningful difference on their English linguistic communication competency. ( 1 ) Gender contributed a important difference in the linguistic communication proficiency of the pupils prefering the females. This consequence confirmed the findings of Lindis ( 1986 ) and of Cuevas ( 1996 ) . This implied that the ZSCMST female pupils did more linguistic communication usage and pattern than the male pupils did. ( 2 ) Residence contributed a important difference on the linguistic communication proficiency of the pupils prefering the rural occupants. Those pupils whose abode is located in the rural countries posed better English competency than those coming from the urban centre. This determination is a contrary of the findings of Malbago ( 2000 ) and Kelly ( 1968 ) demoing that urban pupils were better performing artists. This could be partially due to the fact that there were pupils who came from the rural countries and were receivers of scholarship grants ; they were required to inscribe in Fisheries courses merely. They were hapless but worth pupils. ( 3 ) Mother Tongue contributed meaningful difference in the pupils ‘ linguistic communication proficiency in favour of the Bisayan and Chabacano. This determination has confirmed the Interlanguage theory which posited that the native linguistic communication or female parent lingua affects or interferes with 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. This has supported the surveies of Brown ( 1994 ) , Yap-Aizon ( 2000 ) , Martinez ( 1988 ) , John ( 1986 ) , and Richard ( 1986 ) . This implied that female parent lingua does interfere with the acquisition of the mark linguistic communication. ( 4 ) Exposure to the English linguistic communication in the tri-media ( print, wireless, Television ) contributed a important difference on their English linguistic communication competency in favour of print or to any combinations of at least two media: print, wireless and Television. This has supported the surveies of Baker ( 1993 ) and Ordonez ( 1987 ) . This implied that when pupils have exposure to the English linguistic communication at place to at least two media at the same clip or to publish entirely, they can accomplish high degree of English proficiency or competency in the English linguistic communication.

In drumhead, the findings of this survey hold given empirical support to Bachman ‘s Organizational Competence theoretical account that through the employment of trial points categorized into grammatical points and textual points, pupils ‘ linguistic communication competency can be evaluated, and one can know apart the acting pupils from the non-performing. The findings have besides given empirical support to the extension of the theory which posited that motivational forms and the degrees of critical thought accomplishments would hold important influence on the pupils ‘ English linguistic communication competency, and that the degrees of the pupils ‘ English linguistic communication competency would differ when informations would be classified harmonizing to gender, abode, female parent lingua, and their tri-media ( Print, Radio, and Television ) exposure to the English linguistic communication. Furthermore, the consequences have besides drawn empirical support for the extension of this theory which posits that pupils ‘ motivational forms and degrees of critical thought accomplishments would significantly act upon their English Language Competence and that their degrees of English linguistic communication competency would significantly differ when informations would be classified harmonizing to gender, abode, female parent lingua, and tri-media ( print, wireless, Television ) exposure to the English linguistic communication.

In the visible radiation of the findings of the survey, it was recommended: ( a ) that the linguistic communication instructors conduct reappraisal, alteration, and alteration of their English course of study in order to give more accent on functional drills ; composing long sentences utilizing assorted organizing and subordinating tools, and on the use of associating devices ; and on the usage of English in interacting with pupils inside and outside the schoolrooms ; ( B ) that every instructor incorporate critical thought accomplishments approaches in schoolroom exercisings and trials to reenforce higher order believing accomplishments in the instruction and larning experience in his/her several field and go to seminar- workshops on critical thought attacks ; ( degree Celsius ) that the school decision makers utilize the consequences as one of the bases in carry oning needs analysis of their module and pupils, so that, appropriate seminars and installations can be provided ; ( vitamin D ) that curriculum contrivers give weight on the consequences when carry oning course of study alterations in the different BS and Diploma offerings for the English classs ; and ( vitamin E ) that other research workers conduct similar survey to corroborate the current consequences.

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