National culture it is the collective of the mind that distinguish the member of one group or category of people from other. In this people are born into it, have shared meaning and unconditional relationships (Stephen Martin, 2018 Business across Culture, De Montfort University, classroom lectures, 23 October 2018).
Initially Hofstede’s research outcome on national and regional cultural differences materialized as a set of four dimensions i.e., individualism and collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity v/s femininity (Hofstede, 1983). Following on by spanning his research and collaborating with other scientists, Hofstede gradually enriched his model to six dimensions that is evidenced in a number of his publications. With the addition of the Canadian psychologist Michael Harris Bond and Michael Minkov a Bulgarian researcher in the fields of ancient languages, anthropology, and management of science are also to be considered as a decisive maker in the event of models elaboration with contribution of long term and short term orientation as fifth dimension and indulgence and restraint as the sixth dimension (Hofstede, 2011).
Hofsted describes that each person carries with them his/her way of thinking, feeling, and potential acting which were learned throughout their lifetime, which was already been formed in their childhood further developed through their academic and work environment, and these programs which contains parts of national culture as well (Eringa et al., 2015), and each workers with in a workplace is ultimately influenced by their own country’s culture.
“To get a better view and understanding on the cultural values one must target and evaluate on the six dimensions of national culture. These six dimensions are then assigned a numerical value based upon a scoring system that uses scale of one to hundred” (Dr. Karen Malan 2018 class lecture).
Societies In which the interest of the individual prevail over the interest of the group, is called as “individualist”. Under individualist societies people most commonly will focus on themselves first and their direct family. Individualist society’s people will tend to separate their professional and personal lives. Self-interest comes before in hand of the group. (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005)
“Collectivist” are those people in a society where the interest of the group prevails over the interest of individual. In collectivism people tend to look out and take care of the group exchange for loyalty. Collectivist tend to focus on the management of the group rather than on an individual. Collectivist is common to have emotional attachment on the organization compare to individualist (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
As shown in (figure 1.1) China and Saudi Arabia both are a collective country, with a score of China 20 and Saudi Arabia 25, Japan with a score of 46 which stand in a mid-range, and United States with score range of 91 which in is highly individualistic country
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