Noli Me Tangere “The novel is the first impartial and bold account of the life of the Tagalogs. The Filipinos will find in it the history of the last 10 years” -Jose Rizal on Noli Me Tangere Opposition to the Novel: • The special committee of the faculty of the University of Sto. Tomas condemned the novel as heretical, impious and scandalous at the request of Archbishop Pedro Payo. • The committee and the archbishop deemed it harmful to the Spanish government here in the Philippines. • 28 December 1887: Fray Salvador Fort (Cura ng Tondo and head of the Permanent Commission of Sensorship); prohibited the circulation of the book. OPPOSITION AND NEGATIVE PUBLICITY LEAD TO CURIOSITY OF THE PUBLIC. = more people read the book = increase awareness • Caiingat Cayo (Beware): Jose Rodriguez; pamphlet claiming that reading the Noli will cause the reader to commit the mortal sin, heresy. Counter-Opposition Movements: • Caiigat Cayo (be slippery as an eel): Marcelo H. Del Pilar (penname: Dolores Mangsat); counters Caiingat Cayo. Took on the same format as Caiingat. THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT: • Members of this movement are called propagandists or reformists. • Objectives: Recognition of the Philippine as a province of Spain o Equal status for both Filipinos and Spaniards o Philippine representation at the Spanish Court o Secularization of the Philippine Parishes o Recognition of Human Rights NOLI ME TANGERE Published in Berlin (1887) • bleak winter of 1886 was memorable in the life of rizal o first, painful – hungry, sick and despondent in a strange city o second – brought him great joy, after enduring so much sufferings, his first novel came of the press • Noli Me Tangere came off the press in March, 1887 Dr. Maximo Viola, his friend from Bulacan, arrived in Berlin at the height o9f his despondency and loaned him the needed funds to publish the novel. 1. Idea of writing a novel on the Philippines a. Reading “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe that portrays the brutalities of American slave-owners and the pathetic conditions of the unfortunate Negro slaves, inspired Rizal to prepare a novel that would depict the miseries of his people under the lash of the Spanish tyrants (student at the Central University of Madrid) b.
January 2, 1884, Filipino reunion in Paterno residence in Madrid, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines by a group of Filipinos. c. Proposal approved unanimously by: The Paternos (Pedro, Maximo and Antonio) i. Graciano Lopez Jaena ii. Evaristo Aguirre iii. Eduardo de Lete iv. Julio Llorente v. Melecio Figueroa vi. Valentin Ventura d. Unfortunately, his project did not materialize, those who were expected to collaborate on the novel did not write anything. i. Novel designed to cover all phases of Philippine Life ii. Everybody wanted to write on women – Rizal was disgusted by this ii. Rizal determined to write the novel – alone 2. The Writing of the Noli a. Toward the end of 1884, Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and finished about one-half of it b. Paris, 1885, completed studies in Central University of Madrid – continued writing the novel – finished one-half of the second-half c. Finished the last fourth of the novel in Germany d. Wrote the last few chapters of Noli in Wilhelmsfeld in April-June, 1886 e. February 1886, winter in Berlin – final revisions of manuscript of Noli was made f. Sick and penniless – he was hopeless in being able to publish it . Because of desperation, he almost burned the novel h. Years later, Rizal told his friend and former classmate, Fernando Canon: i. “I did not believe that Noli Me Tangere would ever be published when I was in Berlin, broken-hearted, weakened and discouraged from hunger and deprivation. I was on the point of throwing my work in the fire as a thing accursed and fit only to die. ” 3. Viola, Savior of Noli a. In the midst of despondency and misery, Rizal received a telegram from Dr. Maximo Viola (friend of Rizal, scion rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan) who was coming to Berlin. Christmas 1887) b. Shocked to see Rizal living in poverty, Viola agreed to finance the printing cost of the Noli. c. Viola loaned Rizal some cash money for living expenses also d. After Christmas, Rizal put finishing touches on novel i. To save printing expenses, he deleted some passages : 1. Whole chapter of “Elias and Salome” e. February 21, 1887, the Noli was finally finished and ready for printing f. Printing shop – Berliner Buchdruckrei-Action-Gesselschaft i. Charged the lowest rate (300 pesos for 2,000 copies of the novel) 4.
Rizal suspected as a French spy a. Passport conflict 5. Printing of the Noli Finished a. March 21, 1887 – Noli Me Tangere came off the press b. Rizal sent the first copies to his intimate friends: i. Blumentritt ii. Dr. Antonio ma. Regidor iii. G. lopez-jaena iv. Mariano ponce v. Felix r. hidalgo c. Rizal said to his friends: i. “I am sending you a book. It is my first book, though I have already written much before it and received some prizes in literary competitions. It is the first impartial and bold book on the life of the tagalogs….. etc…. d.
March 29, 1887 – rizal gave viola, in token of his appreciation and gratitude, the galley proofs of the Noli carefully rolled around the pen that he used in writing it and a complimentary copy with the following inscriptions: i. “To my dear friend, Maximo Viola, the first to read and appreciate my work – Jose Rizal” 6. The title of the novel a. Noli Me Tangere – latin phrase for “Touch Me Not” i. Not originally conceived by Rizal, admitted taking it from the Bible. b. March 5, 1887 – rizal wrote to felix r. hidalgo in French “Noli Me Tangere, words taken from the gospel of st. luke….. mistake should be gospel of st. John 20 13:17) 7. The Author’s Dedication a. Rizal dedicated his Noli Me tangere to the Philippines – “To My Fatherland” 8. Synopsis of Noli a. 63 chapters and an epilogue b. (summary) 9. The Noli Based on Truth a. Noli Me Tangere, unlike many works of fictional literature, was a true story of Philippine Conditions during the last decades of Spanish Rule i. Places, characters and situations really existed 1. “the facts I narrate there are all true and have happened, I can prove them. ” – Rizal b. Characters were drawn by rizal from persons who existed during his times . Maria Clara – Leonor Rivera ii. Tasio – Paciano (elder brother) iii. Padre Salvi – Padre Antonio Piernavieja ( hated Augustinian friar in Cavite who was killed by the patriots during the revolution) iv. Capitan Tiago – Capitan Hilario Sunico of san Nicolas v. Dona Victorina – dona augustina medel vi. Basilio and Crispin – crisosotomo brothers of Hagonoy vii. Padre Damaso – typical, domineering friar (arrogant, anti-Filipino and immoral) 10. Missing Chapter of The Noli a. “Elias and Salome” – Chapter XXIV – “IN the Woods i. Deleted for economic reasons – cheaper 11. Rizal’s friends praise Noli . Friends praised noli b. Enemies condemned noli EL FILIBUSTERISMO Published in Ghent (1891) • October 1887 – began writing El Fili while practicing medicine in Calamba • 1888 in London – made some changes in the plot and corrected some chapters already written • Wrote more chapters in Madrid and Paris • March 29, 1891 – finished the manuscript in Biarritz • Took him 3 years to write his second novel 1. Privations in Ghent a. July 5, 1891 – rizal left Brussels for Ghent, a famous university in Belgium i. Reasons for moving: 1. Cost of printing in Ghent was cheaper than in Brussels . To escape from enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne b. In Ghent, he met two compatriots: (both studying engineering in the world-famed University of Ghent) i. Jose Alejandro (from Pampanga) ii. Edilberto Evangelista (from Manila) 2. Printing of El Filibusterismo a. Publisher – F. MEYER-VAN LOO PRESS No. 66 Viaanderen Street in Ghent i. Willing to print his book in installment basis ii. Pawned his jewels in order to pay the down payment and the early partial payments b. Printing continues – Rizal desperate because funds were low and money expected from friends did not arrive i.
Received 200 pesos Rodriquez Arias ii. Received Some from Basa c. July 1891 – Rizal wrote to Basa about lack of funds and stopping printing d. August 6 – printing suspended (work half-finished) – wrote to Basa again 3. Ventura, Savior of The Fili a. Same with Noli b. Unexpected help from Valentin Ventura in Paris – sent funds immediately to Rizal after hearing about his predicament c. Fili was resumed 4. Fili comes of the Press a. September 18, 1891 – El Fili comes off the press i. Sent two copies to Hongkong – one for BAsa and the other for Sixto Lopez ii. Sent to Valentin Ventura . Donated the original manuscript and an autographed printed copy iii. Sent complimentary copies to 1. Blumentritt 2. Mariano Ponce 3. G. Lopez Jaena 4. T. H. Pardo de tavera 5. Antonio and Juan Luna 6. Other friends iv. Filipino patriots praised the novel to the skies v. Members of the Filipino colony of Barcelona published a tribute to La Publicidad (Barcelona newspaper) vi. Practically all the first copies of the first edition (Ghent edition) of El Fili were placed in wooden boxes and shipped to hongkong but almost all were confiscated and books were lost. vii.
Few available Ghent copies were sold very expensive as 400 pesetas a copy. 5. Dedicated to Gom-Bur-Za a. Dedicated el Fili to Gomburza for their martyrdom 6. The Manuscript and The Book a. Original manuscript in Rizal’s handwriting now preserved in the Filipiniana Division of the bureau of public libraries in Manila b. Acquired by Phil. Govt from Valentin Ventura for 10,000 pesos c. Consists of 279 pages of long sheets of paper d. Foreward and warning not found in book to save from printing costs 7. Inscription on Title Page a. Title page consists of Inscription written by Blumentritt . Synopsis of El Filibusterismo a. Sequel to the Noli b. Little humor, less idealism, less romance than Noli c. More revolutionary and more tragic 9. Noli and Fili Comapared a. Noli – romantic novel – “work of heart” – book of feeling – has freshness, color, humor, lightness and wit b. Fili – political novel – “work of the head” – a book of thought – contains bitterness, hatred, pain, violence and sorrow c. Original intention of Rizal: make Fili longer than Noli but as printed, it is shorter than Noli d. Fili – 38 chapters Noli – 64 chapters e. Fili cut off due to lack of funds f.
Rizal considered Noli superior to Fili agreeing to MH del pilar 10. Rizal’s unfinished third novel a. September 22, 1891 – wrote to Blumentritt and informed he was writing a third novel b. October 18, 1891 – began writing third novel in Tagalog intended for Tagalog readers on the way to Hongkong c. Third novel i. No title ii. 44 pages iii. Preserved in national library, manila d. Said he was fortunate not to have finished the novel, because if would have created greater scandal and more Spanish vengeance on him 11. Rizal’s other unfinished novels a. Makamisa i. Novel in Tagalog ii.
Written in light sarcastic style iii. Incomplete only 2 chapters finished iv. 20 pages b. Dapitan i. Written in ironic Spanish ii. Wrote during his exile in Dapitan to depict the town life and customs iii. 8 pages c. Novel in Spanish about the life in Pili, town In Laguna i. 147 pages ii. No title d. About Cristobal, youthful Filipino student who has returned form Europe i. No title ii. 34 pages e. Beginnings of another novel found in two notebooks i. 1st notebook 1. 31 pages ii. Second 1. 12 pages iii. Describes the deplorable conditions of the Philippines iv. Written in Spanish – ironic style