Notes On Defensive Marketing Strategy

There are many interesting facets of the instance on the Brita Products Company. Two of these issues are highlighted at the terminal of the instance. First, Brita learns that a retail merchant, Target Stores, has installed a show which compares alternate filtration merchandises on their ability to take contaminations from wa-ter. Brita does ill on this comparing relation to PUR. Second, Brita learns that Procter & A ; Gamble has merely purchased a commanding portion of PUR H2O fil-ters, with the deduction that PUR will now be marketed by a house that is known for its selling expertness and resources.

Reacting to such menaces, whether they be new competitory merchandises, all of a sudden feasible competitory merchandises, or repositioned competitory merchandises, is called defensive selling scheme. Each twelvemonth, over a thousand new merchandises are launched in the consumer sector entirely, and many times that figure in the

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industrial sector. Many of these new merchandises are perceived to be important menaces to extremely profitable concerns.

For illustration, Johnson & A ; Johnson ‘s Tylenol trade name of anodynes one time dominated the nonprescription market for hurting relief.1 Tylenol had gained this place through a long series of marketing actions that established it as effec-tive with low side effects. Tylenol, based on Datril, was clearly per-ceived as much gentler than other merchandises such as Bayer and Anacin, which were based on acetylsalicylic acid ( perchance with caffeine ) , and Excedrin, which combined acetylsalicylic acids, Datril, and caffeine. However, in May of 1984, the ingredient isobutylphenyl propionic acid became available to all makers for nonprescription usage. Ty-lenol faced menaces by new analgetic merchandises such as Advil ( American Home Products ) and Nuprin ( Bristol-Myers ) . The inquiries at the clip were:

aˆ? should Tylenol stress its trade name Deoxyribonucleic acid of gradualness or should it counter with a renewed claim of effectivity,

aˆ? should Tylenol counter with monolithic selling – vouchers, price-off trades, advertisement, in-store publicities, trade trades, gross revenues calls on doc-tors?

aˆ? should Tylenol lower its monetary value to support its portion or increase its monetary value to cover its selling costs?

aˆ? should Tylenol spread out its line to include a new isobutylphenyl propionic acid merchandise?

aˆ? should Tylenol addition or diminish its intensive distribution?

There is now a broad literature on this subject in both the academic selling literature and the popular imperativeness. Indeed, the Assessor theoretical account, mentioned on page 8 of the Brita instance, has been used more frequently for defensive scheme than for the rating by a house of its ain, possible, new merchandises. This usage is besides men-tioned in the Ogilvy reading subsequently in the class ( “ 18 Miracles of Research ” ) . Much of this literature began at MIT in the mid-1980s, inspired, in portion, by the challenges faced by Tylenol. ( Tylenol ‘s selling director was a Sloan gradu-ate. )

1 The existent selling entity was McNeil Laboratories, a division of Johnson and Johnson. See http: //

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In this note I attempt to sum up some of the penetrations from about twenty old ages of defensive selling scheme. Most of these penetrations are intuitive and can be understood without extended mathematics, but for those pupils strongly interested in the math, I provide three early mentions at the terminal of this note.

Perceptual Maps and Consumer Behavior

Defensive selling scheme is based is an analytic theoretical account of how con-sumers respond to selling schemes. This theoretical account is based on the perceptual maps and value maps that were introduced in the gap talk. ( You can re-view the Dolan reading for more information on perceptual maps.2 ) With some little alterations, these maps can stand for the kernel of each tactical move in defensive selling scheme.

Merchandise Image

Figure 1 is a simplified value-map representation of trade name images in the analgetic market prior to the debut of the isobutylphenyl propionic acid products.3 Tylenol had a alone place, because consumers perceived it to hold fewer side ef-fects, such as tummy disturbance, than the aspirin-based merchandises, Bayer, Anacin, and Excedrin. A figure of remarks about the map are relevant.

2 Perceptual maps can besides be created utilizing “ primary ” client demands. Another 15.810 reading on the voice of the client describes how to place primary client demands.

3 This map does non incorporate all the trade names that were available nor all of the competitory dimen-sions. For illustration, fever-reduction was another dimension upon which the trade names competed. I have simplified the value map to exemplify the basic defensive selling theory.

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Figure 1. Simplified Value Map for Analgesics

First, the map represents the market from the consumer ‘s position, that is, the consumer ‘s subjective world. The nonsubjective world of the physical ingredients, such as the fact that Datril ( Tylenol ) does non upset the tummy every bit much as acetylsalicylic acid, influences subjective world, along with advertis-ing, bundle design, societal influence, and other variables. Therefore, the map sum-marizes the impact of the existent merchandise and some of import selling strate-gies. Second, the map is a value map that represents merchandises “ per dollar. ” This allows us to analyse the impact of alterations in monetary value. For illustration, take downing the monetary value of Tylenol would intend more “ gradualness ” and “ effectivity ” per dollar. This would travel Tylenol further out on the map as indicated by the “ reduced-price place ” in Figure 2.

This map enables us to visualise alterations in merchandise image. If we were to keep monetary value changeless and alteration Tylenol ‘s advertisement to stress more gen-tleness, so we might travel the place of Tylenol upwards as indicated in Figure 2 ( see “ repositing toward gradualness ” ) . Alternatively, if we were to em-phasize more effectivity, we might travel Tylenol to the right as indicated in Figure 2 ( see “ repositing toward effectivity ) . Whether or non such move-ments are executable depends upon the quality of the advertisement transcript, the sum we spend, and, possibly, on alterations in the physical merchandise ( e.g. , capsules ) or its packaging.

GENTLENESS/ $ EFFECTIVENESS/ $ aˆ? Bufferin aˆ? Bayer aˆ? Anacin aˆ? Excedrin aˆ?Tylenol

M I T S L O A N C O U R S E W A R E & gt ; P. 5 EFFECTIVENESS/ $ aˆ? Bufferin aˆ? Bayer aˆ? Anacin aˆ? Excedrin

GENTLENESS/ $ aˆ?aˆ?Tylenol ( decreased monetary value, no other shifting ) aˆ?Tylenol ( repositing toward effectivity ) aˆ?Tylenol ( repositing toward gradualness )

Figure 2. Shifting and/or Defensive Pricing

Changes in merchandise image do non come free. Increased advertisement, merchandise alterations, alterations in advertisement transcript all cost money. Therefore, there is an underlying cost of any contemplated motion in the value map.

Consumer Choice

Assume for a minute that all consumers are cognizant of all of the trade names pictured in Figure 1 and hold on the sensed places in Figure 1. Assume farther that consumers find these merchandises to be available at their local retail merchant. Even in this simple instance, some consumers will prefer Tylenol for its gradualness, Excedrin for its effectivity, and Bufferin, Bayer or Anacin because they rep-resent the best via medias between gradualness and effectivity. In other words, consumers vary in their gustatory sensations, that is, their tradeoffs between “ effec-tiveness ” and “ gradualness. ” We represent these gustatory sensations by a “ gustatory sensation diagram ” as il-lustrated in Figure 3. Note that gustatory sensations need non be uniformly distributed between effectivity and gradualness. In Figure 3 more consumers prefer effectual merchandises than soft merchandises. Within this gustatory sensation distribution we can besides repre-sent the gustatory sensations of consumers who purchase each merchandise. For illustration, the con-sumers who purchase Tylenol are indicated by the shaded part.

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Figure 3. Simplified Taste Diagram for Analgesics


Ad has two chief effects, consideration and repositioning. “ Share of voice, ” that is, entire advertisement disbursement, has a major impact on in-fluencing consumers to see a merchandise. For illustration, in most existent consumer-packaged-good merchandise categories the typical figure of merchandises on the market is 20-30. However, the mean consumer considers merely a few of these prod-ucts. While the relationship is non ever perfect, in most instances, the house that has the larger portion of voice is besides the house that has the most consumers who consider its merchandises. The more a house spends, the greater so figure of con-sumers who consider its merchandises. Because, by definition, consumers merely pur-chase those trade names that they foremost see, this advertisement disbursement affects market portion. ( This is a simple illustration of a phenomenon known as the “ hier-archy of effects ” that we will turn to when we study publicizing and other communicating. )

Ad besides affects a merchandise ‘s place on the value map as de-scribe above. For easiness of expounding, this note will separate between “ con-sideration-set ” advertisement and “ repositioning ” advertisement. Any existent advertisement run does both, but it is utile to analyse these constituents individually to understand the needed accent in a run. We do this much as an engi-

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Investings in production or improved ingredients affect the physical features of a merchandise and hence its sensed place on the value map. In many ways, suggestions for alterations in the physical merchandise parallel sugges-tions for alterations in the merchandise ‘s image. For illustration, adding caffeine to aspi-rin ( as in Anacin ) increases its sensed “ effectivity. ” Remember the “ lens ” theoretical account from the talk on merchandise development. Both physical features and “ psycho-social cues, ” e.g. , advertisement, provide the agencies to impact consum-ers ‘ perceptual experiences.

neer might divide a force into its horizontal and perpendicular constituents to under-stand the comparative accent.

Finally, the survey of defensive advertisement is strategic. It tells us what to state and how much to pass. The inside informations of how to state it, how to schedule me-dia, and how to clip the advertisement will be covered elsewhere in the class.

The Product Itself ( Physical Ingredients and Production Cost )

Monetary value

Because a merchandise is represented by its place in a “ per dollar ” value map, a alteration in monetary value moves a merchandise in that infinite. Review Figure 2.


One consequence of investing in the channel of distribution is increased retail handiness. Availability acts really likewise to consideration. Consumers can merely purchase those trade names that they find in the shop.

A Simplified Historical Case: Tylenol Vs. Datril

While it is difficult to image now, Tylenol was one time non a widely advertised trade name. The market was dominated by aspirin-based merchandises such as Bayer, Anacin, and Excedrin. However, Tylenol had a sensible portion of the market even though it was non nationally advertised. Its consciousness ( consideration ) came from physicians ‘ recommendations, which in bend were strongly influenced

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GENTLENESS/ $ EFFECTIVENESS/ $ aˆ? Bufferin aˆ? Bayer aˆ? Anacin aˆ? Excedrin aˆ?Tylenolaˆ?TylenoDefense cubic decimeter aˆ?Datril

by the “ item ” force of McNeil Laboratories. ( A item force is a salesforce that calls on physicians to do them cognizant of a drug, emphasize its benefits, and promote them to urge it to consumers. )

Acknowledging the chance for increasing competition along “ gentle-ness, ” Bristol-Myers introduced an acetaminophen-based trade name called Datril. The debut included heavy disbursement on national advertisement with the mes-sage that Datril was “ merely every bit good as Tylenol, merely cheaper. ‘ Such a placement locates Datril on the map as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Datril Attack and Tylenol Defense

With such a place, Datril had the possible to alter Tylenol ‘s portion dramatically. Although Datril ‘s advertisement would non make all of Tylenol ‘s consumers, it would make many. Datril ‘s planned advertisement run would place Datril better than Tylenol. Clearly, Tylenol ‘s comfy and profit-able niche of the market was in hazard.

In top-level scheme meetings, Johnson & A ; Johnson decided to contend back. Over a individual weekend, it mobilized the full Johnson & A ; Johnson salesforce ( non merely the McNeil division ‘s salesforce ) , matched Datril ‘s monetary value, persuaded the telecasting webs that Datril ‘s monetary value advantage was now false advertisement, and began other defensive steps. The consequence was that Tylenol, with its strong

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image from old ages of detailing, leap-frogged Datril and successfully trumped Bristol-Myer ‘s challenge.

Awakened to the potency of the Tylenol trade name, McNeil Laboratories became a national advertizer, added the Extra Strength Tylenol trade name to capture consumers interested in “ effectivity, ” and set about a figure of effectual selling tactics. By the clip of the isobutylphenyl propionic acid entries, McNeil ‘s selling has become so strong that indistinguishable physical merchandises – Datril, Panadol, and ge-neric Datril had non been able to pull significant portion from Tylenol. Tylenol was even able to endure a tragic toxic condition incident in 1982. ( They did so with a “ retrieval ” scheme that we will discourse in the advertisement talk. )

This illustration illustrates how we can utilize value maps to understand de-fensive selling schemes. We will now research how to develop defensive selling schemes.

Theory – The Best Selling Defense

We begin by presuming that all other trade names in the market, except the de-fender, do non alter their selling tactics, monetary values, or placements. This en-ables us to exemplify the cardinal thoughts. Fortunately, these cardinal thoughts besides hold true ( in about all instances ) when the other trade names besides fight back.

Defending with Price

Price affects net income both through its impact on a trade name ‘s place in the value map and its impact on the net income border. For illustration, as noted above, a monetary value lessening causes the trade name to travel off from the beginning ( e.g. , more “ ef-fectiveness per dollar ” and more “ gentleness per dollar ” ) . This improved posi-tion causes market portion to increase. The house must equilibrate this addition in market portion with a lessening in its border.

The mathematics are reasonably complicated, but they follow the constructs in-troduced in the nucleus economic sciences category. The guardian adjusts its monetary value so that its new fringy gross ( after the onslaught ) equals its fringy cost. We can work out

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this job in general because the new merchandise, the aggressor, makes it harder to acquire market portion.

The theory leads to two consequences.

Defensive monetary value I. If the market is non extremely segmented, so the best defensive scheme is to take down monetary value.

Defensive monetary value II. If the market is extremely segmented, so the best de-fensive scheme might be to raise monetary value.

The 2nd consequence may, at first, seem counter-intuitive. The intuition is as follows. When, pre-attack, the guardian was functioning more than one section of the market, it might hold lowered its monetary value to function the multiple sections. If the onslaught is well-planned, the guardian may non happen it profitable to function all of the same sections that it served prior to the onslaught. In other words, it might hold to maintain its monetary value highly low to recapture the lost sections. This low monetary value may no longer be profitable for those sections and the best scheme is to concentrate on the staying sections. If this is the instance, the guardian might seek to withdraw to the staying sections. If it has a “ local monopoly ” in these staying sections it can raise its monetary value to the monopoly degree. ( In this instance, “ local monopoly ” means a practical monopoly among consumers with a peculiar set of gustatory sensations. )

The pricing consequences require a few proficient conditions, but the basic in-tuition generalizes. We can besides turn out the undermentioned consequence.

Defensive monetary value III. Defensive net incomes will be less after the new entrant than before the new entrant, irrespective of defensive monetary value scheme. This is particularly true among those consumers who now consider the trade name.

This consequence is rather intuitive. If we could increase net incomes after the onslaught, when the market is more competitory, why did we non do so before the onslaught? Although this consequence is intuitive, we province it officially because, really frequently, defen-sive directors want to return net income to the same degree that they achieved prior to the onslaught. As a consequence they spend excessively much clip seeking for schemes that merely will non accomplish that end. The true end is non to return net income to the same

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degree, but to do certain that the defensive pricing ( and selling ) strategies re-turn the greatest possible net income under the new conditions.

Shifting ( Advertising Positioning and Product Redesign )

We can act upon the trade name ‘s perceptual place with positioning adver-tising or with alterations in the physical merchandise or both. Both have costs associ-ated with repositioning, and, non surprisingly, the scheme for alterations in adver-tising message and alterations in physical merchandise features follow the same rules. Indeed, for best consequence, they need to be coordinated.

The guardian will hold to equilibrate the alteration in market portion from repo-sitioning with the alteration in the costs of advertisement and bring forthing the merchandise. ( Increasing along a dimension, such as gradualness, increases both market portion and costs. ) The undermentioned consequences sum up the net effects.

Shifting scheme I. At the border, shifting “ off from the onslaught ” ( along the guardian ‘s strength relation to the competitory new entrant ) will better defensive net incomes.

Shifting scheme II. At the border, shifting to “ counter the onslaught ” ( along the aggressor ‘s strength relation to the guardian ) may or may non better net incomes.

The 2nd consequence depends upon a figure of proficient conditions that depend upon the aggressor ‘s comparative strengths. Basically, the stronger the at-tacker, the less likely you will happen it profitable to counterstrike.

Defending with Advertising Designed for Consideration of the Brand

Ad performs many maps. The selling determinations are what to state, how to state it, where to state it, and how frequently to state it. For illustration, the trade name director, in cooperation with the advertisement bureau, might make up one’s mind to run advertisement during telecasting plans watched by possible users of hurting alleviation. ( Data on telecasting screening is available from many beginnings including

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ACNielsen, e.g. , hypertext transfer protocol: // . ) These micro-decisions influ-ence consumers ‘ perceptual experiences in many ways. Some advertisement may try to alter consumers ‘ perceived placement of Tylenol by emphasizing either gentle-ness or effectivity. Other advertisement might merely seek to catch consumer in-terest and promote them to see the trade name further. For illustration, Tylenol has frequently relied upon testimonies from existent patients who used Tylenol because it was recommended by their physician.

We already know that Tylenol is best away supporting to their comparative strength and, possibly, counterstriking on their failing. We now address whether Tylenol should alter its investing in that constituent of advertisement that merely tries to acquire consumers to see Tylenol without altering their perceptual experiences of its place on the value map. Such advertisement brings more con-sumers into Tylenol ‘s portion of the market, but is non selective about the gustatory sensations of the consumers who are attracted. For this type of advertisement, we have the fol-lowing consequence:

Defensive advertisement ( for consideration ) . After the new entrant additions a bridgehead in the market, the guardian earns the most post-attack net income by diminishing its disbursement on that constituent of advertisement that affects consideration without shifting the trade name.

This consequence is intuitive if we consider carefully the conditions that are stated. The new entrant has succeeded in come ining the market. In this instance, we know from the 3rd defensive pricing consequence that net incomes decrease among con-sumers who now consider the trade name. Focus on the state of affairs before the onslaught and focal point on the fringy consumer who considers the trade name – by definition this fringy consumer provides small or no incremental net income to the house. The net income before advertisement for this consumer merely equals the cost of advertisement to this consumer. After the onslaught, it still costs merely every bit much money to publicize to this fringy consumer in order to acquire him or her to go on to see Tyle-nol ( consideration decays without advertisement force per unit area ) . However, by the 3rd defensive pricing consequence, the net income before advertisement has decreased for this con-sumer. Net income is less ; advertisement costs are the same, therefore, the net income from this

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fringy consumer is negative after the onslaught and the house should cut back on its consideration advertisement.

If we now put together the three advertisement effects we see that the net recommendations are for the trade name to alter its advertisement accent: more accent of its strengths, less accent on pure consideration, and, possibly, a countermove on the strength of the aggressor. Because some of the recommen-dations are for an addition and some for a lessening, we can non state for certain whether the net disbursement on advertisement should increase or diminish. That de-pends upon the inside informations of the value map and the ability ( and costs ) of reposition-ing.

Defending with Distribution Incentives

In marketing theory, the channel of distribution ( jobbers, distribu-tors, middlemans, retail merchants, etc. ) performs valuable and complex functions, including, but non limited to, information, persuasion, service, funding, image care, and bringing, every bit good as engagement in monetary value dialogues. We cover these func-tions subsequently in the class. In this subdivision we focus here on one of import as-pect of that function, doing the merchandise available to the consumer. Availability maps in the same manner as consideration advertisement. In peculiar:

Defensive distribution ( for handiness ) . After the new entrant additions a bridgehead in the market, the guardian earns the most post-attack net income by diminishing its disbursement on that constituent of distribution inducements that affect the handiness of the trade name.

If the trade name is sold in different markets, this consequence applies to each and every market.

Summary of the Theory of Defensive Marketing

After the aggressor has gained a bridgehead in the market, the more profit-able actions by the guardian include:

aˆ? heavy monetary value in nonsegmental markets,

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aˆ? in metameric markets, if the onslaught makes a section no longer profit-able, the trade name might raise its monetary value to work its local monopoly posi-tion in the staying markets

aˆ? even with the best defensive monetary value, the net net incomes after the onslaught will be less than they were before the onslaught

aˆ? the trade name should try to shift toward its comparative strengths if it executable to make so with advertisement and merchandise alterations

aˆ? depending on the comparative strength of the aggressor, the trade name may seek to counterstrike on the rival ‘s strength

aˆ? the trade name should cut down disbursement on advertisement that merely affects trade name consideration

aˆ? the trade name should cut down disbursement on distribution inducements that affect trade name handiness.

Competitive Equilibrium

All of the above schemes address the response of a guardian to a com-petitive onslaught. They assumed that merely the guardian was altering its monetary value and its placement. However, in existent markets we can anticipate that all extant trade names will support their places. They will all react with alterations in both monetary value and placement. How does this consequence things?

Fortunately, the basic intuition remains the same. I will exemplify some of this intuition in a market in which we allow three brands the freedom to repo-sition and alter their monetary values. To simplify the expounding assume that all three trade names are already in the market and that there are no executable actions that can be taken to do them to go forth the market. Besides assume that the comparative ( ordi-nal ) places of the trade names are non mutable. For illustration, Tylenol can in-crease its sensed effectivity, but non beyond that which Bayer would accomplish if their monetary values were equal. Finally, we assume that the gustatory sensation distribution does non prefer either gradualness or effectivity. That is, there are consumers who prefer gradualness, consumers who prefer effectivity, and consumers who

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GENTLENESS/ $ aˆ?Tylenol EFFECTIVENESS/ $ aˆ? Bufferin aˆ? Excedrin

prefer assorted via medias. With these premises in head, we have the fol-lowing simplified market in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Simplified Three-Brand Market

Let ‘s say for a minute that monetary values are regulated, but that all three trade names are free otherwise to repositing. ( In this thought experiment we keep po-sitioning costs changeless by imaging the trade names constrained to travel on a circle with its centre at the beginning. ) If Tylenol moves in toward Bufferin, it will be able to maintain the gentleness part of the market but acquire more of the effective-ness market. We represent these enticements in Figure 6. If monetary values are n’t al-lowed to alter, every trade name will seek to place toward the centre of the mar-ket. There will be no distinction at all. As a consequence, the market will go an uniform trade good market.

Fortunately, the markets are non regulated. Firms are free to alter their monetary values every bit good as their placement. It is beyond the range of this note to depict the full equilibrium that will ensue, but a stable equilibrium does ex-ist for every possible comparative placement of the three merchandises ( every bit long as they can non leapfrog ) .4

4 This is a Nash equilibrium. At the equilibrium monetary values, no trade name has any one-sided inducements to alter its monetary value ( conditioned on the other trade name ‘s monetary values ) . Intuitively, you can believe of this as the trade names experimenting with different monetary values until they stabilize.

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GENTLENESS/ $ Tylenol EFFECTIVENESS/ $ aˆ? Bufferin Excedrin

Figure 6. Incentive to Shift if Monetary values Do Not Change

This equilibrium has a figure of belongingss. First, as the trade names move toward the centre of the market, monetary value competition becomes more intensive. This is non surprising. As the trade names become more similar, there is little other than monetary value upon which to vie. The ensuing ferocious competition thrusts monetary values downward.

By the same item, as the trade names move apart, monetary value competition lessens and the equilibrium monetary value gets higher. In kernel, each trade name achieves a “ local monopoly ” which it can work. Tylenol “ owns ” the gradualness section, Ex-cedrin “ owns ” the effectivity section, and Bufferin “ owns ” the via media section. These placements become the houses ‘ “ trade name Deoxyribonucleic acid. ”

These monetary values besides imply net incomes. As discussed in nucleus economic sciences, mo-nopoly rents are higher than strictly competitory rents. Therefore, if Tylenol can keep a local monopoly, its higher monetary values connote higher net incomes. Therefore, even when all of the trade names have the freedom to first repositing and so alter their monetary values, the “ unseeable manus ” force per unit area is for the trade names to distinguish. This is il-lustrated in Figure 7.

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GENTLENESS/ $ Tylenol EFFECTIVENESS/ $ Bufferin Excedrin = monetary value alterations = shifting

Figure 7. With Full Freedom to Reposition and Change Prices, Brands will Seek Local Monopolies that Allow Higher Monetary values and Greater Net incomes

Finally, note that merely like the defensive selling consequences, the equilib-rium consequences cause the trade names to shift toward their strengths and, as it turns out, the equilibrium monetary value is lower, and net incomes are lower, with three trade names than with two trade names. The consideration advertisement and the distribution consequences besides turn out to generalise. Whether or non the trade name should besides counterstriking depends on the many inside informations of the job.

Using Ideas to Brita ‘s Response to PUR

Although PUR is already in the market at the clip of the instance, the ac-tions by Target and by Procter and Gamble behave as if PUR were assailing Brita. To use the defensive selling scheme consequences you will hold to con-struct a qualitative value map, see the relation costs and benefits, and do some suggestions.

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Some Mentions

For those pupils who would prefer the mathematics and the more elaborate theory, this note is based on the undermentioned articles.

Hauser, John R. ( 1986 ) , “ Theory and Application of Defensive Strategy, ” The Economics of Strategic Planning, , 113-140.

______ ( 1988 ) , “ Competitive Price and Positioning Strategies, ” Marketing Science, vol. 7, No. 1, ( Winter ) , 76-91.

______ and Steven M. Shugan ( 1983 ) , “ Defensive Selling Scheme, ” Marketing Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, ( Fall ) , 319-360.

______ and Birger Wernerfelt ( 1988 ) , “ Being and Uniqueness of Price Equilibria in Defender, ” Marketing Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, ( Winter ) , 92-93.



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