Nursing has been considered to be both an art and a science, the blend of knowledge, technical ability, to perform and the attitude and empathy that a nurse implements across their practice in patient care (Wilson, S. 2017, 5e). This Essay will describe Patricia Benner’s theory, From Novice to Expert, and the five steps included in the theory. The relationship between the art and science of the theory to contemporary nursing practice will be discussed. Nursing profession has drastically evolved since the Florence Nightingale Era, where an emphasis that nurses has to express femininity as an idea and the science needed to be taken out due to it belonging to the males or doctors (context of Nursing 3e)
From Novice to Expert is made up of five steps, novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert and is used in clinical-based practice. Benner used the Dreyfus Model as a foundation for her work and adapted it to clinical nursing practice (nursing theories). Each step builds on the other, moving to the next step is not in regards to the longevity in which a nurse has practiced rather it is a refinement of practical experience in which autonomy can be shown (Benner, 1984, p. 36). The goal of the theory is not how to be a nurse rather how the nurse obtained the knowledge to become autonomous. The knowing how, knowing that, component of the theory suggests that nurses gain knowledge and skills without ever learning the theory (nursing theories).