Population group| Explanation of effect of these influences on long term health. | Babies/infants0-9 months| * Breast milk is really good for babies as it provides all the energy, nutrients, antibodies and fluids that a baby needs in order to grow and develop healthy during the first six months of life. * Eating up to two portions of oily fish a week while breast feeding is good as eating fish is good for the development of your baby’s brain and eyesight. * Drinking caffeine and alcohol when breast feeding is not recommended as these pass into breast milk and may affect your baby’s sleeping, feeding or digestion. Bottle feeding should still provide a baby with all of the nutrients needed as there is a very strict criteria in which formula products must meet. * Foods such as wheat, eggs, fish, shellfish, and certain cheeses should be avoided in infants under 6 months as this will reduce the risk of allergies developing or exposure to harmful bacteria. | Kumar, a 10 year old Hindu boy who lives with parents | * Children need a good supply of protein and other nutrients including calcium, iron and vitamins A and D because childhood is an important time for growth and development.
A child needs calcium for healthy bones and teeth. A child needs vitamin D as it helps bones grow stronger along with calcium. * A child needs iron for healthy blood and it also helps fight infection. * By eating a vegetarian diet, you could end up deficient in some nutrients, including protein, iron, calcium and vitamin B12. | A 16/17 year old girl in your student group who works part time | * A teenager may be more aware of their appearance which could lead to a poor diet and in some cases an eating disorder. * Grabbing quick snacks are often high in saturated fat, salt and should not be used as an alternative to healthy meals as this will not give a person a balanced diet. John an obese 35 year old living in the developed world who has diabetes type 2| * Type 2 diabetics must keep their blood glucose levels as normal as possible through a balanced diet and exercise, otherwise large amounts of glucose can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs which could lead to a stroke, heart disease, retinopathy and many other disorders.
You should not drink too much alcohol if you have diabetes as it is very high in sugar which will raise your blood sugar levels. Too much saturated fat in your diet (often found in cheap snacks) could lead to obesity which contributes to many health conditions such as heart disease and raise a person’s cholesterol level. * Smoking drains the body of many essential vitamins and minerals, affecting your ability to absorb these vital nutrients especially vitamin C. Your body needs more vitamin C to counteract the damage that smoking causes to your cells. Sariqua 20 year old student now living away from home who is pregnant. | * Grabbing quick snacks are often high in saturated fat, salt and should not be used as an alternative to healthy meals as this will not give a person a balanced diet. * It is important in pregnancy to eat a balanced diet
Many women think that you need to eat for two when they are pregnant as this can encourage them to put on too much weight during pregnancy. When you are pregnant you are advised to avoid alcohol altogether, particularly during the first three months because there is a link between alcohol consumption and the risk of miscarriage. * Muslims celebrate Ramadam which involves a period of fasting. They must ensure they eat a balanced diet either side of their fasting days to ensure nutritional health. However pregnant women are exempt from this fasting period. * If you take part in a lot of sport you will burn a lot of calories, so it is important for your energy intake to match that of your exercise level.