It is reported that “ In the about 200 members of the United Nations, except that the members of OECD are the industrialised developed states, the remainder of them are developing states with unequal degrees of development. ” ( Zhiping, 78 ) We can see from these words, in the international community, developing states have a immense household. And members in this household have different degrees of development, based on their different political, economic and societal fortunes. However, no affair what are the differences among the developing states, they all have a big spread with developed states. Specially, with the farther deepening of the economic globalisation and integrating, the spread between high developed states and low developing states becomes larger and larger. Harmonizing to the development economic theory, there are many obstructions to the economic growing and development of the low development states. This paper will show what obstacles affect the development of the low developing states from the state of affairss both at place and abroad.
Domestically, there are assorted facets, including political, economic, societal and historical factors. For the political obstructions, it embraces “ Government stableness, political independency, and authorities ‘s economic policies. ” ( Linlin, 48 ) It is different from the developed states, “ most low developing states have experienced a long-run instability of the domestic political, wars, and frequent alterations of the authorities, which earnestly hinder the economic growing and development. ” ( Linlin, 53 ) As we know that authorities play a major function in a state ‘s economic development, and it can supply a steady development environment for the economic growing. If a state has a less powerful or independent authorities, it will be the most serious obstruction to development, because the political environment of a state has a really close relationship with its economic policies. A suited economic policy can assist economic growing and advance the societal and political development, or a bad policy will impede the development and even hault the growing that has alreay begun.
As for the economic obstructions, economic growing is based on economic development. There is a “ hapless barbarous rhythm ” exist in the economic system of LDCs. ( Chongtai, 98 ) The low developing states have a low income, lower degree of engineerings, and so they have less capital to set into production, so they have less end product and so they can acquire less income. This sort of barbarous rhythm is a serious obstruction to economic growing. Furthermore, the low developing states have a low per capita income. Even though some states have experienced a quickly economic development and accrued tonss of income, while they have a instead low per capita income. The ground for the low income per capita is that LDCs have low productiveness and undeveloped engineerings, and human capital and resources are non used adequately. Additionally, the economic and finicky policies of low developing states are non complete. On one manus, authorities has inordinate intercession in the economic system market, which leads the market lose much freedom and bit by bit lose the capableness of self-regulation. On the other manus, authorities has no effectual policiy and system to command the economic system market, so many good capital and resources are wasted because they can non be used moderately.
For the societal and historical obstructions, most developing states have experienced a long clip colonial domination, which cause them spend tonss of clip to happen the appriorite direction system to develop their political relations and economic system. Furthermore, the population growing rate is besides a chief job for the economic development of low developing states, such as China and India, each of them will account for approximately one fifth of the Earth ‘s entire population. This job will convey many jobs such as the immense load of raising kids and the intense competition on the same occupations.
From the international point, some economic experts believe that “ the major obstruction to development faced by the developing states comes chiefly from the external conditions of the underdeveloped universe, particularly the assorted international political and economic force per unit areas provided by the affluent industrialised states, which damage the attempts that the developing states make for their development, ” ( Weiping, 123 ) These obstructions include “ the unequal international economic order, the impairment of the footings of trade, and some obstructions that posed by developed states. ” ( Weiping, 126 ) Naturally, we can non deny that the low developing states can besides acquire economic benefits from bing among the high developed states. For case, low developing states can larn advanced engineerings from the high developed states, and these developed states have set good illustrations for LDCs to do economic policies, pull off the industries and oversee the different economic systems. However, these small advantages can non forestall us to reason that the assorted obstructions that the developed states posed to developing states cause a easy growing of LDCs ‘ development. For illustration, the international trade is the of import status for development, and LDCs can derive benefits from the just and free trade environmant, while the developed states limit assorted sorts and measures of trade goods of developing states, or implement the alleged trade protection, merely like the U.S. put limitations on Chinese exports of steel, which demage the development of bilateral trade, particularly for the development states.
In decision, since 1980s, more and more scientists begin to make research on the deep-rooted jobs and obstructions that hinder the economic growing and development of the low developing states. Based on their analysis, they have pointed that “ merely good and efficient institutional agreements are the existent drive force for economic development in developing states. ” ( Keqin, 67 ) And an efficient institutional agreement can greatly salvage the dealing costs of the societal economic system, which has been confirmed by the historical development and economic growing experience of the western industrialised states, and besides are confirmed by the economic growing consequences of some developing states, like China and India. Therefore, farther completing and bettering the economic system and establishment is the most effectual manner for LDCs to get the better of the obstructions and recognize the development. However, the low developing states should develop their economic system on the premiss of protecting the ecological environment and accomplish the sustainable development, or it conveying a big loss for their states.
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