Occupational Exposure to Diisocyanates in Polyurethane Foam Factory Workers

The aim of the study entitled “Occupational Exposure to Diisocyanates in Polyurethane Foam Factory Workers” conducted by Swiercynska-Machura, Brzeznicki, Nowakowska—Swirta, Walusiak-Skorupa, Wittczak, Dudek, Bonczarowska, Wesolowski, Czerczak and Palcynski in 2015, was to be able to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC) among polyurethane foam products factory workers. The materials and methods used include thirty workers who had a physical examination and skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined.

The results have shown that the most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. The spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction in mild degree were observed in five (5) workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4′-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) were not detected in any of the patients’ serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP) did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged from 0.2–58.9 ?g/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI) value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV – 1 ?mol amine/mol creatinine). The researchers did not find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA) in the post-shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use.

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Therefore, the determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be an adequate method for occupational exposure monitoring of DIC, which may help to determine workers at risk as well as to recognize hazardous workplaces.Thirty laborers aged 23 to 58 were assessed. The business span of the present work post was 9.63±8.7 years. The predominance of hypersensitive manifestations is introduced in Table 4. The most regular indications announced by the examined subjects were: rhinitis (N = 7, 23.3%) and skin side effects (N = 5, 16.7%). Skin prick tests were performed in all the plant laborers. Sharpening to no less than 1 basic allergen was seen in 26.7% of the subjects (Table 5). Grass dusts (N = 5) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (N = 4) were the most continuous allergens that caused positive results. Resting spirometry was completed in all the 30 patients. Benchmark esteems were typical in 25 people (83.3%). Spirometry changes of bronchial block of a gentle degree were seen in 5 laborers. One of them has been before analyzed as asthmatic. Methacholine challenge tests were per-shaped in those 5 subjects. This test uncovered non-particular with HP 5973 mass indicator. Adjustment principles were set up by spiking pee of the unexposed individual with ensuing weakening of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA (5 information focuses at extend 0.125– 2.5 ug/l) and MDA (5 information focuses at run 0.2– 4 ug/l) blend. So arranged arrangements were dealt with an indistinguishable route from the pee tests (Swiercynska-Machura, Brzeznicki, Nowakowska—Swirta, Walusiak-Skorupa, Wittczak, Dudek, Bonczarowska, Wesolowski, Czerczak and Palcynski, 2015).

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I personally believe that for this study, the most applicable process would be the skin prick test. The skin prick tests were performed on the volar piece of the lower arm with the same allergens, where tree and grass dusts were included, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, forms and plumes (Allergopharma, Germany). The SPTs were performed by the institutionalized systems. All SPTs included positive (10 mg/ml histamine hydrochloride, Stallergenes, France) and negative controls (phenylated glycerol-saline, Stallergenes, France).

The outcomes were surveyed after 15 min. Positive response was characterized as a wheal distance across of no less than 3 mm without response to the diluent and within the sight of a positive response to histamine.Skin prick test (SPT) is the best test in identifying IgE mediated type I hypersensitive responses like unfavorably susceptible rhinitis, atopic asthma, intense urticaria, nourishment sensitivity and so on. SPTs are done to know unfavorably susceptible affectability and connected for conceiving immunotherapy as the remedial methodology. In spite of the fact that skin-prick testing is broadly accessible, there are still a few regions of contention in the literature and an absence of institutionalized rules for skin-prick testing. The age from which skin-prick testing can be securely performed is a theme of contention (Coetzee, Green, and Masekela, 2013).

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