After being elected in October 2009 as Director-General of the UNESCO, Ms Irina Bokova emphasized that third instruction is going a nucleus subject for many states in the universe ( UNESCO, 2009 ) . From Norway to Spain, from Australia to Russia, from Canada to Chile, the Tertiary instruction is facing the alterations of the universe in the globalisation epoch. In times where supranational organisations with involvement in instruction have much to state, some states are seeing in those organisations steering entities in the complex scenery. Chile is one of those states.
By taking portion of legion international understandings and organisations, Chile is immersed in the so called “ globalized universe ” . In this sense, a city manager command for the state is to go portion of the Organization for the Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) , in which Chile has been take parting since 1997, as spouse state, and since 2007 as a campaigner to rank. In the coming old ages Chile expects, in words of the Chilean finance curate, “ to have and to supply to the OECDaˆ¦ ” ( OECD YouTube, 2009 ) . Third instruction is a nucleus concern in the future rank of Chile to the OECD. As Chilean president, Michel Bachelet said “ for us, Education is the first precedence ” ( Conicyt, 2008 ) .
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The OECD defines itself as a forum, as an international panel where of import concerns of its members are discussed ( OECD 2009b ) . This paper will show a general reappraisal of the establishment and its policies in ulterior old ages. This paper will besides do a concise reappraisal of the entry of a new member to the establishment: Chile. Besides the general facets, seems to be interesting to hold a expression in how the positions, policies and facts relate both histrions, the OECD and Chile. In this sense, this paper will do a brief reappraisal of the worlds linked to the policies. OECD uses, as a cardinal component for those treatments and policies ushers publications, the comparing between states. As several different indexs can be used to compare states educational systems, and the nature of this paper does n’t let the analysis of all those indexs, this paper will reexamine issues on entry rates to third instruction and the public/private support in third instruction, both of import issues in the field of third instruction of high importance for Chile and the OECD.
To show address the issue of this paper, it will be of import to hold a general position of the province and chief concerns of the Chilean national third instruction establishments and the third instruction country of the OECD. For this, it will be necessary to do a surface reappraisal of the policies and general organisation Chile and OECD in the third instruction country. The OECD instruction board of directors will be presented as the chief holder of the political relations of the entity, and a reappraisal of its city manager concerns will be presented. A deep study on Chilean third instruction has been published in 2009 by an OECD and a Wold Bank joint committee, which worked in the state for several months. To foreground the countries of entry and support where the study has made city manager observations, and where Chilean third instruction system may hold city manager obstructions in meeting suggestions, a general reappraisal of the Chilean third instruction will be presented.
For analyze the entry and support issues the third instruction country were the OECD and Chile are working in, the chief beginning of certification are the organisations publications ; the policies documents, the discourses, the cyberspace beginnings. This paper besides will take history of the critics on the function of the OECD in third instruction, “ as an commiting mechanism of planetary political orientations, including market liberalism and new managerialism ” ( Lingard et elevation 1998, p. 267 ) .
2. The OECD.
The Organization for economic co-operation and development ( OECD ) is an intergovernmental organisation, conveying together 30 member states from 4 continents. The OECD defines itself as an organisation that “ provides a forum where authoritiess can compare and exchange policy experiences, place good patterns and promote determinations and recommendations ” ( OECD 2009b, P. 8 ) , or as a “ alone forum where the authoritiess of 30 democracies work together to turn to the economic, societal and environmental challenges of globalisation ” ( OECD 2008a, p. 2 ) .
The OECD was founded in 1961 as a replacement of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation and has it roots in Marshall ‘s program for Europe ‘s economic Restoration after the Second World War. The First members were 18 states from Europe plus The United States. By 1973, the organisation had included five new states from Asia and Oceania. In recent old ages, has included six new members from Europe and North America, to make a 30 states rank. As in the foundation of the organisation, the common form for all members is a democratic political system and a free market economic system. Nowadays, OECD states account for 18 % of the universe population, 71,9 % of the GNI ( gross national income ) , and 60,5 % of the universe trade ( OECD 2009b ) .
Due to the high economic power that shows the above figures, the OECD has been besides named as a “ rich-manA?s nine ” ( The economic expert, p. 22 ) . Surely there are no members from undeveloped states from Africa, Asia or South America, but non all members states in the OECD would be considered by everyone as developed economic systems. The OECD glossary for statistics itself does n’t see Mexico or Turkey as developed states. ( http//stats.oecd.org ) . For case, non all OECD member states have similar HDI ( Human Development Index, which considers life anticipation, instruction and GDP ) , and Turkey, a laminitis state, or recent members as Poland or Mexico, are good illustrations of this. ( United Nations, 2009 ) The twelvemonth 2007, Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia where invited by the OECD to get down rank negotiations ( OECD 2007b ) . Chile is likely to be the first South American state in the organisation.
Since OECD members “ aˆ¦can comparison and exchange policy experiences, place good patterns and promote determinations and recommendations ” ( OECD 2009b, p. 8 ) , the organisation can be considered as a high valuable instrument for policy shapers. The OECD works in a broad country of involvements ; macroeconomic policies, instruction, employment, environment, scientific discipline and engineering, agribusiness, public administration, entrepreneurship, revenue enhancement policies and cooperation for development ( OECD 2009b ) . Member states are the chief beginnings to specify those countries of involvement, but as Lingard et Al. ( 1998 ) notes, in an interesting manner, is the OECD itself the 1 who many times suggest, alteration and theoretical accounts those countries of involvement, through the work of non-governmental research communities, the publications of surveies, statistics digest and comparings, conferences and meetings. “ Dialogue, consensus, peer reappraisal and force per unit area are at the very bosom of OECD ” ( OECD, 2009b, p.8 ) .
The OECD defines its mission as follows: “ The Organization ‘s mission is basically to work for a stronger, cleaner, fairer universe economic system ” ( OECD, 2009b, p.8 ) . Even that, as it was mentioned, the OECD works in several countries of involvement, being instruction one of those. Since the latest 70`s the OECD has been strongly committed to education policies and patterns, ever driven by the economic character of the organisation, which subordinates all the other countries of work in the establishment ( Papadopoulos, 1995 ) .
Directorates are the basic organisational entities in OECD. Education was portion of Employment, labor and societal board of directors personal businesss until 2001. The capital importance of instruction for the OECD was stated in the creative activity of its ain board of directors since 2002. ( OECD 2003a )
2.2 The OECD and the Tertiary Education.
The kernel of the economic positions of the OECD in the field of instruction is clearly stated in the web page of the board of directors. For the OECD “ Education is cardinal to economic growing and to people ‘s ability to gain a life. Education is of import for societies, excessively, as they respond to increasing cultural and cultural diverseness, inequality and the demands of deprived people ” ( OECD, www.OECD.org ) .
Before 2002, the being into the OECD enchantress worked specifically in the third instruction country was the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation ( CERI ) . The CERI, created in 1968 by the council of OECD, had as chief aims to analyse and develop research in instruction and larning issues, research instruction in the national and international contexts, and facilitate cooperation between member states ( OECD, 2001 ) . The CERI was under the authorization of the secretary-general, and was supervised by a governor ‘s board, composed of experts from each member states. From 2002, the CERI became a city manager division of the Directorate of Education. Even that, the CERI still holds a relevant importance into the board of directors, and besides of the work of experts of its member states the CERI has “ links with educational and other research associations andA national and international multidisciplinary webs ” ( OECD. www.oecd.org ) .
Third instruction is a mayor issue in OECD surveies, publications, statistics and paperss. Series of publications like “ Education policy analysis ” , “ Education at a glimpse ” and the “ policy briefings ” are cardinal paperss to hold on the OECD policies and concerns in third instruction in ulterior old ages. Some of these paperss were published until 2001 by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation ( CERI ) , and since the twelvemonth 2002 are published by the OECD instruction commission and the OECD board of directors for Education. A reappraisal of the different subjects and concerns in these paperss can exemplify the general position of the organisation towards third instruction.
By the mid 90`s, womb-to-tomb acquisition is a construct, which is present in most of the organisation ‘s publications in instruction. In “ Education Policy Analysis ” 1997, the organisation trades with the issue of “ effectual investing in instruction ” and states that a turning acknowledgment of member counties of the importance of womb-to-tomb larning for everyone besides must see the step of the acquired accomplishments or cognition, in order to “ do informed determinations about effectual human capital investing ” ( OECD,1997 ) . In third instruction, this position is reflected in two of the chapters of the papers, which analyzes outgos on instruction, and womb-to-tomb investing in human capital. It is interesting to observe the usage of the strongly economic related term of “ human capital ” .
In 1997, the OECD Labour curates and the Social personal businesss Ministers approved the womb-to-tomb acquisition construct as an indispensable attack to confront the challenges in their several countries ( OECD, 1998 ) . The 1998 publications ( instruction policy analysis, instruction at a glimpse ) address the fact that even womb-to-tomb acquisition has been widely accepted, still needs to hold an operational significance. The womb-to-tomb acquisition as a policy usher is the chief topic in 1998`s Policy Analysis publication. This Publication deals with the funding issue from the scholar ‘s position. The papers analyzes “ who pays what? ” in different member states. One of the decisions is that “ aˆ¦students are puting resources in their ain instruction, and may good go more effectual scholars as a consequence of holding this fiscal interest ” . ( OECD, 1998a, P.68 )
“ Redefining third instruction ” , published in 1998, is a cardinal publication for understanding most of the waies The OECD has followed in ulterior old ages. Among other of import definitions, it states “ a new significance of third instruction ” ( OECD,1998B, P.14 ) In this papers, the challenge of the demand of educated population, the turning demand for instruction, the limited response of systems, and several related issues for policy shapers are lined out.
The fiscal issue is an of import topic in the 1999 and 2000 policies in the OECD. The resource needs for funding womb-to-tomb acquisition is one of the side jobs that members may confront. The organisation proposes that one of the ways to turn to the challenge is to cut down public support and to increase the private support ( OECD, 1999A ) . In the 90A?s, registrations in third instruction rose by 40 % in member states ( OECD, 1999B ) . This means that member states are covering with new groups of pupils and face new challenges non merely in the fiscal country, but besides in organisational and teaching-learning Fieldss
In 2001 and 2002, “ womb-to-tomb acquisition for all ” was once more highlighted as the chief policy model for the OECD third instruction policies. “ Lifelong acquisition will be indispensable for everyone as we move into the 21st centuryaˆ¦ . “ ( OECD, 2001a, p.5 ) . The Lifelong acquisition construct takes a more matter-of-fact signifier in the policy paperss. How states are nearing the policies, how the national systems will hold to cover with issues of entree and equity, and how to utilize the limited economical resources they have ( OECD 2001a, 2002 ) . In this facets, the OECD recommends the decrease of instructor costs, the usage of ICT`s and highlights the function of private sector in third instruction ( OECD, 2001a ) . The function of “ Human Capital ” in the new economic systems is the manner OECD addresses third instruction pupils and the map in societies ( OECD, 2001b ) .
Third Education establishments and how they can cover with altering spiels of administration, the demand for commissariats in equity and diverseness in third instruction establishments and how they can have “ sustainable investing ” ( OECD, 2003a ) are of import issues in 2003 and 2004 paperss ( OECD 2003b ) . In the general position of womb-to-tomb acquisition, it became of import the relationship between third instruction policy shapers and other countries of the states ; in this sense is introduced the argument of inducements to lifelong larning through revenue enhancement policies. In the OECD position, the non universities alternate establishments, nowadayss new defies to the national systems. These establishments, even they have economical benefits, may show quandary in support and quality. ( OECD 2004 )
In 2006, the meting of OECD Education Ministers was held in Greece. The subject was quality, equity and efficiency in Third Education. In the gap comments, Angel Gurria, secretary general of the OECD introduced several of the general points for treatment. When mentioning to the challenges for the states in the country of funding, he stated that “ one theoretical account that certainly does n’t work is the one which rather a few states are saddled with, peculiarly in Europe. In these states, third instruction is publically financed for the most partaˆ¦ ” ( OECD 2006, p. ) .
Besides funding and quality, one of the of import issues discussed in the meting was the phenomenon of internationalisation of third instruction, observed by the OECD in recent old ages. Even it is non something new for HE establishments, “ between 1998 and 2004, the figure of foreign pupils in the OECD country rose by 70 % to make 2,3 million pupils ” ( OECD 2006, P.69 ) . In this scenario, OECD refers to the demand of holding an internationalisation policy, reasoning that the development of such policies must be made in coordination with other state ‘s organic structures, to bring forth existent effects. ( OECD, 2006 )
Sum uping, in the country of entree to third instruction and support of the establishments it is possible to place the undermentioned policy waies ( OECD 2008b ) : Lifelong acquisition is a macro model for policies in third instruction. States must develop a support scheme that facilitates the part of the third system to society and the economic system. Counties must utilize cost-sharing between the State and pupils as the rule to determine the support of third instruction. States must publically subsidize third programmes in relation to the benefits they bring to society. States should endorse the overall support attack with a comprehensive pupil support system. Members should beef up the integrating of be aftering between secondary and third instruction systems and must see positive favoritism policies for groups whose anterior educational disadvantage is good identified. States must supply inducements to widen engagement and supply excess support for pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds.
3.1 An Overview
Chile is a located in the southern South America. Has a long seashore of the South Pacific Ocean to the West, surrounding with Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. The population of Chile is 16,4 1000000s people, being the 7th largest population in Latin America. The population grow rate is 0,88 and a birthrate rate of 1,96. The population between 0-14 old ages is 23,2 % , between 15-64 is 67,8 % , and 65 or older is 9,1 % . Life anticipation is 77.34 old ages. The official linguistic communication is the Spanish, and most of the Chileans define themselves as Catholics. Over 96 % of the population over 15 old ages can read and compose. ( OECD, 2009a ) .
Harmonizing to the National Constitution, Chile is a democratic democracy, divided into executive, legislative, judicial subdivisions, where the President is the caput of the province and the caput of the authorities. The National Congress is the representative of legislative power, and the Supreme tribunal is the representative of the judicial power. Chile has a long democratic tradition, broken by footings of absolutisms. Between 1973 and 1989, a absolutism ruled the county, presenting city manager economic and politic reforms. Since 1990, a alliance of centre-left political parties, called “ concertacion ” is in the authorities. ( Collier et al. 2004 )
Chile has a market economic system. Harmonizing to the OECD “ the Latin ‘s America most successful economic system ” ( OECD 2009b ) . Since the economic reforms in the 70`s, the Chilean economic system is characterized by a high degree of economic gap, and is frequently said that is the state with more bilateral of regional trade understandings in the universe. ( CIA, 2009 ) . Chile has trade understandings with the United States, European Union, Japan, China and 53 other states or organisations. Greatest portion of Chilean economic system is based is natural resources exportation. Minerals, fruits, vino, forests and pink-orange history for the most of the export incomes ( OECD, 2007b ) .
The GDP is 245.1 one million millions and the GDP per Capita ( PPP ) is 14,900. Even the GDP per capita ( palatopharyngoplasty ) in Chile is one of the highest in Latin America ; the distribution income is the 2nd most unequal in the part after Brazil. ( OECD, 2009a ) Compared to the OECD states, the GDP is closer to states like Poland or Estonia. The economic development of Chile is been systematically applauded by international organisations as The World Bank ( universe bank 2009 ) , the International Monetary Found ( America economia, 2009 ) and the OECD ( OECD 2003c ) .
3.2 Chilean educational system and Third Education.
3.2.1 Chilean educational system.
In Chile, kids starts the compulsory instruction ( which last 12 old ages ) at 6 old ages old. The educational system is divided in primary instruction ( 8 old ages ) and secondary instruction ( 4 old ages ) In footings of the International Standards Classification of Education, the first 8 old ages of instruction comprises ISCED 1 and ISCED 2, and the 4 old ages that follows are ISCED 3, that can be either ISCED 3a or ISCED 3b. In Chile, pupils finish their mandatory instruction at 18 old ages old. After finishing the 12 old ages of compulsory instruction, pupils obtain the “ Certificate of secondary instruction ” , ( licencia de educacion media ) which allows them to entree third instruction ( to universities entry it is necessary to take a national choice trial ) .
Figure1. The construction of Chile educational System. ( Taken from OECD third instruction in Chile, 2009 ) .
3.2.2 Third instruction.
The third instruction system has three childs of establishments: The Universities ( class length of 5 old ages of instruction ) , the professional institutes ( class length of 4 old ages of formation ) and the proficient preparation Centres ( class length of 2 old ages of formation ) . Masters ( 2 old ages length ) and Doctorates ( 4 old ages ) are given merely by the Universities, and pupils must hold a university grade to entree ( Chilean ministry of instruction, 2007. )
It is good known that third instruction is a precedence in the Chilean society. From authorities to the people, the third instruction plays a capital function in the development of the state, as national studies and international surveies shows ( OECD 2009b, CONICYT, 2009 ) . As an grounds of the national engagement of the whole community, in 2006 monolithic presentations of secondary pupils and third instruction pupils, supported by the workers brotherhoods provoke a national political treatment about instruction ( El Mercurio, 2006 ) . As a response, a national committee was created to suggest a new general jurisprudence of instruction, which was discussed in the national Congress for two old ages. The new legal model for instruction, the “ General Law of Education ” ( Ley General de Eduacion ) came into force in September 2009 ( Diario legal, 2009. ) The function of the province and the private function in instruction were the Centre of the pupils and workers brotherhood ‘s protests and were besides the chief point of divergency between right and Left political parties. This treatment is still relevant to analyse the function of supranational organisations, as the OECD or the Word Bank.
About the fiscal position of the third instruction establishments, the Universities, enchantress provides academic, professional or proficient making can be public support universities or private universities. Public support universities are besides called “ traditional universities ” , and were founded before 1980 ( OECD 2007b ) . Traditional universities offers undergraduates and graduate students grades, and are the establishments were most of the research is made. Private universities started after 1980, and concentrate largely in undergraduate instruction. Few of these establishments have postgraduate grades or research plans. All universities are by jurisprudence non net income establishments. The Professional institutes witch can supply proficient and professional grades, but non academic grades, are all of them private establishments, and the jurisprudence allows them to be for net income establishments. Technical preparation Centres, enchantress can supply proficient grades, but non academic grades, are all of them private, and the jurisprudence allows them to be can be for net income establishments. ( Chilean ministry of instruction, 2007. )
4. Chilean third system ‘s entry rates and Funding in OECD comparing.
Chilean third instruction system has been merely late reviewed in deep for a committee of the OECD. “ Reviews of national policies for instruction: Third instruction in Chile ” ( OECD, 2009b ) is a broad and good documented inform of the province of Chilean third instruction. In this study, the committee ( composed of World Bank representatives, OECD representatives and Chilean authorities representatives ) reappraisals, evaluates and do recommendations in different facets: the accomplishments and chief issues in third instruction, the entree and equity job, the relevancy of the third formation, the quality of the system, the research and development, the authorities and direction, the funding issues and the transparence and answerability.
Most of the analysis in the “ reappraisal of Chilean third instruction ” is based en the statistic informations collected by Chilean national establishments, and so are compared to the figures of OECD states, and those indexs are published in the one-year publication “ OECD instruction at a glimpse ” . As the intent of this paper is to show a general overview of the OECD policies and how Chile can confront their entry to the Organization, merely some of the indexs are traveling to be presented. Harmonizing to the “ Education at a Glance policy briefing 2008 ” the undermentioned indexs may be relevant for international comparing:
Table 1. Selected indexs for comparing entry rates, and funding between Chile and The OECD states.
Graduation rate of upper secondary
Entry rate to tertiary tipe A
Entry rate to tertiary tipe B
Entry rate to progress research programmes
Third alumnuss ages 24-64
Third alumnuss ages 18-24
Entire disbursement in third degree instruction as proportion of GDP
Spending per pupil in USD ( PPP )
Private outgos in third instruction
Beginnings: Education at a Glance 2008, Education at a Glance 2009.
It is possible to happen comparings to the OECD for these figures in some publications as “ Education at a Glance ” ( OECD 2009c ) and in the “ Review of third instruction in Chile ” and “ Education at a Glance, briefing note for Chile ” ( OECD, 2008c ) . Here is presented some of the relevant points in those comparings, harmonizing with the purpose of this paper.
In 2008, Chile had a graduation rate of secondary instruction of 73 % , below the OECD norm of 83 % , but better than Spain, New Zealand and Mexico. This figure has increase significantly from 1995, when it was merely 46 % .
As the “ Education at a Glance briefing note for Chile ” notes even Chile has a cumulative outgo per pupil of USD 20,254 for pupils aged 6 to 15, much lower than the OECD norm of USD 67,895, “ the per centum of the population aged 35-to-44-years who have attained at least upper secondary instruction in Chile is 52 % , which is more than two-thirds of the OECD norm of 71 % . Chile has a similar per centum of population aged 35-to-44-years who have attained at least upper secondary instruction as states apportioning a higher cumulative outgo per pupil, like Italy ( USD 70 126 ) , Poland ( USD 32 913 ) and Spain ( USD 61 860 ) ” ( OECD 2008c, P. 9 )
The entry rates to third instruction in Chile are higher than expected, given the alumnuss rate. Stats shows high entry rates of 43 % to third instruction A ( OECD norm is 56 % ) , and 34 % to third instruction B ( OECD norm is 16 % ) . These figures are similar to Belgium, Greece and Japan.
In 2004, third instruction alumnuss were the 13 % of the cohort 24-64 old ages, half of the OECD norm. By 2008, the rate of third alumnuss had reached a 18 % of the 24-34 cohort, still low compared to the 32 % of the OECD. Even that, Chilean rate is higher than Italy, Czech Republic or Slovenian Republic.
The entry rate to progress research programmes is 0,3 % , somewhat higher than Mexico ( 0,2 % ) and much lower than the OECD norm of 2,8 % ( OECD 2009c ) .
As a part of the GDP, the entire outgo in instruction is 6,4 % , compared with a OECD norm of 5,7 % . In Tertiary degree, Chilean outgos are is 1,6 % of their GDP in third instruction A ( OECD norm is 1,2 % ) and 0,4 % of the GDP in third instruction B. In words of the Chilean reappraisal squad, “ this implies ineffiencies in the third system ” ( OECD 2009b, P.23 ) .
Chile has the lowest public portion in instruction outgos that any OECD state. Chile ‘s portion of private support of educational establishments is larger at the third instruction degree, where private beginnings in Chile reach up to 84,5 % , whereas the OECD norm is 27 % . This figure is higher than other states like Korea ( 60.5 % private ) and The United States ( 68.4 % ) ( OECD, 2009b ; OECD, 2008c ) . From that 84.5 % , 83.7 % comes from household income, and merely 0,9 % from other private establishments. In Korea, household income histories for the 55,6 of the private outgos, and in the United States, household income histories for the 35,1 of the private outgos.
There is certain understanding about the Chilean Economical development. As shown before, figures shown Chile has systematically increased its national merchandise to be considered the most developed economic system in South America. Nevertheless, it has been a changeless concern for people and national authoritiess to transform those economic figures in more echt societal development ( Collier et al. 2004 ) . That is the treatment that frames support and entree to third instruction in Chile. That treatment is besides pertinent when the Chilean accession to OECD is discussed.
The OECD is in its really nature an organisation committed to the economic development. As been said, all the countries of OECD are under the general position of economic development. Papadopoulos ( 1994, cited by Lingar 1998 ) noted that in the last 30 old ages ( before 1994 ) there were tensenesss between the societal and the economic in the OECD`s educational policies. The paperss reviewed for this paper, published in the last 12 old ages, shows little fluctuations on a certain position of third instruction closely linked to certain position of economic develop. The spreading in the usage of the term “ Human Capital ” in the OECD publications seems to demo the attack of the establishment to the third instruction.
As argued, non all OECD states have similar economic or “ human development ” degrees, but surely most of the members are extremely developed. This means that most of the members in the board of directorss and committees are stand foring the involvement, concerns and positions of the developed states. It seems sensible to believe that in the board of directors of instruction, and specifically in the third instruction field, the work is done taking history the most common jobs and concerns that those states trades with. Then, the inquiry arises: How Chilean world tantrums with the OECD world? How equal are the concerns, proposals, and suggestions made by the OECD expert ‘s committee to the Chilean province of third instruction?
4.1 Meting the OECD recommendations on entree and support.
Merely few indexs of entree and support are discussed in this paper. A elaborate, in deep treatment of entree and support exceeds the nature of this work, but as presented here, surely helps to chalk out how the OECD third instruction policies relate to Chilean third instruction.
As figures shows, secondary graduation rates are somewhat lower than OECD states, and better than some European OECD states ( even the cumulative outgos are much lower in Chile that in Italy or Spain ) . When those pupils entree to third instruction is of import to take history of the quality of instruction they received. In the “ National reappraisal of Chilean third instruction ” ( OECD 2009b ) , it is clearly stated that a low measure of lower economic background pupils is come ining to the third instruction. The committee says that “ most of this equity gaps has its roots in the different formation that secondary schools gives ” ( OECD 2009b, pag 285 ) .
The reappraisal besides notes that there are of import attempts to better the poorest pupil ‘s secondary instruction, and encourages Chilean authorities to strongly follow the execution those enterprises. The committee proposes this under degree immature should hold excess classs to make certain degree. ( OECD, 2009b ) . Surely, the educational degree of pupil go forthing the secondary instruction, whom must take the national selectivity trials ( PSU ) , is one of the most of import jobs in order to entree University third instruction. But the proposal of holding excess classs does n’t take history that in Chile “ at age 15, pupils must follow 1 210 hours of mandatory direction, which is at least 300 hours more than the OECD norm ” . ( OECD 2008c ) . Then, the recommendation may non be effectual and neither efficient.
The quality of secondary instruction seems to be the key when the possibilities to entree and retaining in third instruction are discussed. The PISA scrutiny consequence shows the low degree of secondary instruction. With a mark of 438 points, Chile is in broad-spectrum one of the lowest tonss and surely below the OECD norm of 500 mark points. Policies should n’t be in the way of “ more ” , but “ better ” .
But even secondary pupils, after holding a good mark in the national selectivity trial, achieve the possibility of entry to a University, must confront a city manager obstruction, the economic cost. “ Comparing tuition fees with per capita income clearly revels that the cost of surveies is significantly higher in Chile than OECD states that charge tuition feesaˆ¦ Chile is about twice every bit high as Korea and three times every bit high than Japan, US and Australia. ” ( OECD 2009b, p.113 ) . The OECD reappraisal says that harmonizing to international criterions “ the cost degree Fahrenheit third instruction in Chile is really highaˆ¦ and merely 13,8 % of all pupils receive a scholarship of some sort, compared to 51 % in the in the US ” . ( OECD 2009b, p.287 ) . Lower economic background pupils normally entries third B, ( Professional institutes and Technical preparation Centres ) where even lower scholarship or credits are granted. ( OECD 2007c ) .
How can pupils confront the job of financing their surveies? The reply seems to be clear: by their ain. This means that province is non taking a protagonist function in the third instruction in Chile. As reported, Chile has the lowest public portion in third instruction outgos that any OECD state. In the third system, private beginnings in Chile reach up to 84,5 % , of the entire outgo, much more than states like Korea ( 60.5 % private ) or The United States ( 68.4 % ) ( OECD 2009b ; OECD,2008c ) . In a underdeveloped state with an expensive third instruction, and a comparatively low familiar income, the fact that more than 70 % of the support of third instruction is coming from households is at least, curious. The reappraisal of Chilean tertiary system committee suggested that “ the authorities of Chile demands to give high precedence to the farther enlargement of pupil assistance chances to guarantee that no qualified pupil is prevented from come ining and go oning third instruction of fiscal grounds ” ( OECD, 2009b, p.113 ) .
That suggestion is expectable, and possibly obvious. But the fact that Chile already spends 1,8 % of its GDP in third instruction, more than OECD norm of 1,6 % , and the fact that more pupils are come ining every twelvemonth to third instruction, makes a more complex scenario. Most of the treatments and solutions may depend more on political determinations than merely simple “ give money to the pupils ” . The function of the province in the third instruction, the extent of it via media with persons and the society seems to be the nucleus treatment. As been show, the Chilean policies in third instruction are aligned with supranational organisations as the World Bank or the OECD, for whom Chile is a “ theoretical account ” state.
OECD publications have been covering with the job of funding since several old ages, and general policies strongly recommend the addition of private disbursement. Angel Gurria, secretary general of the OECD said “ one theoretical account that certainly does n’t work is the one which rather a few states are saddled with, peculiarly in Europe. In these states, third instruction is publically financed for the most partaˆ¦ ” ( OECD 2006, p.5 ) In this sense, Chilean entree and support theoretical account is a theoretical account that “ plants ” and decidedly is a theoretical account that fits with the OECD expected theoretical account.
Even the secondary graduation educational degree and support troubles, by 2008, the rate of third alumnuss had reached 18 % of the 24-34 cohorts, even lower than the 32 % of the OECD, this rate is higher than Italy or Czech Republic, and higher than any state in the part. As said, entry rates of 43 % to third instruction and 34 % to third instruction B. It is expected that for 2010, 40 % of the 12-24 cohort will be enrolled in a third instruction establishment ( OECD reappraisal, 2009 ) . In this recent third instruction mass system one may anticipate, as in the secondary instruction system, jobs with quality. Further surveies should turn to this issue.
Chile will be portion of OECD by 2010. The procedure of rank lasted more than 13 old ages, and of import advancement in several countries of the county were made. Since 20 old ages ago, Chilean authorities and the whole society have been systematically interested in enhance and develop the whole educational system, and third instruction has been a precedence in these attempts. Boosted by the economic development, enterprises for develop the third system became a necessity. As in other countries of the state, international organisations were the mention for these demands. The OECD is one of those organisations.
In this paper has been argued that in its nucleus nature, the OECD is economic organisation. The OECD defines itself as a forum, as an international panel where of import concerns of its members are discussed ( OECD 2009a ) , and it uses comparing between states to urge and place “ good patterns ” between states. Unquestionably those “ good patterns ” are chosen harmonizing a given position of economic system and society. It has been mentioned in this work that OECD positions in third instruction has been ever connected with those economic sciences and comparative guiding rules.
In this work we drawn the general construction of OECD and we gave a general position of it involvement, concerns a chief policy suggestions. A general position of Chile and it third educational system was briefly reviewed. To associate the OECD involvement and policy suggestions to the Chilean third system, this paper worked in two indexs of two facets of third instruction surveies: entree ( entry rates ) and support ( public/ private ) . The OECD has published a Chilean third system reappraisal, ( OECD 2009b ) where this two facets, were analysed in deep. In this paper some of the suggestions and analysis of the OECD publication made on those subjects where related to the general policies of OECD, happening that the suggestions and standard in the analysis fits with The OECD current policies.
It is clear that most of the Chile ‘s general indexs in third instruction are far from the OECD norms. But, at the same clip, the construction and form of the third educational system is closer to the “ coveted ” theoretical account than a theoretical account that must be wholly changed to suit with the supranational organisation recommendations. In this work it is clear that some of the thoughts of Lindergard ( 1998 ) who identified OECD “ as an commiting mechanism of planetary political orientations, including market liberalism and new managerialism ” . ( page 267, Lingard, 1998 ) ” are valid to the relation between Chile and the OECD.
In 2003 the OECD released a major study on tendencies and driving factors of income distribution, “ Turning Unequal? ” ( OECD 2008d ) . The chief determination is that income inequality has widened in more than three-fourthss of OECD states over the past two decennaries ( OECD 2008d ) . As income inequality has been identified in this work as one the city manager barriers in entree and support in Tertiary instruction, is it proper to believe about the farther deductions of the OECD and Chile relationship.