There are assorted houses which lie between perfect competition and monopolizer. The two major of this are monopolistic competition and oligopoly.
Monopolistic competition can be defined as a market construction which consists of a big figure of comparatively little houses viing with each other in footings of merchandise quality, pricing every bit good as marketing the merchandise. These houses normally enjoy the freedom of entry and issue in and out severally in the industry. monopolistic market constructions usually appear really competitory but they do non exhibit a perfect competition, this is because all the houses in in a monopolistic market have the freedom to put its ain monetary value as coveted and none of the house can act upon the market monetary value in which it exist by usage of its size. In add-on to its operation, the grade and efficiency of this market construction operation is achieved by the thought that all monopolistic competition houses tend to bring forth differentiated merchandises. For illustration in media market, there are those who produce magazines while others focus chiefly on telecasting their intelligence. This is because they strongly believe that bring forthing differentiated merchandises every bit good as publicizing them provides a strong footing for their sale to the consumers every bit good as high quality merchandise production. It is argued that excessively much of advertisement leads to clip and resource wastage as advertizement in the long tally raises the monetary value of a merchandise. Monopolistic competition can besides be best described in a diagram both in the short tally every bit good as in the long tally. The diagram below illustrates a monopolistic competition market operation in the short tally ;
In the short tally, monopolistic competition market
, that is, houses in this market do their ain determination in monetary value and end product. At this point, they produce up to the degree where fringy gross and fringy cost equates. i.e. MR=MC. Firms earn really good positive net incomes in the short tally, though these net incomes are non guaranteed for longer period. Net incomes are maximized where fringy gross peers fringy cost and a point above the fringy cost curve.
In the long tally, monopolistic competition net incomes are eliminated and are equal to zero. In order to achieve its equilibrium, a demand curve of a house must be tangent with the mean entire curve cost so that net incomes equal to zero as shown below ; .
Economists argue that in the long tally, monopolistic competition market constructions are really efficient since there is riddance of economic net incomes. However, monetary values are usually higher than the fringy cost therefore negatively impacting consumers & A ; acirc ; ˆ™ manner of buying or devouring a merchandise. In add-on, the mean entire cost is maximized instead than minimized ensuing to non-realization of economic systems of graduated table.
Some market structures merely similar monopolistic competition exhibits certain features of a monopoly and a perfect competition market, such market construction are known as oligopoly. Particularly, oligopoly can be defined as a market construction dwelling of little figure of comparatively big houses. These houses have legal barriers or natural barriers which prevent the entry of other new houses into the market. Oligopoly market dominated by two houses is called a duopoly, which leads to the cournot theoretical account formation. Cournot theoretical account is a theoretical account dwelling of two houses in an oligopoly market, where an in agreement concluding degree of end product is determined through end product accommodation determination to separate it from the end product produced if the market was to be left runing competitively or as a monopolizer. In an oligopoly market construction, merchandises are either differentiated or are homogenous. It is besides true that a houses behaviour in an oligopoly market is extremely dependent on the behaviour of other houses in the same market. This is the major common characteristic to all the houses in oligopoly market. Oligopoly market construction exhibits a collusion theoretical account, , where a little group of houses, referred to as a trust, unite together and make up one’s mind on an in agreement monetary value and end product, unlike in monopolistic competition market. This collusion occurs where there are comparatively little houses and where pricing and end product finding understanding is expressed.
Oligopoly has a particular demand curve which is kinked. The major premise of this kinked demand curve theoretical account is that each house has strong believe that if a house decide to raise the monetary value of its merchandises, it is most likely that other houses will non follow that tendency, but if a house cuts its monetary value so it follows that other houses will follow so as to acquire more clients every bit good. Therefore there is elastic demand for monetary value additions and inelastic demand for monetary value decreases in an oligopoly market, this shows that monetary values in oligopoly market construction are really stiff. In add-on, oligopoly market is characterized by many purchasers and few houses, they advertise their merchandises and their information sing the market is somewhat imperfect. There is no conspiring in this market. Oligopoly uses game theory, as a tool for supervising strategic behaviour, to assist put measure and monetary value.
The diagram below clearly illustrates how oligopoly market construction operates ;
It is clear that if addition in monetary value by one house is ignored by another house while lessening in monetary value by one house is responded to really fast by other rivals, cut downing their monetary values every bit good, there will be a kinked demand curve. It maximizes net income by puting monetary values at the point ( P1 ) and measure at point ( Q2 ) where the fringy cost curve cuts the spread of the fringy gross curve.
Analysiss of the above two market constructions make consumers indifferent in which market construction to accommodate for their day-to-day merchandises of ingestion. Many consumers go for the oligopoly while others prefer perfect monopoly sing the advantages and disadvantages of each market.
Oligopoly is considered favourable with other consumers because it is seen to hold comparatively stable monetary values, these aid consumers to pull their budget and program easy with their outgo. Competitive nature of this market construction is usually enjoyed with consumers as the houses compete in take downing their monetary values every bit good as in puting a really high to quantify their merchandises. Consumers hence find it really easy to compare monetary values and measure hence traveling with the lowest identified monetary value and the highest identified measure. In add-on, clients enjoy the advanced nature in oligopoly market created by immense net income additions by the houses. Oligopoly serves best the clients who are apathetic of whether to travel for a perfect competition or monopoly. However, a major disadvantage experienced by consumers of this market construction is that there are no assortments of merchandises to take from because of the many barriers to come in the market by other new houses, consumers therefore merely chose from the limited merchandises provided.
Sing monopolistic competition, its consumers suffer monetary value favoritism since each house is free to put its monetary value with regard to clear merchandise distinction. Branding of the merchandises besides does non add a clear advantage to consumers. However, consumers are besides titled to many advantages in regard to this market. Free entry of new houses into the market allows the consumers to bask a broad assortment of merchandises. The merchandises are clearly differentiated and this eases the work of a consumer to place his or her normal merchandise easy. Besides, due to the high competitory nature of the houses in this market construction, consumers are assured of the best merchandise quality. In add-on to this, consumers are more informed about the market construction and how it operates.
In drumhead, from the analysis above, different consumers have different gustatory sensation and hence chose their market construction harmonizing to their penchant. However, consumers in the monopolistic competition market enjoys more and their advantages outweigh the disadvantages unlike with the oligopoly market