Oral Acute Toxicity Test
Acute toxicity studies revealed that administration of the crude extract of C. ficifolius (at a dose of 2000 mg/kg) did not cause significant changes in behaviors such as alertness, motor activity, breathing, restlessness, diarrhea, convulsions, coma, and appearance of the animals during the two weeks follow up period. Therefore, the LD50 of the extract is greater than 2000 mg/kg.
4.3. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Assays
4.3.1 Analgesic Activity
i. Writhing Test
As depicted in, the reduction in the number of contractions produced by all dose levels of methanolic extract, aqueous and butanol fractions of C. ficifolius were significant compared to negative control. The standard drug, aspirin at 150 mg/kg also prevented frequency of writhing significantly. The percentage pain protection produced by the use of the crude at three doses (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg), and 200 mg/kg of ASA was 24.9% (p < 0.05), 48.7% (p < 0.001),72.5% (p < 0.001) and 80.4% (p < 0.001), respectively as compared to the vehicle group. As illustrated in Fig. 5, 800 mg dose of 80% methanolic extract of C. ficifolius revealed nearly comparable reduction in the mean number of writhes to aspirin.
The butanol fraction resulted in greater reduction of the frequency of writhing response with protection 35% (p < 0.01) and 68% (p < 0.001) in the lower and higher dose levels, respectively. And also, a significant reduction in the mean number of writhing observed at dose of 100 mg/kg (33%, p < 0.01) and 200 mg/kg (62%, p < 0.001) of aqueous fraction (Fig.6).
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