An evaluation of the transplant process, potential complications and prognosis for a armor life will outline the risks and benefits of a kidney and pancreas transplant. What exactly is a transplant? A transplant is a surgical procedure where they insert someone’s organ into a patient who has lack of function of the organ in question (History Staff. One myth people have on transplant procedures is that doctors replace the organ being transplanted. In reality they do not remove it they simply set it aside of the new organ (River, Personal Interview). Transplants were not at first done using human organs.
In 1904 a pig kidney was transplanted into a human being (Winters 8). Later on that patient died after a couple of days. In the fall of 1997, 19 year old Richard Pennington was working when he came down with the flu (Winters 30). After testing he found out it was not the flu but fulminate hepatic failure. Fulminate hepatic failure is the sudden death of the liver (Winters 30). It is also known as acute liver failure, and it is when dead liver cells are replaced with scar tissue instead of new cells (Liver Disease Archives). Prompted by the urgency of the situation, Dry.
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Levy proposed a highly experimental procedure: hooking Robert up to a Next pig liver (Winters 30). Pennington was the first person to be approved by the government to be subject to such an experiment (Winters 30). Next is a company that has made it their mission to create the “perfect pig” (Stromberg). One who has human genes and its organs able to being transplanted into human beings successfully (Frontline). Pennington would be hooked up to the pig liver through which his blood would be circulating outside of Robertson’s body, instead of in the body.
That would keep him alive while they found a human liver to be transplanted (Winters 30). The pig liver was working Just fine six and a half hours eater when a liver was found Just 250 miles away (Winters 30). The first human organ transplant ever to be performed in the United States was a kidney transplant. In 1954 Richard Heroic was forced to quit his Job at age 24 due to kidney failure (History Staff. His doctor saw this as a great opportunity due to the fact that Richard had an identical twin brother, Ronald (History Staff. Not only was the procedure a success, but Richard lived 8 additional years after transplanted.
After this procedure was a success, transplants were finally considered a cure to life threatening diseases (History Staff. Although it was finally taken into consideration for saving lives, it was not the first time transplants were done in history. It has been recorded throughout history of these procedures being done on people. In ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese myths spoke of gods and healers performing skin transplants to repair wounds and burns (History Staff. In the 16th century Gasper Toxicological, an Italian surgeon, performed nose and ear reconstructions using skin from patients arms (History Staff.
In the sass, European surgeons, attempted to save patients by transplanting kidneys. The only problem was that instead of using human kidneys, they used animals such as, monkeys, pigs, and goats. Although the transplants were successful, no patient lived more than a few days, proving this procedure as a failure. Toxicological was the first to discover that the body would reject skin from another person (History Staff. As one can tell simply basing themselves on the definition and history of transplants, they are a very delicate and complicated procedure.
For a patient to even be considered for a transplant, they must meet certain requirements. Doctors aka major into consideration the age of the patient (River, Personal Interview). Dental records are viewed as well as medical history to take a look at the need of a new organ is. Doctors then make an assessment of the patient’s survival rate based on age, past medical records and how they seem to follow up in normal day to day living (River, Personal Interview). For example if they are older than 65, sometimes they will not consider it a necessity.
They would rather give the organ to someone younger. After initial assessment, if the patient is eligible they are placed on waiting sit. On July 19, 2002 the National Patient Waiting List for organ transplants had 80,312 registrations (McClellan 11). This waiting list has the name of patients who are in need of an organ; some patients are even waiting for more than one organ (Detonative). It is possible for a patient to be on the list but not active. The way it is determined if a patient I active or not is by how many requirements are met.
That is why it is very important for patients to be on top of their health. A normal waiting time pan is from six to ten years. If they are not up to date with health issues or aging care of themselves that wait could be longer. Besides being on a waiting list another common thing done is to receive an organ from a live donor. For example, if a daughter is in need of a kidney and the mom is compatible she can donate one of her kidneys. Mainly because of the genetic equality they share and also because it is possible for a human being to live with Just one kidney (River, Personal Interview).
In the case of a kidney and pancreas transplant, the patient is diagnosed with an end stage renal disease. The type of doctor to do this diagnosis is a Nephritis’s. Dry. Alexandra River, a well-known Nephritis’s from the Tucson area, has explained what the kidneys function is and what is considered to be an end stage disease. End stage means that their kidneys are not functioning to a reasonable level. Kidneys are the organs used for cleaning the human system. They help wastes leave the body, in the form of urine. If they don’t work then most commonly one will not urinate ad will have their body full of harmful toxins.
Kidneys also, as well as help eliminate wastes, help regulate blood pressure, stimulate red blood cell production and maintain calcium levels normal. For a pancreas transplant one must be a stage where your pancreas either does not produce insulin or produces it but it does not know how to use it (River). Due to the fact that the organs are in the body and transplants take so long to be completed, doctors came up with a way to in simpler ways “keep the patient alive” while they wait. Dialysis will help a patient in the meantime while the organ is located for the patient.
Dialysis is a way of making organs work while using a machine. In 1943 human kidney dialysis machines were used for the first time on human (Winters 8) the machine does the actions organs cannot do. There are two types of dialysis for kidney failure, Peritoneal and Hemophilia’s (River, Personal Interview). Peritoneal dialysis uses the peritoneal cavity on a humans stomach (Freshness). Doctors surgically insert a hose type tube in-between the flesh and the peritoneal wall right next to the belly button. It is a more complicated procedure because it has many steps and more room for infection (Freshness).
There are 3 types of solutions one can use 1. 5 %, 2. 5% and 4. 5%. Patients using the hose, puts the solution in and takes the one they had in already out. Every four hours the patient just change the liquid that is in your body to remove toxins (Freshness). This is a more controlled form of dialysis due to the fact that you control when the liquid goes in and when it comes out, another more popular way if dialysis is Hemophilia’s. Hemophilia’s is a way of dialysis which works with blood instead of liquid (Davit). In most cases they surgically insert a fistula in a patients arm.
A fistula is made by connecting a vein to an artery in the lower arm (Davit). This makes a dialysis access point for easy insert. For a fistula to form it may take a couple of months. Hemophilia’s uses a man-made membrane called a idealize. The idealize is a filter that when it is connected to the fistula it pumps out blood filled with toxins the body cannot filter on its own and filters it (Davit). After it is filtered it pumps the blood right back into the body. Usually this process takes about 3-4 hours, depending on how many toxins are in the blood (Davit).
The organ donor can either be a live relative or a deceased patient. An organ is found. As soon as all the tests are run and patient is compatible with the organ doctors will start to prepare the patient. The patient will sign papers and a notarized ill if requested (Guiros, Personal Interview). Doctors will create a long incision from half of the stomach to 2-3 inches below the belly button. They then place the new kidney and pancreas next to the useless organ. Then they staple everything back up. This procedure is a 10-11 hour surgery, if performed with no complications (Guiros, Personal Interview).
The patient is put in intensive care right after surgery for recovery. Recovery after such a big operation is not an easy process. First of all the recovery from surgery itself is difficult. The pain induced from such a large incision. The tomato is sore from so much that was moved in order to place the organs in there. Walking, moving, simply standing is a difficult process for a patient. The recovery from years of no urine produced because of kidney failure, and suddenly being able to produce urine and urinate is stressful.
Besides all that a transplant patient will have to take anti-rejection pills for life. The reason being is the human body is so intelligent that it can recognizes the new organ is not from its body and sees it as a threat and wants to fight it. In 1933, the first real attempt at transplanting a human kidney too human patient as done by Dry. You Vernon in Russia. A kidney was taken from a recently deceased individual and connected to a young woman who was suffering from lead poisoning. No mispronunciation was given. The kidney never functioned.
In 1948, Sir Peter Midyear performed experiments that for the first time defined the immunology of transplantation and began defining rejection. For his pioneering work in transplant immunology, Dry. Midyear received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1958. -GROAN B. CLINGFILM, MD, PHD Ann-rejection pills weaken the immune system and prevent the body from fighting against the organs. The most common ant-rejection pilled prescribed are given Program and Select (River, Personal Interview). In such a risky operation many things can go wrong. The simple surgery itself can result in disastrous results.
By being such a long operation, a patient can bleed to death. Another very common complication is the possibility of infections. By one’s body having an open wound, it makes it more prone to infections. In some rare cases doctors have left medical utensils INSIDE the patient’s body. There is a possibility of organ rejection as well. By placing the organ into the patient’s body and the body immediately rejecting it and it does not function at all. Sometime the rejection may come after, but in rare cases the organs don’t even “wait” until the surgery is completed.
Anesthesia can also cause complications to patients. It is sad to say but in some cases the patient never wakes up after the anesthesia should have worn out. Another common complication is leaks in the organs, because of loose stitches. In Mr.. Guiro’s case they had to perform an emergency surgery Just a week after he receives his organs. The doctors did so because they believed his pancreas was leaking. In his exact words he explained what happened that morning. They Just entered my room, told me I had to sign a couple of forms to allow them to perform blood transfusions and all that good stuff.
I asked the doctor what was going on. He told me they wanted to open me up again because they believed I was leaking. (Pancreas) I asked when they were planning to operate. The doctor Just looked at me and said in a serious and frightened tone of voice, “Right now, transport is on their way. ” I was so scared. It seemed as if they really didn’t know what was wrong with me (Guiros). Just like any high risk surgery this process can have much fragile as well s fatal complication (University Of Arizona Transplant Unit). Receiving a transplant does not mean the patient will have a normal life.
It simply means they will have an easier life. A patient will take medication for the rest of their life. Another down side is the constant care they have to have. The restrictions the patient has on his diet are infinite (University of Arizona Transplant Unit). Physical activities are also reduced, at least for a while, until the body gets used to the organs. A healthier diet is also something will drastically change in the life of a transplanted attain. Transplants are very much need, not only kidney and pancreas transplants, but in organs in general.
Sadly the need is greater than the supply. Thirty thousand persons each year re placed on the waiting list to receive an organ transplant and the list grows at the rate of one person ever eighteen minutes (McClellan 11). On Friday March 26, 1999, Russell Sheffield, a teenager from Bellingham, Washington had a fatal car crash that resulted in a tragic teenage death (McClellan 11). It might have been a very tragic situation for the family, but what they did not know was that Russell would still be able to make a difference even after death. His organs helped save many lives that day.