Washington AccordA is an international accreditation understanding for professionalA classs such as technology. It was established in 1989 and the signatory state as of 2010 are Canada, Australia, A TheA Republic of Ireland, A Hong Kong, A Japan, A New Zealand, A Singapore, A South Africa, A Taiwan, South Korea, A A Malaysia, theA United KingdomA and theA United States. Washington Accord recognizes that there is significant equivalency of plans accredited by those signers. Alumnuss from which of all time state which is a signatory state to it are recognized as holding met the academic demands for entry to the pattern of technology.
Below are the signatory accreditation organic structures of the Washington Accord and their several states with districts, and old ages of admittance:
Institution of Engineers AustraliaA ( Australia ; 1989 )
Institution of Engineers of IrelandA ( Republic of Ireland ; 1989 )
Institution of Professional Engineers New ZealandA ( New Zealand ; 1989 )
Hong Kong Institution of EngineersA ( Hong Kong ; 1995 )
Accreditation Board for Engineering Education of KoreaA ( South Korea ; 2007 )
Institute of Engineering Education TaiwanA ( Taiwan ; 2007 )
Board of Engineers, MalaysiaA ( Malaysia ; 2009 )
Accreditation Board for Engineering and TechnologyA ( United States ; 1989 )
Engineering Council of South AfricaA ( South Africa ; 1999 )
Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering EducationA ( Japan ; 2005 )
Institution of Engineers SingaporeA ( Singapore ; 2006 )
Canadian Council of Professional EngineersA ( Canada ; 1989 )
Engineering Council UKA ( United Kingdom ; 1989 )
Result Based Education
Outcome-based instruction is a learning theoretical account of instruction that focuses onA empiricallyA mensurating pupil public presentation, which is calledA results. Outcome-based instruction rejects the traditional focal point onA what the school provides to pupils, in favor of doing pupils demonstrate that they know and are able to make whatever the needed results are. Each and every instruction bureau has its ain results and its ain methods of mensurating pupil accomplishment harmonizing to their ain result. Consequences of these measurings can be used for assorted intents. An bureau may utilize the information to cognize how good the full instruction system is executing, and another may utilize its appraisals to cognize whether an single pupil has learned the needed end product.
In Malaysia, OBE is implemented in most of the universities to carry through the demands of EAC ( Engineering Accreditation Council ) , BEM ( Board of Engineers Malaysia ) , Washington Accord. BEM registries alumnuss and professional applied scientists as a qualified individual in their peculiar field. The programmes attain standard comparable to planetary pattern, hence accreditation is required. EAC is the organic structure delegated by BEM which requires elements of results in technology course of study to guarantee CQI ( Continual Quality Improvement ) civilization in the spirit of OBE. OBE is a natural manner of what higher degree instruction should be based on to supply globally qualified alumnuss.
Key characteristics which are used to judge ifA a system has implemented anA outcomes-based instruction systems are as below:
Creation of theA course of study frameworkA that outlines specific, mensurable results. The criterions included in the models were decided by the country ‘s normal political procedures.
A committedness is to non merely supply an chance of instruction, but to hold larning results for promotion. Promotion to the following class, aA sheepskin, or other wages is granted upon accomplishment of the criterions, while excess categories, reiterating the twelvemonth or other effects entail upon those who do non run into the criterions.
Standards-based assessmentA determines whether pupils have achieved the declared criterion. Appraisals may takeA anyA signifier, so long as the appraisals really measure whether the pupil knows the needed information or can execute the needed undertaking.
A committedness that every pupil of all groups will finally make the same criterions.
Difference of Outcome Based Education
Students are givenA classs and rankings compared toA each other in aA traditional educationA system. Contented and public presentation outlooks are based chiefly on what was taught in the yesteryear to pupils. The chief end of traditional instruction is to show the cognition and accomplishments of the old coevals to the new coevals of pupils. It is besides to supply pupils with an environment in which to larn, with small attending to whether or non any pupil of all time learns any of the material.A It was plenty that the school presented an chance to larn.
Actual accomplishment was neither measured nor required by the school system. Furthermore, under traditional method, pupil public presentation is expected to demo a broad scope of abilities. Failure of some pupils is accepted as it is natural and ineluctable in certain circumstance. The highest-performing pupils are given the highest classs and trial tonss, and the lowest acting pupils are given low classs.
Discuss Current Key Issues
OBE is viewed as a valuable replacing of the traditional theoretical account of comparative ranking by ability and acquiring base on balls for simply sitting through category. Politicians frequently back up OBE because of its vision of high end products for all groups. Conservatives like the thought of mensurating end products instead than inputs and take a firm standing that pupil demonstrate larning instead than merely demoing up. Advocates believed that all the pupils can larn, irrespective of ability, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and gender. Furthermore, OBE recognizes that a complex organisation is more likely to bring forth what it measures and to understate anything it thinks unneeded. Adoption of mensurable criterions is seen as a agency of guaranting that the content and accomplishments covered by the criterions will be a high precedence in the instruction of pupils.
Chiefly, OBE seeks to reject a rank-ordered definition of success by basically assuring that all pupils will execute at least every bit good as the declared criterions. Practically, OBE frequently consequences in big additions in disbursement more resources by pouring it into pupils who were antecedently allowed to graduate while being functionallyA illiterateA andA innumerate. OBE ‘s nonsubjective criterion is besides to set a brake onA class rising prices, to the hurt of pupils who prefer high, but meaningless, classs.
Criticism of OBE ( Outcome Based Education ) falls intoA a few major groups such as oppositionA to standardizedA testing, unfavorable judgment of inappropriate results, deficiency of grounds thatA OBE works, excess burdenA on teachers and educational establishments and disfavor of something that is notA OBE.
Issues in Higher Education
Accountability towards pupils
Satisfying demands of industry
Keeping academic criterions
Accountable to allow supplying organisations
Issues in Teaching and Learning
Student intake – making, measure
Staff – Qualification, competence
Teaching procedure – transparent, control
Assessment – results
Courses – up to day of the month, relevant
Facilities – sufficient, up to day of the month
Surveies and Discussions
As from study conducted, the followers can be discussed:
100 % of the 137 people whom answered the study are from third degree of surveies and belongs to the age group of 18-30. The purpose study is merely distributed to people who educated up to third degree is because for better, concerned and enlightening feedbacks.
From the study analysis, 62 % ( 84 ) of pupils had suggested OBE as their preferred instruction system. The other, remains 28 % ( 37 ) preferred to hold the traditional instruction system as most of them wants the instruction system to stay the same as ever. 10 % ( 13 ) pupils would wish to hold a new sort of acquisition system which is far off better than OBE.
Decision and Suggestion for Improvements
By implementing this, competence model will ensue in successes, challenges and a list of indispensable ingredients for outcomes-based instruction. Implementation scheme besides will enable this large-scale course of study alteration for outcomes-based instruction. With outcome-based instruction, many alumnuss are naming for a broader setA of rating techniques. Early effort of a graduate pupil from assorted sorts of plants has proved hard.
Many of them are concerned about who will find the scholar results for their schools. Many wonder if there will be existent consideration of what scholar outcomes the public wants instead than presuming that pedagogues know what ‘s best for the pupils.
As a decision, Outcome Based Education will standardise all higher learning establishment larning procedure which will do all states which is a signatory state to Washington Accord equal. By this, all the alumnuss are equal in their peculiar field all around the universe.
All higher acquisition institutes from every state must implement Outcome Based Education and must be registered under Washington Accord to do no difference between alumnuss from other institute or state.
Division Of Work
Introduction & A ; Background Study
Discuss current key issues
Case surveies and treatment about the instances
Decision and suggestion for betterments
Response per centum
Traditional instruction system