I. Name of Disease
Leprosy ; different signifiers being Lepromatus. Tuberculoid. Multibacilliary. and Paucibacilliary
II. Name of Bacteria
III. Description of the Bacteria
Mycobacterium leprae. the bacterium which causes Hansen’s disease. is a rod-like B with parallel sides and rounded terminals mensurating 2-7 micro-millimeters in length and 0. 3-0. 4 micro-millimeters in breadth. It can merely be seen under the negatron microscope when stained. It is acid-fast and alcohol-fast. intending non decolorized by acid or intoxicant after staining. as most bacteriums retain dye after an acid or intoxicant rinse. It occurs in big Numberss in the lesions of Lepromatous Hansen’s disease. chiefly in multitudes within the Lepra cells. frequently arranged like packages of cigars. Ironss are ne’er seen. Intracellular and extra-cellular multitudes. known as globi. consist of bunchs of B in capsular stuff. Under the negatron microscope. the B appears to hold a great mixture of signifiers. The most common is a somewhat curved fibril incorporating irregular agreements of heavy stuff in the form of rods. Short bacillar constructions can besides be seen and besides heavy spherical signifiers.
The leprosy causation bacteriums are likely spread through tegument interruptions. such as a contaminated acerate leaf. and sneezing and coughing. The leprosy B travel through the air in droplets released when people cough or sneezing. The bacteriums can last three hebdomads or longer even outside the human organic structure. such as in dust or on vesture.
IV. Description of the Disease
When Mycobacterium leprae was discovered by G. Armauer Hansen in 1873. it was the first bacteria to be identified as doing disease in adult male. Leprosy. besides called Hansen’s disease. is an infective disease that affects tegument. peripheral nervousnesss. mucose membranes. such as eyes and respiratory piece of land. Though slow turning. it is one of the world’s most disabling diseases. The effects of Hansen’s disease are discolored spots on the tegument. which are followed by numbness in the spots. taking to gradual but entire loss of feeling. The skin lesion can be individual or multiple. normally less pigmented than the environing normal tegument. Sometimes the lesion is ruddy or copper-colored. A assortment of skin lesions may be seen but level. raised. or nodule-like are common. Sometimes. people will hold crisp strivings of “pins and needles” . Leprosy is besides one of the prima causes of sightlessness.
Although infective. Hansen’s disease is one of the least contagious of all diseases. Merely a little figure of people with this disease are really contagious. and with regular medicine. they shortly become non-contagious. Most people get natural unsusceptibility and have mild symptoms. sometimes called tuberculoid Hansen’s disease. but an estimated five per centum can non develop this unsusceptibility and contract the terrible signifier of the disease. known as lepromatous Hansen’s disease. Equally many as one one-fourth of untreated patients go handicapped.
When leprosy attacks the tegument. it destroys nerve terminations. perspiration secretory organs. hair follicles. and pigment-producing cells. It besides attacks peripheral nervousnesss. so the ability to experience light touches and hot or cold goes foremost. After a clip the affected portion may lose the ability to experience anything. Injuries. cuts. and Burnss that patients do non experience go a changeless danger. For people who develop some unsusceptibility to leprosy. this is approximately every bit far as the disease progresses.
In those with lepromatous Hansen’s disease. the disease can bring down great desolation. If left untreated. B come ining the mucous secretion liner of the olfactory organ can take to internal harm. which in clip causes the nose to fall in. If the facial nervus is affected. one loses the eye blink physiological reaction of the oculus. which can take to blindness. if the nervus about the cubitus is affected. portion of the manus becomes asleep and the little musculuss become paralytic. Over clip people with advanced Hansen’s disease may necessitate unreal pess or legs. or wheelchairs.
Death from leprosy itself is rare. although the organic structure is weakened and more susceptible to other diseases.
VI. Methods of Defense
Research workers in the yesteryear had been unable to make a vaccinum against Hansen’s disease because they were unable to turn a civilization in a trial tubing. More late. it was learned that armadillos can develop leprosy. This provided an experimental animate being for the first clip. and a vaccinum is now available. Several antibiotics are besides available. A three-drug combination as standard intervention. known as MDT. is normally recommended. Many instances can be cured between six months to three old ages. MDT normally makes a patient non-contagious within merely a few yearss. Recently. the Food and Drug Administration. or FDA. approved thalidomide for the intervention of certain signifiers of Hansen’s disease. Since this medicine can do birth defects. there are rigorous guidelines for its usage in adult females of childbearing age. Surgery. amputation. grafts. or decorative surgery may be needed to assist patients recover self-esteem. Deformities such as wrist-drop. foot-drop. or claw-hand may necessitate surgery for rectification.
VII. Methods of Immunization
The best manner to forestall the spread of Hansen’s disease is the early diagnosing and intervention of people who are infected. Immediate and one-year scrutiny for at least five old ages after last contact with a individual who is infective is recommended.
Attitudes and traditions about Hansen’s disease in the ancient universe continue to act upon the manner we think about the disease today. For 1000s of old ages. people with leprosy were taken to a priest for dispossession alternatively of to a physician for intervention. In the Middle Ages. people with leprosy were required to have on boness or bells to shout out “unclean” when nearing others. Peoples with leprosy and at that place clean kids were banished from their communities and confined in leper settlements.
Leprosy in all ages has been considered one of the more ugly diseases. and victims have been despised throughout history and maintain in separate topographic points like leper settlements and sanatoriums. Even today. most people with leprosy are shunned by their neighbours and are held at weaponries length. In the mediaeval period. leper settlements sprung up where victims of this then-untreatable disease would travel to easy decease from the unwellness.
The disease still occurs in tropical and semitropical states of Asia. Africa. and Latin America. particularly where crowded and insanitary conditions contribute to its spread. and even in the more developed states it crops up from clip to clip. In the United States. the disease is found largely in Louisiana. Texas. Florida. Hawaii. and on occasion in California. New York City. and other countries where immigrants from endemic countries have settled. Modern intervention has significantly reduced the figure of instances. nevertheless. and the World Health Organization. or WHO. is working to eliminate the disease worldwide.