In the 2007-2013 scheduling period, Romania is a full donee of the Structural and Cohesion Funds. All of its eight national parts are eligible to have EU fiscal support under the Convergence and European Territorial Cooperation aims ( Oprescu et al. , 2005, p. 6 ) . The entire EU budget allocated to Romania for the current seven-year scheduling period sums to a‚¬19.6 billion. This fiscal bundle is divided into three different classs. Out of the a‚¬19.6 billion, a‚¬12.6 billion represent the Structural Funds ( ERDF and ESF ) under the Convergence aim, a‚¬6.5 billion are designated to the Cohesion Fund under the Convergence aim, and a‚¬0.4 billion are allocated to the Structural Fund ( ERDF ) under the European Territorial Cooperation aim ( Hurjui, 2008, p. 116 ) . The perspective chosen in this paper illustrates the Structural and Cohesion Funds under the Convergence aim.
The considerable sum of fiscal resources allocated to Romania for the 2007-2013 scheduling period was determined as follows. As a Member State whose mean GNI per capita for 2001-2003 was situated below 40 % of the EU-25 norm, Romania benefited from “ a maximal degree of Structural Instruments transportations of 3.78 % of [ its ] GDP ” . At the same clip, as an eligible Member State for the Cohesion Fund, Romania was granted an extra one tierce of the overall Structural and Cohesion Funds allotment ( Government of Romania, 2007a, p. 152 ) .
Another of import facet to see refers to the fiscal inducements granted to the new Member States. In order to promote a better soaking up public presentation of the allocated fiscal resources, the European Commission promoted a simplified and flexible fiscal direction. First, the budget disbursement clip has been extended from the “ n+2 regulation ” to the “ n+3 regulation ” for the 2007-2010 period. For Romania and the other new Member States, this means that the allocated budget can be spent within three old ages from the twelvemonth of committedness ( n+3 ) . Second, a 5 % addition of the co-financing rate was applied. In other words, Romania and the other new Member States could profit from 85 % of the national public outgo financed by EU financess ( Zaman & A ; Georgescu, 2009, p. 139 ; Cace et al. , 2009, p. 12 ) . The given fiscal aid to the new Member States represents an effectual mechanism that facilitates the fiscal transportation of EU financess in order to guarantee the efficient execution of the EU Coherence Policy at the national degree.
Overview of the Operational Programmes ( OPs ) in Romania
The execution of the precedences defined in the NSRF for the 2007-2013 scheduling period is carried out through sectoral OPs. Romania established seven OPs under the EU Cohesion Policy to impart the Structural Funds ( ERDF and ESF ) and the Cohesion Fund to development parts: ( 1 ) OP Transport, ( 2 ) OP Environment, ( 3 ) Regional OP, ( 4 ) OP Human Resources ( OP HRD ) , ( 5 ) OP Increase of Economic Competitiveness ( OP IEC ) , ( 6 ) OP Administrative Capacity Development ( OP ACD ) , and ( 7 ) OP Technical Assistance ( OP TA ) . All seven OPs run under the Convergence aim ( Government of Romania, 2007a, pp. 6-7 ) .
Figure: Percentage Allotment by OPs in Romania during the 2007-2013 Time period
Beginning: Government of Romania ( 2007a, p. 155 ) .
In footings of per centum distribution, the bulk of EU financess are allocated to the OP Transport and OP Environment. As Figure 2 illustrates, a cumulative per centum of approximately 47 % of the available EU budget is allocated to large-scale undertakings of these two substructure programmes that are financed by the Structural Fund ERDF and the Cohesion Fund. This allotment lies behind the fact that the chief precedence of the EU Cohesion Policy in Romania is to better the state ‘s basic substructure and handiness. Harmonizing to the NSRF for the 2007-2013 scheduling period, the demand for dependable conveyance and environmental substructure constitutes one of the major jobs Romania faces ( Government of Romania, 2007a, p. 75 ) .
The following OPs that draw attending are the Regional OP and the OP Human Resources Development ( OP HRD ) . With a portion of 19.4 % and 18.1 % severally, the ends of these two Opss are to construct an appropriate concern environment, and to put in human capital. For the development of a more attractive and economic competitory market for new investings, a portion of approximately 13.3 % was allocated through a 5th OP, the OP Increase of Economic Competitiveness ( OP IEC ) . Finally, the OP Administrative Capacity Development ( OP ACD ) and the OP Technical Assistance ( OP TA ) have a complementary function to the other five OPs. These two OPs seek to advance an accountable and efficient public sector with respect to the procedure of determination devising and execution of undertakings, and to beef up administrative accomplishments in the populace sector ( Government of Romania, 2007a, pp. 153-154 ; Authority for Structural Instruments Coordination ( ACIS ) , 2010, pp. 26-27 ) .
In order to do usage of the a‚¬19.2 billion available for Romania under the EU Cohesion Policy, of peculiar concern is the successful execution of undertakings under each of these seven OPs. In this context, an efficient undertaking execution, accurate fiscal and direction control at the national, regional and local degrees are important.