Water is a precondition of life. Besides various uses of water, it is mainly used in irrigation as India is an agricultural country. Water is a renewable resource. Life is impossible without water. Its uses are limitless whether it is in home or in fields or in industries. We get water mainly from rain, rivers, wells, ponds and lakes. Sea-water is almost useless for domestic or industrial purposes. India is said to be a Monsoon country. But the distribution of Monsoon rainfall is uneven both regionally and seasonally.
Moreover, it is not dependable as its occurrence is not at stipulated times. River is the main source of surface water. The mean annual flow of the Indian rivers is estimated to be about 1,869 billion cubic metres (bcm). About 690 billion cubic metres or 36. 92 percent of it is available for use. On the basis of hydrology, Indian rivers are divided into: Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers. Himalayan rivers have their resources in the glaciers and snow fields, so they are perennial in nature. Peninsular rivers depend on monsoon rains, so they are seasonal. Type of water Drinking Water
The Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW), together with states, tribes, and its many partners, protects public health by ensuring safe drinking water and protecting ground water. OGWDW, along with EPA’s ten regional drinking water programs, oversees implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act, which is the national law safeguarding tap water in America. Ground Water This page includes links to the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water’s activities to protect ground water, including the Underground Injection Control Program, the Ground Water Rule and source water protection.
It also includes information on household wells and classroom activities related to ground water. Lakes Lakes and reservoirs cover nearly 40 million acres of the United States. This page includes the National Lakes Assessment, summaries of lake water quality, the Clean Lakes Program under the Clean Water Act, funding for lake restoration under the Nonpoint Source Program, and Lakes Awareness Month Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries and Beaches The Oceans and Coastal Protection Division envisions clean and safe oceans and coasts that sustain human health, the environment, and the economy.
Rivers & Streams Find links to data on the quality of the nation’s rivers and streams. Wastewater EPA’s Office of Wastewater Management (OWM) oversees a range of programs contributing to the well-being of the nation’s waters and watersheds. OWM promotes compliance with the requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Under the Clean Water Act, OWM works with EPA regions, states and tribes to regulate discharges into surface waters such as wetlands, lakes, rivers, estuaries, bays and oceans. Use of water Water in Daily Life
We wake up in the morning, take a shower, brush our teeth, grab a cup of coffee and head out for the day. Water is an important part of our daily lives and we use it for a wide variety of purposes. Water also plays a big role in our local communities. Without water there would be no local business or industry. Fire fighting, municipal parks, and public swimming pools all need lots of water. An array of pipes, canals, and pumping stations managed by our public water systems are needed to bring a reliable supply of water to our taps each day. Where does all this water come from?
It starts out as rain or snow and flows into our local lakes, rivers and streams or into underground aquifers. You can learn more about water in your state, including how it is being protected and where your local drinking water comes from. Form of water Evaporation Definition: Evaporation is the process of a liquid becoming vaporized. In other words, a change in phase in the atmosphere occurs when substances change from a liquid to a gaseous, or vapor, form. Because we are talking about atmospheric processes that drive the weather, we will refer to the evaporation of water although other liquids can evaporate into the air.
Also note that solids can evaporate, or be transformed into a gas, but in meteorology, this is generally referred to as sublimation. Evaporation in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the water cycle. Water on Earth’s surface will evaporate into the atmosphere as energy is absorbed by liquid water. Water molecules that exist in the liquid phase are free-flowing and in no particular fixed position. Once energy is added to water by heat from the sun, the bonds between the water molecules gain kinetic energy, or energy in motion.
Once the gas, called water vapor or humidity, reaches the atmosphere, various types of clouds can form. Evaporation and sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface and diffuses into a surrounding gas, it is said to have evaporated. Each individual water molecule which transitions between a more associated (liquid) and a less associated (vapor/gas) state does so through the absorption or release of kinetic energy. The aggregate measurement of this kinetic energy transfer is defined as thermal energy and occurs only when there is differential in the temperature of the water molecules.
Liquid water that becomes water vapor takes a parcel of heat with it, in a process called evaporative cooling.  The amount of water vapor in the air determines how fast each molecule will return to the surface. When a net evaporation occurs, the body of water will undergo a net cooling directly related to the loss of water. Condensation Water vapor will only condense onto another surface when that surface is cooler than the dew point temperature, or when the water vapor equilibrium in air has been exceeded. When water vapor condenses onto a surface, a net warming occurs on that surface.
The water molecule brings heat energy with it. In turn, the temperature of the atmosphere drops slightly.  In the atmosphere, condensation produces clouds, fog and precipitation (usually only when facilitated by cloud condensation nuclei). The dew point of an air parcel is the temperature to which it must cool before water vapor in the air begins to condense. Also, a net condensation of water vapor occurs on surfaces when the temperature of the surface is at or below the dew point temperature of the atmosphere. Deposition, the direct formation of ice from water vapor, is a type of condensation.
Frost and snow are examples of deposition. Water scarcity and its cause According to the press release of the Worldwatch Institute (September 23, 1999) “As world population approaches 6 billion on October 12, water tables are falling on every continent, major rivers are drained dry before they reach the sea and millions of people lack enough water to satisfy basic needs. ” In India the situation is very serious due to its vast arid areas and increasing population. Scarcity of water is a part of a global environmental crisis and is of utmost importance for the humanity survival.
These words, taken from The Financial Express of April 27, 2001, concerns India: “According to the ministry of water resources, ground water level in 16 states dipped to more than four metres in the period 1981-2000”. According to a BBC correspondent “Water shortages are likely to emerge as the major environmental challenge for India in the new millennium. ” “Why does water scarcity arise? 1) Population growth followed by increased water consumption “In India…the pumping of underground water is now estimated to be double the rate of aquifer recharge from rainfall.
The International Water Management Institute, the world’s premier water research group, estimates that India’s grain harvest could be reduced by up to one fourth as a result of aquifer depletion. In a country adding 18 million people per year, this is not good news. Over exploitation of the ground water “One of the biggest hurdles in addressing the problems related to ground water shortage is that replenishment of groundwater and augmentation of water supplies is primarily the state government’s responsibility.
Ground water exploitation has gone unchecked over the last decade which has now forced the Central Ground Water Authority to advise the state governments to take measures to check over-exploitation of ground water”. 3) Disputes and irregularities in sharing water of the rivers going through neighbouring states “The last few months have witnessed highly tense relations between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the release of water for saving the paddy crops in the Cauvery delta in the latter. … Such problems are not confined to these two States alone.
There are problems between Andhra Pradesh and Karanataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the like. It is not unusual to see the occurrence of severe drought in some parts of the country, while certain other parts are ravaged by floods. It is time the policy-makers think of a permanent solution to this problem which has become as perennial as the Himalayan rivers. The only tangible solution lies in creating the required infrastructure to divert the surplus waters available in one part of the country to the deficit areas. Urbanisation and industrialisation “In addition to population growth, urbanisation and industrialisation also expand the demand for water. As developing country villagers, traditionally reliant on the village well, move to urban high-rise apartment buildings with indoor plumbing, their residential water use can easily triple. Industrialisation takes even more water than urbanisation. ” “Some 70 per cent of the water consumed worldwide, including both that diverted from rivers and that pumped from underground, is used for irrigation, while some 20 per cent is used by industry, and 10 per cent for residential purposes.
In the increasingly intense competition for water among sectors, agriculture almost always loses. The 1,000 tons of water used in India to produce one ton of wheat worth perhaps $200 (Rs. 10,000) can also be used to expand industrial output by $10,000 (Rs. 5,00,000), or 50 times as much. This ratio helps explain why, in the American West, the sale of irrigation water rights by farmers to cities is an almost daily occurrence. ” Increasing water pollution “The most common method of disposal of solid municipal waste in India is by deposition in landfills.
In order to minimise the impact of such landfills on groundwater quality and the environment in general it is necessary to properly design and build these facilities to prevent pollution and put in place strict management controls to ensure they are operated correctly. Unfortunately this is rarely done as few towns and industries in the country make the necessary effort to ensure that their solid waste is treated or disposed of in a proper manner. The principal threat to groundwater comes from inadequately controlled landfills where leachate generated from the fill material is allowed to escape to the surrounding and underlying ground.
The chemical composition of such leachate depends on the nature and age of the landfill and the leaching rate. Most leachates emanating from municipal solid wastes are not only high in organic content but also contain some toxic material. Leachates from solid wastes of industrial origin, however, often contain a much higher proportion of toxic constituents, such as metals and organic pollutants. ” Harmful Effects Of Water Pollution * A number of waterborne diseases are produced by the pathogens present in polluted water, affecting humans and animals alike. Pollution affects the chemistry of water. The pollutants, including toxic chemicals, can alter the acidity, conductivity and temperature of water. * Polluted municipal water supplies are found to pose a threat to the health of people using them. * As per the records, about 14000 people perish or incur various communicable diseases due to the consumption of contaminated drinking water. * The concentration of bacteria and viruses in polluted water causes increase in solids suspended in the water body, which, in turn, leads to health problems. Marine life becomes deteriorated due to water pollution. Lethal killing of fish and aquatic plants in rivers, oceans and seas is an aftereffect of water contamination only. *
Diseases affecting the heart, poor circulation of blood and the nervous system and ailments like skin lesion, cholera and diarrhea are often linked to the harmful effects of water pollution. * Carcinogenic pollutants found in polluted water might cause cancer. * Alteration in the chromosomal makeup of the future generation is foreseen, as a result of water pollution. Discharges from power stations reduce the availability of oxygen in the water body, in which they are dumped. * The flora and fauna of rivers, sea and oceans is adversely affected by water pollution. Ways To Conserve * When washing dishes by hand, don’t let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sink with wash water and the other with rinse water. * Some refrigerators, air conditioners and ice-makers are cooled with wasted flows of water. Consider upgrading with air-cooled appliances for significant water savings. * Adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street. Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You can save up to 1,000 gallons a month. * Choose shrubs and groundcovers instead of turf for hard-to-water areas such as steep slopes and isolated strips. * Install covers on pools and spas and check for leaks around your pumps. * Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost vegetable food waste instead and save gallons every time. * Plant in the fall when conditions are cooler and rainfall is more plentiful. * Monitor your water bill for unusually high use.
Your bill and water meter are tools that can help you discover leaks. * Water your lawn and garden in the morning or evening when temperatures are cooler to minimize evaporation. * Wash your fruits and vegetables in a pan of water instead of running water from the tap. * Spreading a layer of organic mulch around plants retains moisture and saves water, time and money. * Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway and sidewalk and save water every time. * If your shower fills a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, replace the showerhead with a water-efficient model. Collect the water you use for rinsing fruits and vegetables, then reuse it to water houseplants. * If water runs off your lawn easily, split your watering time into shorter periods to allow for better absorption. * We’re more likely to notice leaks indoors, but don’t forget to check outdoor faucets, sprinklers and hoses for leaks. *
If you have an automatic refilling device, check your pool periodically for leaks. * Check the root zone of your lawn or garden for moisture before watering using a spade or trowel. If it’s still moist two inches under the soil surface, you still have enough water. When buying new appliances, consider those that offer cycle and load size adjustments. They’re more water and energy efficient. * Shorten your shower by a minute or two and you’ll save up to 150 gallons per month. * Upgrade older toilets with water efficient models. * Adjust your lawn mower to a higher setting. A taller lawn shades roots and holds soil moisture better than if it is closely clipped. * When cleaning out fish tanks, give the nutrient-rich water to your plants. * Use sprinklers for large areas of grass. Water small patches by hand to avoid waste.