This study surveies the engagement rates of the athleticss of Rugby League and Football. It uses the Economic theory of Income-leisure trade off to analyze the different demographic groups of participants in both athleticss and looks to happen the grounds why the engagement rate for each demographic is like it is. The chief factor found is the cost of clip and pecuniary cost of take parting in athletics. This is because it is linked to the participant ‘s income. Two policy possibilities are identified, which look at how cut downing the monetary value of take parting and shortening the athleticss could do them more accessible and finally better engagement rates among the demographics of socio-economic categorization, age and gender.
1. Income-Leisure Trade Off Model
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The Income-Leisure Trade Off theoretical account has basic premises. One is that the theory says that people make picks to maximize their public-service corporation ( U ) , through leisure clip ( L ) and devouring income ( I ) ( through work hours ) ( see equation 1.1 ) ( Downward 2009 ) .
( Equation 1.1 ) U=U ( I, L )
The other premise of the theoretical account is that Income and Leisure are “ normal goods ” , which means when income additions, the demand for them additions. Therefore, people want to devour more leisure and income. As they are normal goods, people may replace more of one for less of the other ( Downward 2009 ) .
Peoples ‘s picks are constrained by income and clip. The restraint of clip ( T ) is shown in equation 1.2, which indicates how work ( W ) ( which produces income ) and leisure ( L ) must be traded off as together they equal clip. Therefore, if you have more of one, you must hold less of the other. Labour_economics-shortrun_supply_smaller.png
( Equation 1.2 ) T=W+L
Figure ( Beginning: Mousely.com ) There ‘s merely 24 hours in a twenty-four hours, so there ‘s a pick whether to merchandise more income for less leisure or frailty versa to cover with this restraint. For illustration, if you work for 12 hours in a twenty-four hours, you will be left with 12 hours leisure ( Indicate A on figure 1 ) . If you work for 6 hours, you choose 18 hours leisure clip. Therefore, the theoretical account is based on trading off income ( work hours ) for an excess hr of leisure.
Another restraint is the pay rate, ( the rate of wage per unit of clip ) which influences income and this constrains how much leisure you consume. In equation 1.3, Income ( I ) is shown as being determined by the pay rate ( tungsten ) times by sum of work ( W ) . ( Down 2009 )
( Equation 1.3 ) I=wW
If the pay rate additions, income additions and frailty versa. For illustration, the pay rate is ?10 per hr and maximal public-service corporation is 24 hours. If you work for 24 hours and devour no leisure, you generate ?240 income. If you do no work, you generate no income. Peoples find their perfect combination ( any point on the Intelligence Community curve in Figure 1 ) in between like 12 work hours and 12 leisure hours or 8 work hours and 16 leisure hours and so on. It is the pick of whether to bring forth more income ( through work ) or to devour more leisure.
The cost of leisure is equal to the pay rate, because for every hr you consumed leisure and did n’t work, you lose ?10 as you could hold generated ?10 income ( see equations 1.4 and 1.5 ) .
( Equation 1.4 ) ( Equation 1.5 )
I=w ( U-L ) I=w ( U-L )
I=10 ( 24-12 ) I=10 ( 24-13 )
1.3 The Model ‘s Predictions
To do anticipations about the picks people make, the theoretical account assumes all people maximise their public-service corporation and that there is no otiose clip. Maximal public-service corporation is 24 hours because there ‘s merely 24 hours in a twenty-four hours. Two anticipations, the income and permutation effects are the anticipations made from this theoretical account ( Downward 2009 ) .
1.3.1 The Income Effect
The income consequence is based on the thought that as income additions ( which means the pay rate additions ) , demand for work lessenings because you can acquire paid the same to make less work and so demand for leisure additions ( Downward 2009 ) .
( Equation 1.6 ) ( Equation 1.7 )
I=w ( U-L ) I=10 ( U-L )
I=10 ( 24-10 ) 140=14 ( 24-L )
Equations 1.6 and 1.7 show that as the pay rate increased you could pass 4 hours less working and still gain the same income and devour 4 hours more leisure.
( Equation 1.8 ) ( Equation 1.9 )
I=w ( U-L ) I=w ( U-L )
140=10 ( 24-L ) 140=7 ( 24-L )
L=10 hours L=4 hours
If pay rate falls, demand for work additions and the demand for leisure lessenings ( see equations 1.8 and 1.9 ) .
1.3.2 The Substitution Effect
The Substitution Effect is the thought that because the pay rate has increased the value of an hr ( clip ) has increased. Therefore, the monetary value of leisure has increased. This means that demand for leisure falls because it ‘s a normal good and the demand for income additions intending more people will desire to work more. If the pay rate falls, so the opposite happens, demand for leisure additions and demand for work lessenings. ( Down 2009 )
2. Engagement Datas
2.1 The Data Set
The information regarding Football and Rugby League participants, will be used to analyze the issue of engagement in athleticss. This will be completed by looking at the demographics gender, age and socio-economic categorization to see which groups have highest engagement rates.
Table 1 shows the information set for both athleticss. The information is from the Active People Survey ( APS 1 ) . The per centums are non participation rates of the entire population, they are the per centum of the participants of the athletics from that demographic. For illustration, in the Football information, the 91.08 % is bespeaking that 91.08 % of football participants were male.
( existent figures )
( % )
( existent figures )
Age Classifcation ( old ages )
Socio-Economic Classification ( NS-SEC )
NS-SEC 1,2: Managerial and professional
NS-SEC 3: Intermediate businesss
NS-SEC 4: Small employers and ain history workers
NS-SEC 5: Lower supervisory and proficient businesss
NS-SEC 6,7: Everyday / semi-routine businesss
NS-SEC 8: Ever worked / long term unemployed
NS-SEC 9: Inadequately described / non classified
Table 1: Engagement Rates depending upon demographic categorization groups ( Beginning: Active Peoples Survey 2005-2006 )
2.2 Description of the Data
In footings of gender, both Football and Rugby League have more males take parting than females, 91.08 % of football participants are male and 8.92 % are female, whereas 90.48 % of Rugby League participants are male and 9.52 % are female.
Looking at the age demographic, more football participants are aged 16-24 ( 50.8 % ) than any other age group and there is a lessening in football participants as you get older. This is consistent in Rugby conference as 70.35 % of participants are between the ages of 16-24 and the per centum of participants decreases all the manner until the 65 plus age group, where there are no participants.
The information sing socio-economic categorization shows that In football 26.68 % of participants are from managerial and professional businesss ( NS-SEC 1,2 ) and 22.13 % are from routine/semi everyday businesss ( NS-SEC 6,7 ) . Similarly, in Rugby League the highest per centum of participants come from routine/semi everyday businesss ( NS-SEC 6,7 ) with 24.37 % of participants from that group and managerial and professional businesss ( NS-SEC 1,2 ) with 18.44 % of participants from that group.
3. Interpreting the Data
In both athleticss at least 90 % of the participants are male, hence the athleticss are being played more by males than females. The general tendency means that in footings of take parting the males have more leisure clip because there are more male participants. This should intend that the males are working for less clip and sing the income consequence, males may gain a higher pay rate which would intend that adult females had to work more hours to gain the same income. This indicates that they would hold less clip for leisure and would look for less clip intensive leisure, which squad athleticss are n’t. However, the income consequence applied here says females have less clip to devour leisure so may merely take part in other athleticss. However, if you look at the information utilizing the permutation consequence, there would be more leisure demanded by females because the pay rate is lower and they would replace work for leisure. The information shows that this is n’t the instance so here the income consequence must be ruling over the permutation consequence.
The demographic of age has interesting statistics linked to it. The theoretical account says that you trade off work for leisure clip, the information for both athleticss indicates that age is linked to engagement. This is because when you are younger, you participate more. Harmonizing to the theoretical account ‘s account of this information, you will see that as you get older you do more work and less leisure. However, as you get older you should gain more money because you are being promoted and you will be acquiring a wage rise ( or increase in your pay rate ) every bit good as people retiring, which should intend that you work less and devour more leisure, but the information does n’t endorse this up. This can be seen as one of the restrictions of the theoretical account. When utilizing rewards of participants to seek to foretell their leisure engagement it is good, nevertheless, when it comes to foretelling single penchants it is non as strong.
3.3 Socio-Economic Categorization
In the information, you see that there are more participants from the managerial and professional businesss group. The theory suggests that this is the income consequence in action because they are being paid more for their labor, which means that they can make less work for more income. Due to this, their single demand for leisure goes up and hence the demand for rugby conference and football additions from this group, which means that they consume more leisure. However, as you move farther down the categorization, you by and large find people gaining a lower pay rate, which means that they have to work longer to do the same money. Therefore, they will hold to merchandise off their leisure clip to work and this means that athleticss such as Rugby conference and Football may non be what they demand and alternatively they want something that would be quicker and easier to put up, like maintain fit/gym for illustration. This means that the demand for the two athleticss is lower as you move down to intercede businesss ( NS-SEC 3 ) and little employers and ain history workers ( NS-SEC 4 ) .
The income consequence tendency is non consistent throughout the information. There are in both athleticss high engagement rates of routine/semi everyday businesss ( NS-SEC 6,7 ) . This includes parttime work, which means that the people in this categorization make non work on a regular basis or make non work every bit many hours as some other categorizations. The theoretical account would state that the permutation consequence is ruling. The pay rate is less so an hr of clip is deserving less value and the monetary value of leisure has decreased. Therefore, they are demanding/consuming more leisure and the demand for work is less so people have substituted work for leisure. By holding more leisure clip, they are in a better place to play these squad athleticss, because they require a longer committedness to play in every bit opposed to single athleticss like the gym.
4. Future Policy sing engagement
The income-leisure trade off theory which is used throughout this study suggests some possibilities which are needed to enable farther engagement.
The theoretical account is focused on wages/wage rate. It encounters troubles when seeking to foretell penchants utilizing different variables/demographics if wages/socio-economic categorization is non used. Therefore, much of what the theory predicts looks at rewards.
The first policy possibility would be to look at the cost of take parting in footings of clip. If there were shorter formats of football and rugger conference available, you may see more engagement from the people who have less leisure clip because they have the chance to utilize up less leisure clip by devouring the activity. This should see the demand for the athletics addition in certain socio-economic categorizations.
The 2nd policy possibility which could foster engagement in football and rugger conference is to offer the athleticss at a cheaper monetary value. This is because people who are from a lower socio-economic categorization may non be take parting because they do n’t see the value that they are acquiring from it. If the monetary value was lower, more people may replace leisure hours in topographic point of work as they would n’t necessitate every bit much income to maximize their public-service corporation. Therefore, take downing the monetary value of 5-a-side football and rugger conference nine rank should do a difference to the rate of engagement in both athleticss.