Perspective Of Nepal And Nepal Army History Essay

By September 14, 2017 History

Nepal lies along the mountains of the cardinal part of the Himalayas. This rectangular piece of South Asia has acted as an of import span associating two ancient civilisations of the Asian continent – China in the North and India in the South. The land slopes downwards from mighty Himalayan wall of the North until it reaches the Southern fertile Tarai plains. The river Mechi fluxing from North to South is the Eastern boundary line and the river Mahakali makes up the Western boundary line of Nepal.

2. Between the Himalayas and the Tarai plains lie two mountain scopes running from West to East broken merely by watercourses and rivers that run from North to South. The Mahabharat scope making up to 10,000 foots in tallness takes up the largest country of the state and most of the Nepalese live on the inclines and vales of this scope. The Chure or Siwalik scope, a individual file of sandstone hills running from the East to the West, non transcending 300 to 600 pess from the base, is the outer boundary line of the cragged scopes. The Tarai lies to the South of Chure and serves as the rice bowl of Nepal today.

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3. The Nepal Himalayas consist of four major massifs doing the formidable Northern wall throughout the length of the country-Nanda Devi ( 25,700 pess ) ; Dhaulagiri ( 26,826 pess ) ; Gosainthan ( 26,305 ) ; and Kanchanjunga ( 28,156 pess ) . The 29,028 pess Mount Everest lies approximately halfway and gives off no chief ridges.

4. The clime of Nepal varies harmonizing to the landscape. Farther North, between the Great Himalaya and the Tibetan marginal mountains, lie the Bhot vales, which resemble in about every regard the Tibetan landscape. The Bhot vale offer a typically tundra clime, with cool summers and really cold winters. The Southern Tarai and interior vales have a hot, humid, tropical clime. The centrally located mountain and hilly countries offer conditions between these two extremes. In malice of the great fluctuations available, the clime can by and large be described as temperate.

5. The mountains halt the monsoon air currents blowing from the Southeast supplying the state with plentifulness of rains from June to September. However, the air currents get drier as they flow West doing the Eastern parts wetter than the West. Due to the influence of topography, great fluctuations in the sum of rainfall are found even in instead little vicinities. The rain shadow countries of the Tibetan tableland, which contain the Northern most parts of Nepal, acquire really small rain, some old ages non at all. Given the narrowness of the rectangle, as the comprehensiveness of Nepal does non cover more than five grades in latitude in any portion, the scope in clime is striking. These climatic fluctuations, finally offer a diverse sanctuary for a broad assortment of works and carnal species along assorted terrain of the Country.

6. The recorded history of Nepal does non get down until about 800 BC, with the beginning of the Kirat Period ( 800 BC – 300 AD ) , after that was the Lichhavi and Thakuri Period ( 300 – 1200 AD ) , followed by the Malla Period ( 1200 – 1769 AD ) and eventually the Shah Period ( 1769 to 2008 ) .

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE NEPALESE ARMY

7. The history of Nepali Army is a long episode filled with glorification, accomplishment, changeless battle and bravery. Armies have existed in Nepal since the antediluvian times, the Nepali Army was officially organized by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha around the twelvemonth 1744 AD in a command to unify the so divided petit larceny Kingdoms into a feasible province that could trust to defy the spread outing European settlements, in peculiar the British East India Company retentions in neighbouring India. With the long run of fusion ensuing eventually in the autumn of Kathmandu vale, the Gorkhali Army became the national ground forces of Nepal and the Nepali Army was born.

8. In add-on to its uncomparable accomplishments in the fusion of Nepal, the Nepali Army was besides cardinal safeguarding the newcomer Kingdom from assorted invasions over the centuries. In 1763 AD, Mir Quasim ‘s native Indian forces led by the celebrated commanding officer Gurgin Khan, step ining on behalf of the deluxe provinces under besieging by the Gorkhali forces were currishly routed in Makwanpur. Similarly the British East India Company sent its first expedition into Nepal under Captain Kinlock in 1767 AD and met a similar destiny, farther beef uping Gorkhali resoluteness and prestigiousness. The Nepali Army proved its heart once more in the Anglo-Nepal War of 1814 1816 AD. While Nepal had to yield important wrappings of land to the British, the Army managed to safeguard the independency of Nepal.

9. The legendary heroism, earnestness and warrior properties of the Nepali soldiers so impressed the British, they started enrolling them into the British Indian Army. Since the British had fought against the Nepali Army, which till that clip, was still conversationally known as the ‘Army of Gorkha ‘ or ‘Gorkhali Army ‘ , the British took to naming their new soldiers `Gurkhas ‘ . The fact that the Nepali people have ne’er been subjugated by any colonial power is one of the major bequests of the Nepali Army – the original Gorkhas. The Nepali Army besides fought major runs against Tibet and the Chinese imperium in 1788, 1792 and 1855 AD.

10. The Army has besides supported the foreign policy of Nepal by lending forces to help adjacent provinces and the wider international community over the ages. In 1857 AD, it responded in a timely and effectual mode to assist bail out the British during the Indian Sepoy Mutiny. A thankful Queen Victoria handed back parts of the land antecedently lost to the British during the Anglo-Nepal War. Similarly, Nepal made immensely out of proportion part on the side of autonomy in both World War I and World War with 100s of 1000s of Nepali contending for the Allied cause all over the universe. Additionally, the Nepali Army was constantly a important and dependable spouse in the assorted British expeditions into Waziristan and Afghanistan. Even as India became independent, the Nepali Army, at the petition of Indian governments, sent military personnels to maintain the peace in a troubled India reeling from spiritual and racial discord related to the divider of India. In 1948 AD, units of the Nepali Army assisted the Indian authorities during the Hyderabad Police Action.

11. Following the Second World War, and the morning of democracy in Nepal, the Nepali Army underwent profound alterations. The ground forces, freshly reorganized with the aid of an Indian Military Mission, adopted its current barracks based deployment from 1952 AD. It successfully accomplished the disarming of the Tibetan Khampas in 1974 AD. Similarly, it has besides been actively lending to assorted non military domains. The parts of the Nepali Army towards national development attempts, response to natural and adult male made catastrophes and protection of critical installings have been model. The Nepali Army is an uncontested innovator in the preservation of national Parkss and wildlife in Nepal and possibly in the part since 1870 AD.

12. Nepal has historically pursued a policy of seeking planetary peace and security and is steadfastly committed to the UN Charter. Consequently, the Nepali Army has served under the UN authorization for over half a century. Hence, the Nepali Army is active non merely as a force for stableness and democracy within Nepal but has besides been an plus to the international community at big.

Chapter 2

NEPAL ‘S GEO-STRATEGIC AND

GEO-POLITICAL Setting

1. Nepal is situated on the southern transitional terrain of the Central Himalaya in the Asiatic continent of the Earth. It is pin-pointed in the bosom of Asia. Nepal occupies about 0.03 per cent of the entire land mass of the Earth ‘s surface and Nepal covers 0.3 per cent of Asiatic land. Geographically, Nepal is elongated east to west at the fore-lead part of the South Asia. Nepal has bantam district with three dimensional extension locked by Indian and Chinese land. A land of diverse landscape exhibits physical fluctuation viz. Himalaya, Hill and Terai plain within the extended southern curving rectangle of about 147,181 sq. kilometer. between the maximal extension of Meridional grades ( longitudes ) 80A°4 ‘ to 88A° 12 ‘ East and Geographical latitudes 26A°22 ‘ and 30A°27 ‘ North. Nepal, the state of the Third Pole, is in the development phase. As a state of contrasts she has cultural and natural distinctive features.

2. Physically, Nepal seems really little on the map of the universe. The length of the state from the river Mechi in the E to the Mahakali River in the West is about 885 kilometer. The length of the state has extended up to the Indian frontiers in both the E and western subdivisions. The north-south mean comprehensiveness is about 193 kilometers on the norm. The comprehensiveness is broader ( 241 kilometer ) in the West and narrower ( 145 kilometer ) in the in-between associating the two physically mammoth countries-China in the North and India in the South.

3. At present, the state has diplomatic dealingss with 113 states and is represented in all major international organisations and forums – a fact which has helped the state in developing non merely a distinguishable personality in the comity of states, but besides in diversifying her political and economic contacts.

4. A state ‘s geographical location, size, population, civilizations, faiths, economic strength, and natural resources are the major finding factors in specifying its geopolitical character. These are besides the factors that influence the preparation of the scheme for endurance, defense mechanism and development. It would, hence, be appropriate to discourse here the deciding factors of modern Nepal ‘s geopolitics.

Size

5. The size of a state is defined in footings of power. The power of a state derives from the size of its district, the size of the population, national income, natural resources, military strength etc. By the bing criterion of size and power, Nepal is little, weak, and one of the least developed provinces. With an country of 147,181 square kilometres, Nepal is bigger than some other provinces in the part. Defensive outlook has been created and someway nurtured because of the fact that its immediate neighbour India is 23 and China 68 times bigger in size.

Geography

6. Geography is the “ most cardinal conditioning factor in the foreign policy of provinces because it is the most lasting ” . Nepal portions a 1590 kilometers-long boundary line with India and 1414 kilometres with China. Nepal occupies a polar place in the Himalayas located between the Central and South Asiatic parts, a portion of Eurasiatic land mass. To the North of this state lies Tibet, the Autonomous Region of China ; to the E, West, and south are the federal provinces – Bengal, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh – of the Republic of India. Such a place of Nepal forms its geo-strategic scene with respects to the Gangetic belt, an country critically of import for India ‘s security and the stableness of its heartland, where an tremendous portion of its homo and resources base is concentrated.

Cultural and Cultural Linkss

7. Cultural and cultural links are besides really of import in discoursing the geopolitical facets of a state. The land matching to contemporary Nepal in the Central Himalayas represents an country of interface of two cultural universes – Indic and Bodic. Their contact zone runs north-west to south West at a tangent to mountain Azis whereby the Caucasoids ( Khas ) predominate in the Karnali basin and the Mongoloids ( Kirantis ) due easts. Nepal is a meeting point for two specific states and civilisations – India and China, and for two parts – South Asia and Central Asia. Nepal is a host state to both Hinduism and Buddhism, and these faiths are the most dominant faiths in India and China severally.

Boundary lines

8. The boundary line is another country which has deductions for Nepal ‘s relationship with its neighbors. The northern Himalayas and the mountains of Nepal have been natural bastions against foreign invasion. In the yesteryear, the malaria-prone jungle in the South warded off foreign incursion. With this natural barrier, Nepal ‘s place as a buffer province was secured. However, with the obliteration of malaria, the building of assorted roads and the migration of people from the hills to the Terai, Nepal ‘s place as a buffer part have undergone a alteration.

9. On the northern side, there are a figure of base on ballss linking Nepal with Tibet, such as the Takla Khar Pass, the Mustang Pass, the Kuti base on balls, and the Hatia Pass but it is highly difficult for Nepal to derive entree to Chinese havens via Tibetan districts. The Kodari Highway links Nepal with Tibet in the north and presently, Rasuwa Syaphrubeshi Road is besides being constructed with Chinese aid. Nepal and China have reached an apprehension to open up other base on ballss such as Mustang, Kimathanka-Sankhuwasava and Humla.

10. Nepal ‘s landlocked position is a job in itself and its entree to the sea is made possible merely by railroads through Indian districts. Though the air cargos have increased in recent old ages, the possibility of river pilotage has non been explored yet. Nepal ‘s theodolite path is merely via India and Calcutta, its nearest port, is about one 1000 kilometers.

Natural Resources and Economic Development

11. Nepal ‘s natural resources – the rivers, lakes, mountains, woods and minerals – have enormous potency for industrialisation, economic development and prosperity of the people. These are non merely of import in footings of their scenic beauty but besides constitute assets and strength, which have strong impact on Nepal ‘s geopolitical factors. The entire hydro potency of Nepal is 83,000 MW, which is the 2nd largest after Brazil. As H2O and energy have become really much scarce resources at the planetary degree, such possible surely draws the attending from other economically powerful states. Similarly, the cragged scenic beauties that Nepal offers are besides of import for developing major tourer finishs and continuing biodiversity.

Economy and Trade

12. Geographic propinquity is earnestly taken into history when a state or part makes its trade policies and carries out foreign economic exchanges. The formation of the regional trading and economic axis like Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation ( APEC ) , North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) , South Asian Free Trade Agreement ( SAFTA ) , ASEAN Free Trade, The South American Trade understanding ( MERCOSUR ) , the G-7 group of industrialised states, and European Economic Community, are some illustrations of planetary economic governments that have developed in recent decennaries. In the hereafter, it is possible that the universe will split itself along geo-political and geo-economic lines, which finally means that the geographical division must function economic development of any peculiar part.

Other Factors

13. Due to unavailability caused by the troubles of commuA­nication, every bit good as her sandwiched place, Nepal has attracted involvement of perceivers in this part in her geo-political quandary ; typical of the national integrity are nationality linguistic communication, internal orA­ganization, spiritual tolerance and a common civilization of the people. Dissentious forces are regionalism, racism, linguistic communication favoritism, economic involvements, and physical troubles which are inactive whenA­ever the state itself is in crisis and in a critical state of affairs. However, there are two major forces which have helped to beef up the uninterrupted independency of Nepal and they are still relevant.

Internal Centrifugal Force. This force is assisting to beef up internal organisational co-operation such as integrity, equality and co-ordination. Following factors helps to give this force.

( I ) Communication: Without the development of conveyance and communicating, it is non possible to link the Centre and other parts of the state. This restricts the flow of trade, the interA­mingling of people and the transmittal of thoughts. Communication has been unusually developed since the morning of democracy which finally helped to form a state and thereby the impression of nationality.

( two ) Diversified Communities: Due to the rugged topographical conditions different cultural groups of the Himalayan ( the Tibetan-Nepalese ) and the Tarai parts ( Indian stock ) have frequently demA­onstrated spiritual tolerance and cultural co-ordination which finally has helped to develop the integrity in cultural diversenesss.

( B ) Internal Centripetal Forces: This force has besides helped to get the better of the dissentious forces thereby beef uping the unity of this state. The earlier monarchy system and the patriotism are the two major factors giving this sort of force. One national linguistic communication, spiritual integrating, cultural co-ordination and societal co-operation are the pre-condiA­tions for the integrity which has been increasing since the morning of democracy in 1950.

( degree Celsius ) External Factors There are some external forces excessively which have contributed to Nepal ‘s independent being.

( I ) The British Recognition: Several old ages after the pact of Nepal Sugauli i.e. in 1923 A. D. Britain recognized Nepal as an indepenA­dent province which proves that Nepal ne’er came under the British swayer. After the independency of India ( 1947 A. D. ) excessively this state took the side of neither India nor Pakistan during their belligerencies. This state has remained independent, incorporate and autonomous right from the really birth as a state.

( two ) Friendship: Nepal is keeping brotherly relationships with aˆ? neighboring states and thanks to her balanced foreign policy. Nepal has earned friends among many states around the universe. Cultural, societal and spiritual resemblances with India have besides helped to simplify the visa job in the South. The Gorkha military enlisting in India and Indian assistance to Nepal has long traditions. In the instance of China, Nepal ne’er became antagonisA­tic to her. Nepali people appreciate the Chinese aid for the develA­opment of this state. As such, both states are good neighA­bours every bit good as friends.

( vitamin D ) Buffer State. Nepal ‘s geo-political place is that of a equilibrating province, situated between the two large powers of Asia -India and China. The independency of this state has contributed to the care of peace for both states. Contending between India and China in the north-east frontier and Ladakh country in 1962 and the amalgamation of Tibet with China in 1959 A. D. have created struggles in this part. So for the peace of this part, the indepenA­dence of Nepal in itself is really important and it plays an of import function.

( vitamin E ) Polar Balance. Geographically Nepal is situated on the boundary line of Central and South Asia. From the balance of two powers, Nepal contributes in maintaining peace and besides benefits in development activities. Given this background Nepal ‘s free-existence is clear and concrete. As such Nepal ‘s geophysical state of affairs and manner of life can be visualized clearly.

Chapter 3

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF NEPAL

1. The altitudinal fluctuation has created the climatic status Tropical to Tundra in Nepal. Together with the enormous altitudinal differences, assorted seasons such as the prohibitionist and showery seasons, besides are the cause of utmost climatic contrasts in Nepal. Within a little compass, about all the climatic zones of the Earth are represented: tropical jungle in the Gangetic field, north-polar desert wastes in the higher part and the waterless zone of the Tibetan tableland.

2. The perpendicular fluctuation caused much more contrasts in the Nepali meteoric variables, largely temperature, wet, air currents and precipitation. ‘Every mountain scope is a meteoroloA­gical bound ‘ as such conditions prognosis is a hard undertaking in this state.

Temperature

3. Nepal lies small North of the Tropic of Cancer in the northern temperate zone. The height has affected the distribution of temperature. The higher the height the ice chest the clime prevails. The addition in the height is the lessening of temperature. As such, Lowlandss like the Tarai and Inner Tarai parts and Midlands are warmer, and the Hilly and the Himalayan Regions are ice chest. The cold additions in January and the hottest twenty-four hours falls in between June-July. The tempA­erature rises from March to June-July while it decreases from OctoA­ber to January. Temperature varies from eastern to western Terai but in the hill due to the altitudinal fluctuation the temperature differs from topographic point to topographic point. The general fetter bone of the temperature is an addition from east to west.

4. The clime alterations with the height. Within a short distance, the height produces the climatic extremes. Altitude in Nepal is the cardinal factor in commanding the clime and conditions differences. In the vale and bensi undersides below 600 m the clime is tropical with hot and moist atmosphere. It cools upwards. At 2,000 m it becomes cool temperate and cold temperate status prevails up to 3,000 m. above this the clime remains Arctic to Polar.

5. The rise in the height means the autumn in the temperature. The tabular array reveals that the rise in temperature remains longer in the Hill and bead occurs early in the Himalaya Region. Summer ( late spring ) temperature ranges from more than 40A°C in the South to 28A°C in the mid-mountain. But in the winter, the mean maximal and minimal temperature is 23A°C to 7A°C in the Terai and in the cardinal vale ‘s is up to 12 A°C maximal which drops lower limit below stop deading point. Kathmandu experiences mean 32A° C to 19 A°C in summer and 20 A°C to 2 A°C in winter.

6. Temperature decreases at the lapse-rate of 1 A°C for every 500 ft. ( I A°F for 300 ft. ) . So in the topographic points of the same latitude tempA­erature varies ice chest at the top to warmer in the underside in the mountains of Nepal.

Rain

7. Altitude in this part has controlled the rainfall. Huge land mass of the Central Asia, high Himalaya in the North, closeness of the Indian Ocean and lowland country in the South are the meteoric modification factors. Rainfall distribution varies due to topographical diversenesss in Nepal. As the rain bearing winds attack Nepal from the south -east in the summer monsoon heavier rainfall falls in the foot-hills of the Churiya scope increasing with height on the windward side and aggressively diminishing on the leeward side. The heaviest rainfall falls on the Hill Regions, particularly in the Pokhara part. Ultimately, the foot-hills of the Great Himalayas receive less rain than the other countries. The strength of rainfall is lower in higher and higher in lower elevaA­tions.

8. Nepal receives wet loaded clouds from the South. Moist monsoon traveling from sea surface in summer season washes out the whole Himalayan Region. Monsoon hits Assam, the nearest point to chill down foremost and so it moves westward. So the eastern portion of this part is more Rainer and prolonged rainy season. Eastern wetter part gets up to 18,000 millimeter of precipitaA­tion in one twelvemonth whereas mean one-year rainfall in the desiccant western portion is 750 millimeter. millimeter. Nepal in the broader context lies in the medium rainfall part. In the West it becomes reasonably drier. Similar sum of rainfall falls due norths.

Climatic categorizations

9. Nepal has all kinds of climes which are suited to people populating in the equatorial to the Polar Regions. Those who live in the tropical parts of the Earth can defy the clime of the Terai Region while those populating the polar desert part can set in the Himalayan Region, and those dwellers of the moderate part can suit themselves in the Hilly Regions of Nepal. One can easy detect cool Machhapuchre ( 7,059 m ) from the warm PokhaA­ra vale ( 819m ) which are situated in the shortest distance. SimilarA­ly, one can alter climatic conditions from the hot Bhairahawa ( 106 m ) to the cold air current, the chilly blast sireto blowing from the Arctic part within the shortest distance of 161 kilometer. NepalA­gunj and Namche are illustrations of hot and cold appendages located in the same latitude. Between two extremes, Kathmandu is the moderate part.

10. The land construction, latitude, height, distance from the sea, air currents, clouds and rainfalls are the factors that create diffA­erences in the clime. Landmass and Indian Ocean affected the isolation in the southern Asia including Nepal. The monsoon clime is ruling all the agro-cultural activities of the state. On the footing of temperature and status of the precipitation, the clime of Nepal can be regionally divided into five belts.

( a ) Sub -tropical clime ( upto 1200 m ) : Terai, Inner terai and Bensi, Khonch parts.

( B ) Warm temperate clime ( 1200-2100m ) : Midland, Upper chure.

( degree Celsius ) Cool temperate clime ( 2100-3300m ) : Higher parts of Mahabharat Lower parts of the Himalaya.

( vitamin D ) Alpine ‘Lekali ‘ clime ( 3300-5000m ) : Himalayan vales, down the snow line.

( vitamin E ) Himalayan desert clime ( 5000m up ) : Up to the snow line.

Chapter 4

TERRAIN CONDITIONS

1. Altitudinal fluctuation in the physical geographics has presented intra and inter physical diversenesss. The physical differences from the desert part of the Inner Central Asiatic tableland to Tropical Gangetic lowland are huge. Weave in the North and H2O in the South are the agents of landscape in this part.

There are three distinguishable geographical divisions which have their ain fluctuations in height. This has affected the creative activity of different geographical land signifiers:

( a ) Himalaya Region.

( B ) Hill Region.

( degree Celsius ) Terai Region.

Physical Information

Divisions

Area ( % )

Sq. kilometer.

Altitude ( m )

Width N.S. ( kilometer )

Himalaya Region

15

22,077

4,877-8,848

25-50

Hill Region

68

1,00,083

305-4,877

75-125

Terai Region

17

25,021

60-305

25-30

Himalaya Region

2. The discharge of the exalted Himalayan extremums block the waterless Tibetan tableland and protect this land from the cold dry air currents blowing from Central Asia, However, formidable may be the hinderances created by the Himalayas for the development, they however provide geographical, political and besides economical chances for the development of this Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal. Altitudinally, the Himalayas can be divided into three specific zones:

( a ) The lumber zone ( tree-line 4,000 m ) : below the Alpine country

( B ) The Alpine zone: above the timber-line to the snow-line ( 5,000 m )

( degree Celsius ) The Snowy zone: above the snow-line.

3. Timber Zone This zone is by and large the tree line at falls at the tallness of 4000m and below the alpine country.

4. The Alpine Zone Above the timber-line the status has been taken as the Alpine zone. This is the zone which lies in between 4000m-5000m.In the planetary context, the Alpine zone is a little portion of the high latitude parts. The Alpine zone of the Himalayan part is a low latitude Alpine zone, which is created by the height.

5. The Snowy Zone The higher Himalaya has contributed to the creatA­ion of different geographical facets. Due to the height factor more than 3,650 m lower latitudinal part of 27A°40’58 ” N ( KumbhaA­karna, Jannu ) has become a snow-line part. But the lasting snow-line scopes from 4, 000 m to 5,000 m from western to eastern Nepal severally. The snow-line is higher in the E and lower in the West. The impermanent snowfall tallness is about 2,500 m down. In the winter, snowfalls over the higher extremums of the Mahabharat part besides. The humidness is more in the E, therefore the snow-line lessenings down to 4,000 m, but in the West humidness is low and the latitude is every bit high as 30A°21’27 ” in Nalakankar part where the snow-line rises to 5,700 m. Snow-line moves between 4,572-5,486m in summer and 2438-2743m. The snow status is affected by the incline aspects excessively. In the North snow remains longer and down to the floor where as south slope the thaws fast due to its warmer status.

6. As we start from the utmost north boundary line, the Himalaya part can once more be subdivided into three parts:

( a ) The Border Himalaya 6000m ( 6000-7000m ) . In the South of the Tibetan Pleteu ( The Tibet, over 4000m above sea degree ) Nepal posses a concatenation of the Himalayas extending along the northern border of Nepal.The tallness of this boundary line Himalaya is lesser than the chief scopes. The incline is besides soft.This fringy Himalayan Chain forms the boundary line of northern Nepal. The boundary line Himalaya in the North has gentle incline. This is the cold mountain desert land of Nepal. Mustang presents a typical desert landscape in the North of the Himalaya. In the South of the Border Himalaya pockets of Himalayan vales are found. The Border Himalaya lies about 30km North from the chief Himalaya.

( B ) The Inner Himalaya 4000 m ( 2500-5000m ) . In the South of boundary line Himalaya and North of the Greater Himalaya some ‘silver bowl ‘ vales are found in the interior portion of the Himalayan part. These elevated Bhot vales of Tibetan landscape are surrounded by ice-clad high Himalaya where glaciers and moraines are extended up to the vale floors. The Inner Himalayas or the northern vales are the east- West Himalayan vales ( except Thak Khola ) to the North of the chief Himalyan concatenation.

( degree Celsius ) The greater Himalaya 5000m ( 5000-8848 ) . The Himalayan scope with the glittering snow extremums of difA­ferent heights elevated like fingers towers-up the northern parts of Nepal. In. Central Nepal the mammoth Himalaya raises along the South or the interior Himalaya. The horizontal distance between the highest acmes and the lowest valley-floors s is short. The chief Himalayan concatenation has been discarded by mighty antecedent rivers to divide different -ranges of the Himalaya. As such Himalayan scopes does non organize a uninterrupted concatenation. There are wholly 28 distinguishable rangA­es in the Nepal Himalaya. Height of the Nepal-Himalayas additions due easts. The incline of the Himalayan extremums is soft in the northern side and steep in the south face. High-level sedimenA­tary stones with granite underneath are the composing of snow-clad massifs. There are wholly 1310 Himalayan extremums which falls under this class. 17 Himalayan extremums which have height above than 8000m, 40 Himalayan extremums have 7500-8000m, 87 extremums have 7000-7500m, 301 extremums have 6500-6999m and 865 extremums have 6000-6599m. Out of 1310 extremums merely 20 % of them have specific name.

THE HILL REGION

7. Located South of the Himalaya and North of the Tarai field, a concatenation of monolithic mountains running from West to east is full of turn overing hills and knolls, saddles and extremums, broad and narrow bensi and ‘ corns intermont vales of different sizes and pitchs every bit good as foot-hills, terraced inclines and goads. Widening analogue to the Himalayas this concatenation of the in-between mountains ( Middle hill part ) consists of metamorphous and sedimentary stones. More than-42 Per cent at the entire land country of Nepal lies under the hill part. This part lies 600m to 3000m in lift. This fold mountain has worked as defensive wall to the southern invasion. Extensive high lands in the western hill and deep vales and high ridges in the eastern hills produce diverse landscapes in Nepal. This part is loosely classified into three sub divisions.

( a ) The Inner hill ( 600 – 1500m tallness, 24- 50km N-S extension ) .

( B ) The Mahabharat lekh ( 1500-3000m tallness, 50-100km N-S extension ) .

( degree Celsius ) The Siwalik ( 600-1800m tallness, 15-30km N-S extension ) .

8. The Inner Hill. The Inner Hill is extended from Mahabharat Lekh in the South to high Himalaya in the North. The turn overing hills in this part are of 900m to 1800 m. This part provides broad possibilities of agribusiness, gardening, farm animal and harvest assortments. Assorted vales are found in this part which has tremendous fluctuation in height and enriched the colony. In the North of the Mahabharat scope, the longitudinal vales formed by the rivers like Koshi, Gandaki, Trishuli, Sunkoshi, Arun and Tamour have carved assorted broad vale. Eastern Nepal has narrower vales with crisp inclines. Tectonic vales such as Kathmandu, Pokhara, and Banepa and spur of this part are extensively cultivated. Agribusiness is extended upto the deep -cut river vales to the terraced inclines. Several saddles and base on ballss are the paths to come in interior parts of this Midland part.

9. The Mahabharat Lekh South of Inner Hill part a concatenation of mountain i.e. lesser Himalayas runs east to west with several with several ‘saddles ‘ ( low base on ballss ) and steep alleviation characteristics. The Mahabharat Lekh is about 80 kilometers far from the Himalayan scope. Kaligandaki, Trishuli, and Karnali have dissected this part to come in the Terai. The tallness of the folded Mahabharat Lekh largely runing 1500m to 3000 m height runs continuously from E to west which barely exceeds 3000m. This has been taken mid or lesser Himalaya excessively. Sing to the incline facet has been utilized for patio cultivation. The higher and steeper parts of this bluish mountain are occupied by wood.

10. The Siwalik The name of Siwalik differs salt scope in Punjab, Mekaral in Baluchistan, Manchar in Sindhu and Siwalik from the E of Panjab which is derived from Sanskrit word Saiwal means moss and trees. In west Nepal the name of Siwalik is Dunduwa, West of Bagmati is Chure Bhawar. In Nawalparasi it is Daunne Danda. Chure, the foothill of Mahbharat Mountain rises suddenly in the North of the Gangetic border which has no pes hills. This is the southernmost, youngest ( Oligocene – Glacial epoch ) and lowest ( 600m ) mountain of the Himalaya system extended from Afganistan to Assam. So this has been taken as outer Himalaya. Chure or Siwalik extends parallel to the Mahabharat scope up to the Koshi River. .In the E of Koshi, Chure is isolated which is hard to place and merely Bhabar is seeable with spots of woods. The landscape is steep South and soft incline towards north featured by difficult and soft strata of coarse stones composing. Due to the porous construction merely the long frozen natural flora are found. Altitude of this scope, lessening from West to east.

The Terai Region

11. Terai situated in the south prevarications in approximately 200 m altitude from the sea degree. It is known as Duwars in Bhutan. This is the northern part of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial field situated like a courtyard of the Himalaya. This has extended up to Indian frontier in the most parts of the south and foot-hills in the North. This narrow strip of level field of fertile dirt has high water-table excessively. The breadth of the Terai is non even everyplace. In the E of Narayani River, Nepal has no portion of the Gangetic field for about 65 kilometers distance. Terai is sub divided into farther three parts.

The interior Terai ( 600m in tallness, 25-100km E-W long and 15-30 kilometer N-S extension ) .

The Bhabar ( 300m in tallness, 125-400 kilometer E-W long, 10-15km N-S extension ) .

The Terai plane ( 200m in tallness, 125-400 kilometer E-W long, 25-30 kilometer N-S extension ) .

12. The upper part of Terai is comprised by Bhabar and Chure severally. The height of this Terai belt slopes down to 60m along the Indo-Nepal boundary line. Western Terai is about 100 metres higher than the eastern Terai. Terai rises less than 90m to more than 180 m from E to west which is likely the consequence of rainfall. Maximal height of the Terai Region is 305 m and it accounts for about 23 per cent of the entire land country of Nepal.

13. The Inner Terai Siwalik besides enclose a soft sloping terrain Doon vale with two separate scopes. The Sanskrit word Doon is the root word of Doon which signifies the field land between two hills. So the word Doon denotes the field land between Mahabharat and Chure. The comprehensiveness of the longitudinal vale varies harmonizing to their size. Rapti ( Chitwan ) and Dang are distinguishable Bhitri Madesh ( Inner-Terai ) of Nepal. The height of this spindle-shapped Doon vale varies from 110-665 m. In India Dwar and in west Nepal Danduwa is the name of this Bhitri Madesh Pradesh. In the InnerA­ Terai narrow river vales are taken as Khonch. Trijuga Khonch ( Udayapur ) , Kamala Khonch ( Sindhuli ) etc are such little low-lying inner vales. Inner-Terai lies on the pes of the Mahabharat to which Chure bounds in the South. Chure scope has bordered to divide three parts of Terai ( Eastern, Central and Western ) near the Chitwan ( Rapti ) and the Deukhuri vale which is enclosed by the contour of 300m. So, from the Inner Terai, Mahabharat lies in the North and Chure in the South. The hill-locked Terai like Rapti vale, Nawalpur lie below 150m which are less fertile in comparing to the Terai strip.

14. The Bhabar Belt In the South of Chure there is a slackly amalgamate, ruggA­ed and flaxen strip in the upper portion of the Terai field. Porous field with large bowlders, pebbles crushed rocks and sandy dirts covered by wood is called Bhabar belt. The name Bhabar means heat roseola. In the South of Siwalik a piece of land of harsh stuffs like pudding stones, pebbles, crushed rocks, rocks, sand and loose dirt construction is covered by heavy flora. The height of this belt is about 300 m which rises up to 381 m in the Bahundangi of Jhapa. In the Bhabar 18 to 30 m slope falls per two kilometer. Water percolates in this porous part and appears once more in the signifier of springs in the Terai field. So most of the Small River and rills / watercourses are unseeable while traversing the belt. Merely large rivers like Mahakali, Karnali, Rapti, Banganga, Narayani, Tinau, Bagmati, Kamala, Trijuga, Kosi, Kanki etc can traverse this part. This is a filter part where coarse stuffs broA­ught by the river diposited. This has saved the Terai from the unfertile alluvial sediment. This part covers about 9,065 sq. kilometer. The BhaA­bar belt contains all right forest known as Char Koshe Jhadi or a belt of 13 kilometers long forest. Bhabar is an appropriate part for sal trees. This part is going risky with rapid deforestation.

15. Terai Plain The wide belt of low degree land is located in the southA­ern side of Nepal. The incline of the low-lying Terai field is 3 m per 2 kilometer falls from north to south, extended from the foot-hills of the Chure scope and merged into the Gangetic field in the South. For about 65 kilometers and 80 kilometer Terai is interrupted by Chure to the E of Narayani River ( Chitwan ) and Dang-Deokhuri severally. Here the Indian frontier extends up to the Siwalik scope. However, the Himalayan Rivers have deposited fertile alluvial sediment which is one of the of import economic facets and chances of the state. Soil is much more all right and fertile from north to south and east to west. Eastern Terai is wetter than the western Terai. In the northern subdivision the moist land is suited for the fens and jungles. In the south Terai field is suited for agribusiness. Therefore Terai became the grainary of Nepal. The river disappeared in the Bhabar comes up by the syphonic action in the northern portion of Terai field. The water-table is really high. So the temperature and H2O provides ample chances to turn flora. The warm and damp climatic status with more than 60 per cent of the sum cultivated land of the state, Terai, produces two-thirds of the agro-production and more than 60 per cent GDP to the state. Terai part is a broken strip in the Nepali part. Three distinguishable divisions can be made- Eastern Terai which extends from Parsa to the Jhapa. Eastern Terai is more extended, broad and productive in comparing to the remainder. It is known for hard currency harvest country of Nepal. Extension of Central Terai is Shivaraj to the Gandaki. Western Terai reaches up to Mahakali from Banke western Terai i.e. irregular, narrow and dry. Wholly 20 territories have been divided in the Tarai field.

Chapter 5

Menace Analysis

1. Menaces From External Factors Factors impacting balance of power and possible struggles between states can be enumerated as follows:

Political Cause.

Economic Cause.

Ideological Cause.

Social Cause.

Religious Cause.

Production of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

2. Menaces From Internal Factors

Political Instability.

Communal Violence.

Refugees.

Extremists Cabals.

Cabals seeking External Support and Religious Reasons.

Immoral Acts as Drug Smugglings, Corruptions etc.

Civil Wars because of Ideological Reasons.

Citizenship Reasons.

Social and Economic Differences.

Natural Disasters.

3. Potential Threats Issues impacting National Security:

Weapons, Explosives, Rockets and Missiles.

Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons.

Terrorist, Infiltrators and International Criminals such as Mafia etc.

Corruption and Covert Acts.

Mismanagement of Manmade or Natural Disasters.

Misuse of Religious Dogma.

Narcotics and Money Laundering.

Political Instability, Disunity and Breaking of Rule of Law.

Urban and Rural Problems.

Regional Instability, Territorial Violation, Air-Space Violation or Aatikraman.

Grants, Loans and Types of Treaties and Clauses.

NGO ‘S, INGO ‘S Aim and Activities.

Civil Wars because of Ideological, Religious and Ethnic Reasons.

Territorial Use Against

Military Intervention.

4. Resources and Techniques to Overcome Potential Threats Fear and uncertainties by and large prevails in the broader position of National Security. Therefore it is imperative to place menaces to national security, organize up matter-of-fact security policy and assemble resources and techniques needed to antagonize it. Resources should embrace non merely the elements of National Security but besides external assets. Hence, National Security Management should place and increase the cardinal assets and cut down on liabilities while organizing up National Security Strategies.

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