Philadelphia Prepare a critical analysis of the movie Philadelphia (1993). Ensure that you address the following: * Myths and stereotypes about homosexuals and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) helped to propel his dismissal from the firm? * Prejudice, discrimination, oppression, and institutional discrimination. * Include analysis of any additional issues for gays and lesbians such as legal empowerment, violence against them, coming out, ethnicity, and AIDS. * Suggest strategies to promote social and economic justice. Support your report with relevant theory. THE MOVIE:
PHILADELPHIA (2) Prejudice, discrimination, oppression and institutional discrimination against homosexuals and persons living with AIDS. A prejudice is a prejudgment: i. e. a preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment made without ascertaining the facts of a case. In the earlier centuries gays and lesbians weren’t accepted in those times like now. But there’s still an issue about prejudice, discrimination, oppression and institutional discrimination against those of the homosexual society and those person living with the AIDS, it continues to be prominent around the world.
From research carried out and also from the movie Philadelphia, some factors that can cause a person to be prejudice against homosexuals are: * They may have a strong religious beliefs that disapprove of homosexuality * They have little or no social contact with homosexuals * Reporting no homosexual experiences or feelings. A survey that has been done in 37 European countries found out that more than half of those who are homosexuals have experienced some form of bullying.
Not only homosexuals have being bullied, According to an online article “all young people who do not act in line with gender stereotypes can be subjected to severe bullying. For example, in some cultures boys are stereotyped as sporty and strong decision-makers, and girls are expected to be emotional and expressive. As a result, boys who show their feelings or who are too intimate with other boys are often labeled as homosexual by their peers. Between girls, close friendships that involve embracing, ouching and sharing thoughts and feelings are more legitimate and are less likely to be seen by their peers as an indication of homosexuality. However, girls who are considered to be too boyish or who hold feminist views often face the likelihood of being labeled as lesbians. ” Been a homosexual, person tend to use words that are associated with homosexuality as standard insults, this is use for reinforcing the whole concept that been gay is undesirable. Being gay can cause one to be silent, and hide their true feelings, and pretend they are heterosexuals and join in homophobic taunts to protect themselves.
An example of this can be seen where the character ‘Andy’ a homosexual hid his sexual orientation from his employers and co-workers pretending he was a heterosexual mainly because of what they would do or say. Not only those who are homosexuals are affected, children of homosexual parents are being affected also, they are looked down on when school-mates realize or find out that their parents are homosexuals. When the issue about AIDS came about, gay men in many countries got singled out for abuse as they were seen to be the one responsible for the spread of the disease.
Homophobia continues to be a major barrier to ending the global AIDS epidemic. In many countries, Stigma and discrimination prevent men who have sex with men from accessing vital HIV prevention, treatment and care services. Tackling homophobia can help overcome this, and encourages gay men to be tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. In the movie one could see where Andy’s employers was prejudice against him when they allowed one of his co-worker Ms.
Benedict to continue her work at the firm even though she had AIDS, but fired him because of the way he contracted the disease, which his through a homosexual contact, and Ms. Benedict contracted it by a blood transfusion. Discrimination is a sociological term referring to the treatment taken toward or against a person of a certain group in consideration based solely on class or category. Discrimination is the actual behavior towards another group. AIDS and HIV related stigma and discrimination refers to prejudice, negative attitudes, abuse, and maltreatment directed at people living with AIDS and HIV.
In Philadelphia Andy was scorned by his lawyer, and also his employers, because they thought they he could give them the disease by being around them, and also the fact that he was a homosexual turned their spirits from him. Persons living with the disease are abandoned by family, friends, and the community. These persons are mistreated and at times get poor treatment in health facilities and education settings. At one scene in the movie Andy was ask by the librarian to use the private research room to do his research because other persons weren’t comfortable being around him in the library.
At times they feel like they have no rights, they are psychologically damaged and this will cause them not to get tested or get treatment. AIDS stigma and discrimination exist basically everywhere: in the church, communities, countries, and among individuals. According to the UN secretary-General “Stigma not only makes it more difficult for people trying to come to terms with HIV and manage their illness on a personal level, but it also interferes with attempts to fight the AIDS epidemic as a whole.
On a national level, the stigma associated with HIV can deter governments from taking fast, effective action against the epidemic, whilst on a personal level it can make individuals reluctant to access HIV testing, treatment and care. ” Fear of contagion is linked with the negative, value-based assumptions about people who are infected and this leads to a high levels of stigma surrounding HIV and AIDS.
Some factors that contribute to HIV/AIDS-related stigma: * HIV/AIDS is a life-threatening disease, and therefore people react to it in strong ways. * HIV infection is associated with behaviours (such as homosexuality, drug addiction, prostitution or promiscuity) that are already stigmatized in many societies. * Most people become infected with HIV through sex which often carries moral baggage. * There is a lot of inaccurate information about how HIV is transmitted, creating irrational behaviour and misperceptions of personal risk. HIV infection is often thought to be the result of personal irresponsibility. * Religious or moral beliefs lead some people to believe that being infected with HIV is the result of moral fault (such as promiscuity or ‘deviant sex’) that deserves to be punished. Some effects of stigma being HIV and AIDS positive are: * Loss of income/livelihood- (Andy lost his job because he had AIDS and they did not want him around. ) * Loss of marriage & childbearing options * Poor care within the health sector * Withdrawal of care giving in the home Loss of hope & feelings of worthlessness * Loss of reputation- Person now sees Andy as a homosexual with AIDS, and not for who he really is a good lawyer. Within the Movie Philadelphia Andy faces some form of oppression and institutional discrimination, first when Andy began working with Charles wheelers and his partners, he was considered to be the best lawyer in the company. When Andy’s former employers found out he had AIDS they misplaced his case trying to make him look incompetent, so that they may fire him for being incapable of doing the job.
Charles Wheeler and partners did not have enough information on AIDS back then so they did not want to broke the law by firing Andy for having AIDS or being homosexuals so they make him look incompetent and fire him so that he could be out of the firm with the AIDS and his homosexual self. We can also see that in the law firm he wanted to sue the company but because he had AIDS the lawyer did not want to help him with his case because he is afraid of contracting the disease, and he is also discriminate against those who are homosexuals. 4). Suggest strategies to promote social and economic justice. Support your report with relevant theory. Affirm gender equality and equity as prerequisites to sustainable development and ensure universal access to education, health care, and economic opportunity. a. Secure the human rights of women and girls and end all violence against them. b. Promote the active participation of women in all aspects of economic, political, civil, social, and cultural life as full and equal partners, decision makers, leaders, and beneficiaries. c.
Strengthen families and ensure the safety and loving nurture of all family members. Uphold the right of all, without discrimination, to a natural and social environment supportive of human dignity, bodily health, and spiritual well-being, with special attention to the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities. a. Eliminate discrimination in all its forms, such as that based on race, color, sex, sexual orientation, religion, language, and national, ethnic or social origin. b. Affirm the right of indigenous peoples to their spirituality, knowledge, lands and resources and to their related ractice of sustainable livelihoods. c. Honor and support the young people of our communities, enabling them to fulfill their essential role in creating sustainable societies. d. Protect and restore outstanding places of cultural and spiritual significance. Reference: Homophobia, prejudice & attitudes to gay men and lesbians (2010). Retrieved January 30, 2011. From AVERT: Averting AIDS and HIV: http://www. avert. org/homophobia. htm. HIV & AIDS stigma and discrimination (2010). Retrieved January 30, 2011 From AVERT: http://www. avert. org/hiv-aids-stigma. htm