Philosophy Exam Questions Essay

September 30, 2017 Philosophy
  1. What is Plato’s theory of remembrance? What is it about and how does it work?

Plato’s theory of remembrance provinces that all knowledge a individual has of all time known or will cognize already exists in his/her memory. As a consequence. clip and acquisition are merely semblances ; they are the procedure of retrieving everything. To turn out his theory. Plato presents an illustration. It concerns Socrates and a slave. Socrates gives the slave a series of geometrical diagrams and inquiries. inquiring him to work out them. The slave does so. without holding any mathematical preparation before. Therefore. because the slave was able to make so. Socrates says that the merely he could was because he had anterior cognition in a old being and was merely remembering that cognition.

  1. Plato held that it is better to endure unfairness than to perpetrate one. Why? What is Plato’s theory of justness?

Plato’s theory of justness provinces that. on an single degree. justness is a human virtuousness responsible for doing a individual consistent and good ; on a societal degree. justness is what makes a society harmonious and good. Therefore. to endure an unfairness is better. as the individual enduring that unfairness remains virtuous. The virtuousness stems from keeping one’s values. both as an person and within society.

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  1. Discuss Plato’s position of decease. What is the nature of decease for Plato. and what. in his position should be the philosopher’s reaction to the chance of it? Explain.

Plato’s position of decease is presented in the Phaedo. and is of a casual nature. He believes that decease is something that should non be feared. as it is the natural class of things to come to life. every bit good as to decease. Through Socrates. he maintains that one of the ends of practising doctrine is to fix for decease. He believes that it frees the psyche from the organic structure every bit much as possible while one is still alive. Therefore. decease is something of a virtuousness. as it prepares one for holding an immortal psyche.

  1. How does God map in the positions of Descartes and Berkeley?

Both Descartes and Berkeley use the construct of God in their statements by presenting God as the cause of a person’s thought. However. this is where the similarity ends. Descartes provinces that God is the lone possible cause of the thought of God. while affair is the cause of all other thoughts. Berkeley provinces that God is the lone possible cause of all thoughts. Therefore. God is a Divine Mind from which all thoughts come.

  1. Explain Descartes’ method of uncertainty. What is it and what is its value for philosophical question?

Descartes’ method of uncertainty is a philosophical scheme in which the end is to get the better of incredulity. One must get down by doubting the truth of everything. non merely the grounds of the senses or the grounds of civilization. but the cardinal procedure of concluding itself. If a specific truth can last this utmost challenge. so it must be wholly true and therefore. a certain foundation for cognition. In respect to its value for philosophical question. this method is much like Socrates’ method of seeking the truth. It allows one to travel through assorted theories and puddle through assorted inquiries in order to seek their ain truth.

  1. What is Descartes’ wax illustration about? How do you believe Berkeley would explicate the same event?

Descartes believes that the human head is capable of idea and perceptual experience. He explains this construct by manner of an illustration refering wax. It is apparent that solid wax and melted wax are both wax. Therefore. perceptual experience is non merely a map of the senses. but besides a logical thinking of the head. The ultimate decision for Descartes. so. is the fact that the head is the lone thing that is definitively in being. Berkeley would hold with Descartes. as he besides believes that the head is the lone substance that truly exists. For him. the wax in both signifiers would non be considered an bing entity. as he does non believe that the physical universe exists.

  1. What is Berkeley’s position of the differentiation between primary and secondary qualities? How does his position differ from Descartes?

Berkeley. upon analyzing the perceptual experience of things. came to the decision that any information he has must be considered secondary qualities. Therefore. they are maps of his head. He rejects the being of primary qualities. because to him. the head is the lone substance that exists. Descartes says otherwise. He believes that every substance has two types of belongingss. There is the primary quality. which is the bosom of being ; so there is the secondary quality. which focuses on the senses. In simple footings. for Berkeley. there is no primary quality ; for Descartes. there is.

  1. Describe Russell’s unfavorable judgment of Berkeley’s idealism. Make you hold with his unfavorable judgment? Explain.

When knocking Berkeley’s theory of idealism. Russell examines every facet and counters each point with his ain. He points out that Berkeley’s initial concluding refering sense-data are valid. However. it is from this point on that Russell begins to challenge Berkeley. He points out that the thought of something being in the head is a spot hard to understand. as his significance of thought is confounding. In the terminal. Russell states that the ultimate false belief of Berkeley’s statement is that one can grok what is in his or her head. Finally. Russell states that the nature of cognition wholly refutes Berkeley’s statement.

Russell’s belief that Berkeley is wrong in saying that thoughts are of the head is non wholly acceptable. Berkeley’s construct is non difficult to hold on. as it is in the head that most thoughts develop. Many of the constructs developed within doctrine root from a simple thought formulated in one’s head. Therefore. Berkeley is partly right in his belief. However. Russell makes a valid point that if one believes that things merely exist in the head. the ability for adult male to derive cognition would be limited. Since one does non desire cognition to be limited in any manner. Berkeley’s construct of idealism can be dismissed in some respects.

  1. Harmonizing to Russell. what is the point of making doctrine?

Russell does non supply a point. but instead an purpose for making doctrine. He states that the purpose is to accomplish cognition through enquiry and unfavorable judgment. However. doctrine does non incorporate certainties like other Fieldss of survey do. Yet. harmonizing to Russell. it is those very uncertainnesss that make the survey of doctrine so critical to humanity. Therefore. making doctrine non merely helps to happen replies to inquiries about the universe about. but it besides helps to maintain one inquisitive about that universe.


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