ACTIVITY ONE- Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Imitating Dialysis ( Simple Diffusion )
1. Describe two variables that affect the rate of diffusion.
Molecular weight affects the rate of diffusion because the bigger the size of the molecule the longer it will take to spread. Membrane size is another variable that affects the rate of diffusion because if the membrane’s pores are little it will take molecules longer to spread though it than if the pores were larger. Besides. membrane thickness is a variable because the dilutant the membrane the quicker the diffusion.
2. Why do you believe the carbamide was non able to spread through the 20 MWCO membrane? How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
Our anticipation was that carbamide was non traveling to be able to spread through the 20 Molecular Weight Cut Off ( MWCO ) membrane because urea is excessively large of a molecule to spread through the 20 MWCO membrane’s pores aren’t big plenty for the urea to go through through. Our anticipation was right. the Urea was unable to spread though such a little membrane.
3. Describe the consequences of the efforts to spread glucose and albumin through the 200 MWCO membrane. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
We predicted that glucose and albumen would both spread really easy through the 200 MWCO because they are big molecules. The consequences were ; the glucose diffused through the 200 MWCO membrane at a rate of 0. 0040 per minute. The albumen was non able to spread through the 200 MWCO because it is excessively big of a molecule to suit through the membrane pore.
4. Put the followers in order from smallest to largest molecular weight: glucose. Na chloride. albumen. and urea.
Sodium Chloride. Urea. Glucose. and Albumin.
ACTIVITY 2- Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Simulated Facilitated Diffusion
1. Explain one manner in which facilitated diffusion is the same as simple diffusion and one manner in which it is different from simple diffusion.
Facilitated diffusion is the same as simple diffusion in that they are both inactive and travel down ( or with ) the concentration gradient. It is different from simple diffusion in that facilitated diffusion uses a bearer protein to transport it across the membrane.
2. The larger value obtained when more glucose bearers were present corresponds to an addition in the rate of glucose conveyance. Explain why the rate increased. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
The rate of glucose that was transported increased because when the concentration of glucose got higher. so the rate of diffusion went up. When there is a higher concentration gradient the rate of diffusion additions. so the more glucose bearers made it easier for the glucose to spread more rapidly though the membrane. We predicted that the rate of diffusion would be slower due to more molecules. but the consequence was the opposite. and at the clip we didn’t cognize about Fick’s Law of diffusion.
3. Explain your anticipation for the consequence Na+ Cl- might hold on glucose conveyance. In other words. explicate why you picked the pick that you did. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
We predicted that the glucose conveyance rate would increase. We predicted this because we thought that with the aid of Na+Cl- it would assist the glucose molecules diffuse through the membrane more rapidly than without it. Our consequences matched our anticipation. The Na+Cl- facilitated the glucose though the membrane more rapidly.
ACTIVITY 3- Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Simulating Osmotic Pressure
1. Explain the consequence that increasing the Na+ Cl- concentration had on osmotic force per unit area and why it has this consequence. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
By increasing the Na+Cl- concentration we changed the concentration gradient in the H2O. which raised the osmotic force per unit area. Our consequences coincided with our anticipation because we thought that by adding more Na+Cl- would increase the osmotic force per unit area and increase the rate of diffusion.
2. Describe one manner in which osmosis is similar to simple diffusion and one manner in which it is different.
Osmosis is similar to simple diffusion in that it is a inactive diffusion and moves down the concentration gradient. It is different because Osmosis takes topographic point when there is a difference in concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane.
3. Solutes are sometimes measured in milliosmoles. Explain the statement. “Water chases milliosmoles. ”
“Water pursuits milliosmoles” is mentioning to the diffusion of H2O or osmosis. Water moves though most membranes easy and moves when there is a alteration in H2O concentration between two sides of membrane ; intending that H2O is trailing the concentration gradient.
4. The conditions were 9 millimeters albumin in the left beaker and 10 millimeters glucose in the right beaker with the 200 MWCO membrane in topographic point. Explain the consequences. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
The consequences were that the albumen was non able to go through through the membrane because it is excessively large of a molecule. and glucose passed though the membrane at a rate of 0. 0044 per minute. The osmotic force per unit area for both was 153 L. Even with a high osmotic force per unit area albumen was still unable to go through though the 200MWCO membrane. We predicted that with a higher osmotic force per unit area both would spread though the membrane. but glucose was the one molecule that was able to spread through the membrane.
ACTIVITY 4- Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Imitating Filtration
1. Explain in your ain words why increasing the pore size increased the filtration rate. Use an analogy to back up your statement. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
By increasing the pore size in the membrane the filtration rate increased because more molecules were able to spread though the larger pres faster than smaller pores. Our anticipation was that the rate of filtration would increase because the pores were larger. leting more molecules to go through the pores. In the kidneys. the membrane pores are larger which allows glucose and urea to go through though the pores.
2. Which solute did non look in the filtrate utilizing any of the membranes? Explain why.
Powdered wood coal did non look in any of the filtrates though the membranes because it is excessively big of a molecule to go through though the pores of the membrane. even though the membrane pores are big ; they weren’t big plenty.
3. Why did increasing the force per unit area increase the filtration rate but non the concentration of solutes? How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
The addition of force per unit area made the filtration go on more rapidly but did non alter the concentration of the solutes because the force per unit area affects the rate at which it diffuses through the filter. non the sum
that passes though the membrane. We predicted that the rate would increase.
ACTIVITY 5- Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Imitating Active Transport
1. Describe the significance of utilizing 9 mM Na chloride inside the cell and 6 millimeter K chloride outside the cell. alternatively of other concentration ratios.
The significance of utilizing those concentrations instead than other ratios is because for every 3 Na+ ions that leave the cell. 2 K+ ions enter the cell. Besides. we were able to see the rate of diffusion
2. Explain why there was no Na transport even though ATP was present. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
There is more Na+ outside the cell than inside the cell so Na+ tends to remain inside the cell unless it needs to be actively transported out.
3. Explain why the add-on of glucose bearers had no consequence on Na or K conveyance. How good did the consequences compare with your anticipation?
Glucose carries had no consequence on Na+ or K+ because glucose is transported independently.
4. Make you believe glucose is being actively transported or transported by facilitated diffusion in this experiment? Explain your reply.
Glucose is being actively transported in this experiment because the ATP that was there was used to transport it.