Each significant contribution to, and quotation in this essay that I have taken from the work of other people has been attributed, and has been cited and referenced. This essay/ item is my own work. I have not allowed and will not allow anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his/her own work. Name: Isabella Monika Date: 23rd April 2014 Signature: S. Monika Table of Contents Introduction Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Conclusion Bibliography South Africa is frequently commended by the outside world for its tremendous transition to democracy.
This transition is often considered to be an almost miraculous event, seeing that South Africa overcame the harshness of the Apartheid past with its cycles of revolts and repression. Fundamental to the political transition which occurred in South Africa was the change from the exclusivity and separatist ideology based racial segregation which characterized Apartheid government ideals under the National Party.
The general elections in 1994 saw the transition towards a democratic ideology under the leadership of the NC which adheres to a human rights culture, with the implementation a democratic constitution which upholds principles like equality and freedom. With the implementation of a democratic constitution in 1996 South Africa was constitutionally mandated to implement a social and public policy which transcend the traditional administrative models of the yesteryear to implement a public policy which was orientated around serving to the best needs and interest of society as a whole.
This paper will highlight the new policy regulatory framework regarding the administration management of the public service in South Africa , as well as to highlight different policy typologies which have to be taken into account by policy managers, and furthermore this paper will critically analyses various analysis models and lastly this paper will design a new intern and raining programmer for new policy interns in the department. Questions 1. Outline the emphasis of the new policy regulatory framework regarding the administration and management of the public service in South Africa Two of the most significant changes at the end of the 20th century took place outside the Western world; one was the collapse of communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe, which had a significant impact towards establishing a new world order which saw the American liberal democracy model as the dominant political and economic model.
The other was the end of the repressive system of apartheid in South Africa; this dimidiated and somewhat guided the country towards a transitional period of demagnification and the establishment of a new democratic South Africa. This section will outline the emphasis of the new policy regulatory framework regarding the administration and management of the public service in South Africa. Before starting it is vitally important to describe what public policy is, this is done to avoid unnecessary confusion and will serve as the functional basis to which a coherent investigation will be conducted.
Public policy can be described as “pre-determined action with a goal or purpose” (Frederickson, H. George, 1971 : 6). This definition highlights the fact that public policy is not a random action, policies are thought out, planned, deliberated, examined and goes through various motions in its implementation stages. There due to its large scope of the there is no single definition used to define public policy, in addition to this, each definition comes with its own interpretation.
Democracy in South Africa is complicated and messy considering its repressive past where formal rights were not granted to all adult citizens as Apartheid legislation was coordinated toward racial laws of segregation, which eliminated every vestige of black participation in the central political system. However; post Apartheid South Africa has made great strides in comparison to its repressive past, since 1994 South Africa has been democratically administered with four successive free-fair elections and the implementation of a democratic constitution in 1996 which upholds principles like equality and freedom.
On this note it is worth noting that in the Republic of South Africa, the Constitution serves as the supreme law of the country and any law or conduct inconsistent with it is invalid and obligations that it imposes must be fulfilled. As South Africa is a constitutional democracy which upholds qualities such as equally and freedom, the policy of apartheid would be in total violation with its stipulations and the values it serves to uphold. According to Cord, S and Seal, L. He “Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 South Africa is one sovereign, democratic state with the division of power between legislative, executive and Judicial : 227). Furthermore this doctrine of the separation of powers is a constitutional principle designed to ensure hat the functions, personnel and powers of the major institutions of the state are not concentrated in any one body. Under a written constitution, the powers allocated to various institutions will be clearly defined.
The fundamental purpose of the separation of powers is to avoid the abuse of power and thereby to protect the rights and liberties of citizens. New Public Management Post-apartheid reform of the South African public service was heavily in line with the reforms which had occurred in New Zealand, Britain and the United States as public service reforms in South Africa were shaped by the New Public Management hinging.
It is said that proponents of the New Public Management sought to change what they saw as bureaucratic, law-driven administrations into an innovation and adaptive public service that could response to the challenges of an increasingly challenging globalizes society. Fitzgerald explains by suggestion that the apartheid state could be characterized as “a bureaucratic, law-driven, hierarchal, multi-layered, departmentally fragmented, inward orientated, racial oligarchy’ (2005: 512).
Leading into the 21st century a new global consensus in the public sector occurred which notes broadly an aim to modernism and render more efficiency in the public sector. Some modern scholars define the New Public Management as a “combination of splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more fragmented ones, competition between different public agencies, and between public agencies and private firms and incentive on more economic lines” Fitzgerald, L. & Pettier, A. (1996, 23). The New Public Management signifies a paradigm shift in the nature of public administration, in an era of globalization public has acquired new meaning. As it no anger has a singular location, the state is not the only location at which public administration draws sustenance as multiple actors are involved in the task of governance and in the task of administration. The state is not the only provider of services to the people.
There are multiple actors and multiple service providers to the people, this signifies a fundamental paradigm shift and it is more reflected in terms of partnership and collaboration. With the New Public Management consensus the hegemonic role of the state is challenged due to the economic reforms based in new liberal ideologies. The post-1994 era has seen many rigorous structural changes being introduced as part of government’s transformational drive to adapt and cope with the many dynamic contemporary challenges.
Taking this into account the new policy regulatory framework regarding the administration management of the public service in South Africa, thoroughly outlines the roles and duties of the various stakeholders involved in the management and administration of the public service in South Africa. As highlighted in the case study, the values which are significant to the new managerial system of state administration places greater emphasis on efficiency, effective governance, accountability for performance, innovation in the delivery of public services, economic and responsive public service system.
The relationship between the Minister and the Director General The so called executive officer (CEO) of every government department is called the Director General, whom of which is an appointed official who is directly responsible to the political head of the department, the Minister. The Director General is also the chief accounting officer of a government department. Often if the working relationship teens the Minister and the Director General is unsatisfactory, as noted in the case study, the latter might be forced to relinquish his or her position.
According to Henry (1995: 23) although this is a professional appointment and the incumbent should be politically neutral in the running of his or her department, this does not always occur in practice”. This signifies the great difficulty of working in an environment where traditionally politics and administration did not mix; however now with legislative framework routed in cooperative governance an integration of the two play significance towards the execution of policies.
Further adding to the arguments made by Modishness with regards to management autonomy comes the concept of ‘managerial’ as according to Clotted (1998:116) “managerial in this sense represents an ongoing search to take decision-making out of the world where there are conflicts over values and beliefs into the realm where decisions can be made in a more rational (non-political) way’. Managerial in this sense strongly adheres to the notion that politics is not an effective mode of decision-making. Code of Conduct for Public Service The mentioning of the Code of Conduct for Public Service published as Government
Notes 825 dated 10 June 1997, plays significance with regards to the double barreled set of value which direct the activities of public servants. This code of conduct with regards to the topic states that “the need exists to provide guidelines to employees with regard to their relationship with legislature, political and executive office- bearers, other employees and the public to indicate the spirit in which employees should perform their duties, what should be done to avoid conflicts of interests and what is expected of them in terms of their personal conduct in public and private life”.
The Code further provides that in the performance of their duties, “(a) employees must inter alai strive to achieve objectives cost-effectively, enhance effectiveness and efficiency; (b) promote sound, efficient, effective, transparent and accountable administration, and (c) report to the appropriate authorities’ fraud, corruption, nepotism, maladministration and any other acts that constitute offences or which are prejudicial to public interests”. 1. Discuss the extent to which changes in the policy and regulatory framework relate to the policy dynamics element of policy management within the public sector. Society is a dynamic and complex organism with needs and demands and of course which is continuously changing, as public policy is a “reaction to environmental demands for a change in the status quo, as a result of perceived problems in society that need intervention from government to improve or eradicate those problems”.
It is therefore imperative that policy systems stay in touch with the specific demands and needs of societal changes otherwise policy will lose its purpose. Change is an inevitable and perpetual phenomenon in society and public policy needs to keep up tit these changes in order to properly identify problems and thus draw up means of trying to address these problems. In an ever-changing environment it is rather careless and dangerous to ignore change because this may be detrimental towards the policy system and the society at which those policies operate leading to a complete collapse.
A good example of this was the apartheid policy system in South Africa which subsequently collapsed as a result of a high demand of policy reform in South Africa. This section of the paper will outline reasons for policy change. Reasons for Policy: Changing Environment: The policy environment is one which is dynamic and one which is immersed with changes taking course on a regular basis. With pressures coming from all elements in the political, social, cultural and technological spheres pressuring policy makers for changes.
Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 290) state that “policy makers who ignore the influences of the specific environments or the general environments run the risk of being outpaced by new emerging policy realities if they do not change public policies to keep up with the changing reality around them”. Policy makers deed to be aware of the various fundamental dynamics involved in the changing environment as this will prepare them within the proper time to act to these changes, furthermore it would be advantageous to policy makers to predict environmental changes before hand as this will help them to prepare for coming events.
Change in the resource base The change in resource base is significant as Hoosegow and Gun (1984: 252) indicate that “the availability of resources for solving problems also change”. Policy managers in South Africa have to be resourceful and aware of the various changes that will effect their ability to perform their duties with the highest form of efficiency and competency, also with utmost significance in this regard with the managerial style framework, managers have to be mindful of not overspending.
This point is articulated by Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 291) as they state that “South African public managers have come to terms with the new financial philosophy of the Minister of finance: maintain strict fiscal discipline and do not overspend”. This is extremely important as it would heavily influence the ability of public servants to fulfill and meet service delivery objectives.
Changes in political leadership Changes in political leadership is the most significant of policy changes, as a democratic state thrives off political competitiveness with regards to multiple political parties competing for high office through elections, this fundamentally brings about a compelling dynamic as changes in political leadership means changes in policy or the introduction of different policies. Political leaders bring with them different policies which are legitimated by the political ideologies, Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 292) states that “when Taboo Imbibe took over the reins from Mr. Mandela in
June 1999, he announced a ‘policy of delivery, meaning government the government has to start giving effect to implementing policies”. 1. 3 Develop a policy change model to highlight the different policy typologies a policy manager needs to be aware of within policy dynamics. The policy change model also known as the MITTS model as suggested by (Meyer, 1990: 29), suggests that policy change falls into some, or a combination of, the following policy typologies; policy maintenance/adaptation, policy innovation, policy termination and policy succession. Policy Innovation
Policy innovation in which the term ‘innovation’ can be described as something ‘new, according to Hoosegow and Peters a process that happens “when an institution involves itself in an activity or service that is completely new to organization or institution (1983: 26). In public policy this innovation would have to be characterized by the establishment of new organizational structure and procedures, and a legislative mandate. Adding to this policy innovation would be impossible without a mandate from politicians and it requires approved budgetary allocations from legislation..
Hoosegow and Peters suggest that “policy innovation is rare phenomenon in government. Furthermore Rose (1976: 21 ) concurs with the abovementioned authors that “high risk factors prevent governments from moving into completely new policy direction”. Despite its rarity in government due to its high risk factor, innovation policy has occurred in two occasions in South Africa. According to Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 294) “when Taboo Imbibe became president of South Africa, he gave birth to the African Renaissance. At policy level this constituted innovation since it is a complete new area of government innovation”.
African Renaissance in accordance to Imbibe is used as a far-reaching developmental vision for Africa and a challenge to all African states to engage in reforms. The other occurrence of policy innovation was in the form of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission under Mandela’s presidency. According to Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 292) “this also constituted policy innovation, because it was an activity which the government had never been involved with”. It is important to note that in order for policy innovation to take place one would need legal mandatory, political mandatory, budgetary commitment and institutional framework.
Policy Succession Policy succession according to Hoosegow and Gun (1984: 250) is in contrast with the policy maintenance, innovation and termination as it is a more frequent development in practice. This noting is concurred by Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 295) as they state that “policy succession is by its very nature, more frequent in bureaucracies. Policy succession is a more feasible approach to the policy dynamic in public sector management as it is defined as “the purposeful replacement of an existing policy by another policy in the same sphere of activity (Hoosegow and Peters, 1983: 27).
Policy succession differs from policy innovation in the sense that the institution at hand does not get involved in completely different or new activity but instead it involves an exploration of already existing organizational projects. Policy splitting and consolidation: Policy splitting and consolidation would be of particular importance to policy managers within the public sector as policy splitting occurs when “a single policy programmer is structurally and functionally split into two or more programmer and engaged separately’ Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 295).
Consolidation on the other hand happens as the reverse effect of policy splitting, as according to Hoosegow and Peters “it entails a policy change where two or more policies or programmer are completely or partially terminated and replaced by a single policy or programmer in order to attain the same objectives” (1983: 66). These policy change models are significant towards the policy makers or policy managers’ objectives as to what purpose particular policies are meant to serve as well as highlight the significance of leslies towards the achievement of greater efficiency.
Question 2 In the light of the above extract, critically analyses the various policy analysis models Modishness can utilities and discuss how each one contributes to policy analysis in the above mentioned case study. All public sector policies are aimed at improving some aspect of the quality of life of the community. It is however only when the policies are implemented by public institutions that the ideals and intentions of the policy makers are put to the test. Policy analysis is an integral management application to measure the cost and benefit of policies and to evaluate he efficacy of existing policies.
Policy analysis models Many models exist to analyze the creation and application of public policies, as analysts use these models to identify important aspects of policy. This section will highlight the various policy analysis models Modishness with regard to the case study. There are models for analyzing the contents for policy options (what to do), models for analyzing policy-making processes (who is involved, why and how), models for analyzing functional policy stages or phases (what steps are followed to achieve policy outcomes) and other models (mathematical and optimal).
The most widely used models include the rational comprehensive, incremental, mixed scanning, instinctive and so-called garbage can models. Rational comprehensive model The rational comprehensive model as according to Hansom (1987: 82) “has its roots in the rational-comprehensive decision-making model and implies that the policy maker has full range of policy options to choose from”. This approach regards rationalism as an effort to achieve maximum social gain. This model implies a range of specific study areas within this model for example according to Clotted, Wising and
Coning (2006: 34) “a good example is the various quantitative techniques and models available to explore policy consequences, such as cost-benefit analysis. For instance those involved in policy making should know all the value preferences of a particular society or community this would serve to highlight the key objectives of what the policy makers are trying to achieve The incremental model The incremental model assumes that a limited number of policy alternatives are available, Anderson (1979: 11-12) states that “the incremental model is a reaction to the rational model”.
The incremental model regards public policy as a continuation of existing government activities with the potential of small or no significant change. Advocates for this model argue that the incremental model is more expeditious in comparison to that of the comprehensive change, Dye (1987: 36) states that “the conflict potential is considerably lower than with radical change and that incremental adoption contributes too redefinition of policy on a continuous basis”.
The mixed- scanning model The mixed-scanning model is an integration of the good characteristics of the sectional-comprehensive model and the incremental model, this is further explained by Hoosegow and Gun as they state “first by reviewing the overall policy and secondly by concentrating on a specific need, policy result or policy impact” (1984: 60). A variety of technical analytical techniques are used in this model this including a problem structuring analyses which highlights cause and effect, stakeholder analysis and argumentation techniques.
Furthermore forecasting which incorporates theoretical techniques including theory mapping, theory modeling, casual modeling and regression analysis. Other techniques used in this model which are of great significance is the policy recommendation, according to Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 35) include “cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness, policy mapping, value clarification, monitoring, evaluation and plausibility analysis”.
The managerial approach of public institutions require a complexity of managerial aspects to be applied in the management of public institutions as these institutions have to be cost-effective and deliver with efficiency, these are part of the dynamics involved in contemporary institutional outcomes. The institutional model The institutional model opens up to the second set of analytical models (who is involved, how and why), the premise of this particular model is articulated by Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 39) by stating “public policy is the product of public institutions.
This overall emphasizing the importance of public institutions, furthermore Dye (1978: 20-21) states that “proponents of this model argue that as public policy is legitimated by government, only government policies apply to all members of society, the structure of governmental institutions can have important earring on policy results”. This model could be of use to Modishness as it too is used to analyses the behavioral patterns of public institutions.
According to Anderson (1979: 22) “the institutional model could be usefully employed in policy analysis by analyzing the behavioral patterns of different public institutions, for example the legislature vs.. The executive and their effect on policy making”. This speaks directly to the issue at which Modishness had raised about her discontent with regards to the minister with whom she felt had involved himself too much in the details of administration.
The systems model The systems model is one model of significant value to policy analysis as Wising remarks that this idea of policy as a process is closely related to the idea of a political system (1990: 150). This model is especially useful in the depicting policy processes on a general and simplistic level and often identifies subsystems and processes. Wising describes the policy making process as a political sub process within the wider political process.
According to Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 43) the former is regarded as that which typically takes places within the bounds of the political Rena, the latter as a broader sphere which includes implementation, results and evaluation”. This model is closely related to that of the input-output model which focuses on the response by the political system as inputs and the needs of interest groups.
According to Clotted, Wising and Coning (2006: 43) “such demands enter the political system as inputs and through the political process via such channels as political debates, cabinet memoranda, proposals, counterproposal and consensus and decision and agreement on policy I finally reached on the policy or output to be made”. This further expresses the roles of other actors in the process of policy making and the extent to which political influences go through to influence public policy, this would thoroughly challenge the rhetoric that politics and administration don’t go hand in hand or vice versa.
However despite this, the disadvantage of the systems model are highlighted as it “fails to describe how the actual transformation of inputs into outputs takes place, viewing this part of the process as a black box. It does not address the power relationships in decision making or identify the various there players in the policy process, thereby ignoring certain types of coalition” (Wising: 1990-150).
Functional policy stages/ phases models The functional policy stages and phases models is a useful tool of analysis of policy as it involves a number of stages to which a policy issue may pass, including forecasting, setting objectives and priorities, options analysis, policy implementation, monitoring and control, evaluation and review, and policy maintenance, succession or termination. This emphasizes a broad framework which minister to ones understanding the various kinds of policy stages of the policy process; this emphasizes the interactive nature of the policy process.
Odor (coca: 89-90) articulates that the functional policy stages/phase stages is “one upgrading policy making processes, which in turn involves improved policy process management and redesigning organizations. And two, establishing improved grand policies, which guide the substance of discrete policies, which in turn involves application of policy analysis to grand policies as well as process and organization upgrading which serves policy development as a whole”. With this Odor makes a clear distinction between the content of policy and process dynamics, in this Odor remarks how policy placement can be improved.
It is vastly important to employ a vast diversity of models to when analyzing public policies as limiting one’s analyses one will lose focus of the dynamism and the complexities involved in policy making and thus it would be beneficial to employ analytical techniques in their numbers to facilitate the policy analysis process Question design a new intern education and training programmer for new policy interns in the department. The programmer will focus among others on the importance of building policy analysis skills and improvement of capacity building thin the above case study.
Rationale 20 years of democracy is the overarching theme of 2014, this marks 20 years of democracy and freedom and 20 years of democratic rule. Post Apartheid South Africa has made great strides in comparison to its repressive past, since 1994 South Africa has been democratically administered with four successive free-fair elections and the implementation of a democratic constitution in 1996 which upholds principles like equality and freedom. 20 years of a young functioning democracy is a time of great significance to this great country and thus it requires a reflection of where we eave come and where we want to be.
Over the years many policies have been implemented to aid the stimulating of service delivery and economic growth for the betterment of our society. Nevertheless policies are met with vast complications as the policy making spectrum is complicated and challenging and there has been a growing demand for analytical skills which will aid in analyzing policy. The intern education and training programmer, sets to develop policy interns with an array of analytical skills with the main focus of the programmer being that of policy analysis and capacity building.