In the Dialogue Crito. Socrates employs his Elenchus to analyze the impression of justness and one’s duty to justness. In the scene of the duologue. Socrates has been condemned to decease. and Crito comes with both the hopes and the agencies for Socrates to get away from prison. When Socrates insists that they should analyze whether he should get away or non. the cardinal inquiry turns into whether if it is unfair to disobey Torahs.
Socrates’ ultimate reply is that it is unfair ; he makes his statement by first screening that it’s incorrect to avenge unfairness. so reasoning that he has made an understanding with the city’s jurisprudence for its benefits. and eventually concluding that he should maintain to that understanding and accept its effects. However. the scrutiny in Crito was incompletely and its logic flawed ; in doing this determination. Socrates has forsaken his life for his ideal of justness.
The scrutiny was done in the elenchus. which has the construction that Socrates will get down with an premise and happen contradictions to extinguish possible replies ; the premise here is that there are good grounds why Socrates should get away from prison. Socrates starts his statement by first extinguishing the public sentiment as a ground why he should get away.
Socrates observes that refering a person’s wellness. merely a doctor’s sentiment would count alternatively of the public sentiment ; he so draws a analogue of that analogy to justness. that “We should non give so much idea to what the bulk of people will state about us. but think alternatively of what the individual who understands merely and unfair things will say… ” ( Crito 48b ) While the public sentiment would surely press Socrates to continue his life. Socrates discredits it as a ground for his flight.
Following Socrates assumes that since merely a good life is deserving populating. and that populating a good life is the same as populating a merely life ( Crito 48b ) . Socrates should get away for his life merely if it is merely for him to make so. Efficaciously. Socrates has reduced the inquiry to whether if it is merely to disobey the jurisprudence ( by get awaying prison and executing ) to make up one’s mind if he should get away. To this inquiry. first Socrates says that he should non avenge unfairness. Because making unfairness is bad in any fortunes ( Crito 49b ) . to return unfairness merely because of holding unfairness done onto himself would bad besides ( Crito 49c ) .
Therefore Socrates should non perpetrate unfairness merely to acquire even with Athens. Injustice is bad because it harms. and noncompliance to the jurisprudence would harm the metropolis ( Crito 50b ) ; so it seems that to disobey the jurisprudence would be an unfairness. But why should Socrates obey the jurisprudence of the metropolis? Socrates grounds that since the metropolis has done him great benefactions. such as giving birth to his life. taking attention of his physical upbringing and his instruction. and allowing him long old ages of benefits from the legal system ( Crito 50e – 51c ) . Socrates owns the province a strong responsibility of gratitude merely as a kid would have to his male parent.
One of those responsibilities is to obey the province ( like how a kid obeys his parents ) . which ever has included the possibility of decease such as in times of war ( Crito 51b ) . Socrates should obey the metropolis because he has made an understanding to make so. This understanding is the societal contract that he has implicitly accepted and lived under for 70 old ages.
This contract is legitimate because Socrates had a thorough apprehension of the legal system ( Crito 51e – 52a ) . he did non go forth the metropolis when he was given the just opportunity all his life ( Crito 51 c-e ) . and that he even has consciously benefited lawfully from this inexplicit understanding with jurisprudence all his life. Therefore it is apparent that Socrates has made such a societal contract with Athens. which he has been satisfied with so far. It is merely for one to maintain the understanding he has made. therefore Socrates should maintain the understanding made with Athens ; and therefore he should obey the province and its Torahs ( Crito 53c ) .
Furthermore. Socrates has been given the opportunity to convert Athens non condemn him to decease. and he even could’ve proposed to be exiled that would hold the same effects as if he escapes now ; if Socrates had the opportunity to carry through thise with legal agencies when he did non. he would non be justified to make so now illicitly ( Crito 52c ) . Following this concluding. Socrates concludes that he should non get away from prison and his eventual executing. Although Socrates’ committedness to his ideals is admirable. his logical thinking is critically flawed. Socrates lacks the definition of justness throughout the treatment of justness.
Socrates surely thinks of justness as something intrinsic and absolute. alternatively of merely Torahs imposed by the province ; this is apparent when he refused to collar Leon of Salamis by the order of the 30 autocrats ( which is an act of noncompliance ) on the evidences of justness ( Apology 32c ) . Clearly he believes that justness is higher than opinions of sovereignty. But Socrates ne’er made clear what is this virtuousness that makes justness merely ; alternatively. he merely mistily calls some actions merely. such as when one keeps an understanding. or behaves good towards one’s parents.
It is because of this deficiency of definition Socrates ends up beliing himself. For case. Socrates makes the proposition that one should seek expert cognition alternatively of following bulk sentiment when it comes to justness ; this would connote that the justness is non related to the sentiment of the bulk. every bit good as that the bulk are no expert in justness. If the societal contract in the democratic Athens is assumed to be an understanding made between by the bulk of the society. so justness is surely independent from that societal contract.
But later Socrates argues that he has to obey the state’s Torahs and maintain the understanding made to the province. which implies that justness is to maintain the societal contract ( contraposition of “not maintaining to the contract is unjust” ) . Furthermore. Socrates assumes that disobeying Torahs and understandings is unfair. But what is the province? It is no more than a collective of Athenians. Where do these Torahs come from? The bulk sentiment of the Athenians ( in the instance of the autocrats Socrates wouldn’t obey the Torahs anyways ) and the understandings they’ve made.
If so the Torahs and understandings the bulk of Athenians. it seems that they determine what’s merely without cognizing what’s merely ( or else their sentiment would count! ) . which would be unacceptable for Socrates. Furthermore. Socrates’ gratitude and responsibility towards the province does non compare obeying the province ; in-fact. if killing Socrates is an unfairness that would make Athens injury. so Socrates ought to make whatever that is in his power to forestall being executed by get awaying to carry through his responsibility of profiting the metropolis. There is another more cardinal defect in Socrates’ statement.
If he considers justness to be morally independent of Torahs. so some Torahs would be merely and other unfair. There could be unfair Torahs. or merely Torahs abused. Socrates ne’er considered these instances of whether he so rightly deserves the decease sentence or non. Therefore to merely obey Torahs may non needfully take to justness. This statement would destruct the whole intent of obeying Torahs and non get away from prison. We may theorize. if we have presented these statements to Socrates. would he be convinced to get away prison?
Possibly non. as Socrates is already 70 and was expected to decease shortly anyways ( the mean life span for male was around 40 ) . Diing in the name of justness. alternatively of old age in a distant topographic point. is decidedly more romantic and held more entreaty. Furthermore. to populate in expatriate would hold no positive consequence on his kids. it would stain his repute. and such a life in expatriate will non be gratifying ( Crito 53d – 54d ) . Therefore. it would be possible that Socrates will still take to decease as a sufferer to justness and doctrine.