Attach this sheet to your answers to the following short essay questions and mail your answer to the center for grading purposes. Only one copy is needed, but keep a safety copy for yourself. Each correct answer is worth 25% of your score. Essay Questions: 1. Trace the origin of political science. (5 pts. ) Political science began as early as 14th century B. C. when Aristotle (384-322) wrote his book entitled “Politics” which is the systematic treaties on political affairs.
His book was written about 335-332 B. C. which made him won the title of “Father of Political Science”. Political science comes from the term “political” which is derived from the Greek word “polis” which means “city “and “science” comes from the Latin term “scire”. Plato and Aristotle were two political scientists in the ancient Greece who continuously quest for the systematic analysis on the political system of the city-state. 2. Give the pros and cons of giving political science the status of a science. (5 pts.) There are reasons why political science was contradicted as a science because of the following reasons: Political science has no fixed criteria or natural laws to observe and evaluate its findings. The raw materials of this science are human beings in which human beings are unpredictable hence; there were no scientific basis for prediction. Lastly, there is no consensus of opinion among political scientist as to their methods and conclusions. In spite of these contradictions, there are certain reasons to consider political science as a science: Political science is within purview of science in its truest terminology.
The term science comes from the Latin word “scire” which means systematic body of knowledge. The most favorable reason is that modern political scientist uses scientific methods of research, analysis and deduction which made political science as a true science. 3. What are the four elements of a state and briefly describe each one. (2 pts. each) The four elements of the state are people, territory, government and sovereignty. People are the first and most important element of the state because people are considered as raw materials of political science so there can be no state without people. The second element of the state is territory which is the geographical area under the jurisdiction over which the state exercises the full control. The third element is government, which is created by people and obeyed by people, an organization enforcing its authority with different types like republic, monarchy and dictatorship. The fourth element is sovereignty which is a complete authority to rule over the people in the state and the freedom from foreign control.
This has two types; internal and external sovereignty. 4. What are the four main theories of state origin, give their exponents (philosophers), and say something about their meaning and criticism. (3 pts. each) The four main theories of the state origin are the divine theory, social contract theory, force theory and natural theory. Divine theory is the oldest theory of how the state originated and was almost widely accepted in ancient and medieval times. This is believed that political authority emanates from God.
The ruler derives his power from God so as God’s agent on earth; the ruler must be obeyed by people. The exponents of this theory are Thomas Aquinas, Marsiglo of Padua Dante, Bishop Bossuet and Sir Robert Fillmer. The divine theory has declined due to the rise of democracy where there is a separation between the church and the state. There are many criticisms of this theory such as; it is dangerous theory because it implies that the rulers are responsible to God alone for their acts are not to the people.
Another is; it seems inapplicable to the subject of the origin of the state for religion pertains to matters of faith and not on politics. Second theory of state origin is Social Contract Theory which was the dominant theory creed of the 17th and 18th centuries replacing the divine theory and this theory is postulated upon the assumption that the past history of mankind was divided into two periods. The first period is when men lived in a state of nature without a government, laws or social restraints where he enjoyed his inalienable rights and natural liberty.
The second period is after when men agreed among themselves to live under one civil society or body politic which was done by a contract or compact among themselves whereby each one surrendered his natural liberty but gained in return the protection and civil rights guaranteed by the government. Philosophers who supported this theory are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rosseau. Criticisms of social contract theory started during 19th century for the reasons that it is unhistorical because there is no historical instance to prove that a band of men in early times had joined themselves into a political compact.
Contract theory is dangerous because it was used as a dangerous weapon to destroy the stability of existing states as shown by the French Revolution of 1789. The third theory of the state origin is the force theory. This theory is when the state has arisen through sheer force, a man dominating a tribe through brute strength then a tribe conquering other tribes to form a kingdom then one kingdom smashing other kingdoms to transform it into an empire, kingdom and empire fought against one another for supremacy.
The exponents of this theory are; Bluntshi, David Hume and other German writers like General Von Bernhardi who considered it as a biological necessity and he asserted that “Might is the supreme right. ” Criticisms of this theory are; Force is an essential element internally and externally in the state but force alone cannot explain the origin of the state. This theory is wrong in magnifying only one factor in the evolution of society or state. There are other factors that can rise and develop the state aside from force.
It disregarded any opposition against the government and discredits the “inalienable rights” of the individual. The natural theory is the last theory which takes its roots from the Greek concept provided that man and state are inseparable, that it is only through the state that man grows and man outside the state is considered either god or beast. During 19th century, an English idealist revived the idea that the state was natural, an instrument for progress toward the good life rather than evil.
The natural theory was not a sanction for the assertion that the rights of the citizen exist independently for the governmental authority. Since man and state are inseparable, the individual’s only right are those which are prescribed by the state and liberty of the citizen are not an automatic right of the individual. Political Science 1 Module II MODULE TEST Name: Angela C. Brigola Course: AB Psychology Date: 07-14-12 INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following short essay questions on the blank space provided, mail to the center. If possible type your answer.