History and civilization of many states and societies have been affected by political systems. In the 1600s-1700s two political systems. absolute monarchy of France and the constitutional monarchy of England. have affected Europe. Absolute monarchy is when a swayer regulations with absolute. or entire. power. A constitutional monarchy is when Torahs limit the power of the sovereign so they can non govern perfectly. These two political systems affected non merely their ain state. but the whole of Europe as good. Chiefly under the influences of the two leaders Louis XIV. Charles II. James II. Prince William. and Queen Mary.
One of the most known swayers that ruled with absolute power in France was Louis XIV. Louis ruled for many old ages and was considered one of the most powerful swayers in Gallic history. Louis frequently said. “L’etat. c’est moi” . which means. “I am the state” . Louis ruled with absolute power. which is why he considered himself to be the incarnation of France. He used his power to govern perfectly. which was shown in the many things he did. Louis besides backed up wholly he did by stating he had the right to govern with Divine Right. or it was as if he was a portion of God. God giving him his power to regulation. When Louis foremost became king in 1643 he was merely five old ages old and the current leader of France was Cardinal Mazarin. People. particularly Lords. hated him because he increased revenue enhancements and strengthened the cardinal authorities. Violent rebellions tore France apart and many Lords even threatened immature Louis’ life. Once the rebellion was over. Louis still did non bury the Lords menaces and vowed to go so strong that the Lords wouldn’t be able to overmaster him.
When Louis took full power of France in 1661. he was 23 old ages old and took no clip in telling bids. He weakened the power of the Lords by excepting them from his council. He increased the power of intendants. people who administered justness and collected the revenue enhancements. To beef up cardinal power. Louis would pass on with local functionaries on a regular basis. Louis worked difficult to assist France achieve it’s cultural. political. and economic glare. Jean Baptiste Colbert. the curate of finance. helped Louis the most in accomplishing these ends. He expanded fabrication. placed high duties on imported goods. bucked up people to travel to settlements. and supported mercantile system. After Colbert’s decease. Louis created a policy which slowed down France’s economic advancement.
He besides cancelled the Edict of Nantes. which protected the spiritual freedom of Huguenots. When Louis got rid of the Edict of Nantes. it caused many Huguenot craftsmans and concern people to fly the state. go forthing France without many skilled workers. Another thing that Louis did was construct the castle of Versailles. a immense castle that stretched for 500 paces. Louis besides forced his state to contend several wars. sing France had an ground forces other states could non even fit. The other states were finally able to fall in forces and fit France’s strength. in which Louis began to enforce more revenue enhancements to pay for army fundss. When Louis finally died. he left behind a bequest yet he besides left behind many debts and a destroyed France. Although France was now a power to be reckoned with. the debts and bad crops had an affect on the people and they had bitterness because of the royal abuse they took.
One could specify a constitutional ( limited ) monarchy as a regulation when the King or Queen’s power was limited by jurisprudence. papers. and legislative assembly. One could besides qualify a limited monarchy as when the King or Queen have to portion power with a Parliament. a organic structure of representatives that makes Torahs for their state. The King or Queen must besides inquire Parliament before they make any Torahs. travel to war. or raise revenue enhancements. It is shown that England did so hold a constitutional monarchy in many ways. For case. when Prince William and Queen Mary took the throne. they had to vow to regulate England harmonizing to Parliament and the English Torahs and imposts. Parliament besides made certain to restrict royal power by making a Bill of Rights. Then. after 1688. no British sovereign could of all time govern without acquiring the consent of Parliament beforehand. These few illustrations help demo how England was changed into governing with a limited monarchy.
One ground the English decided to alter their political systems was because of the English Civil War between Oliver Cromwell and King Charles I. King Charles 1 was ever in demand of money. chiefly because he was in war with France and Spain. Parliament refused to give him financess so he dissolved it. though he had to name it back together to raise revenue enhancements. Parilament continued to decline until Charles signed the Petition of Rights. which he ignored one time he signed it and got his money. This caused indignation through Parliament because the King dissolved them one time more. doing it look as though King Charles was get downing to go absolutist. He imposed all kinds of fees and revenue enhancements on the people. King Charles besides tried to enforce his faith. Anglican. on the people of London and even the Presbyterian Scots. They rebelled and threatened to occupy England. which forced the King to hold to raise some new money for this menace. Although. this gave Parliament a new ground to oppose the King. Parliament began to go through Torahs to restrict Charles power. which angered him.
Charles fled to the North and assembled an ground forces of people who were still loyal to him. Finally this led to the English Civil War against adversaries and protagonists of the King. although both sides were ne’er giving up. the Parliment’s side gained a new military leader. Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell was able to successfully subvert King Charles. seting him in prison and seting him on test for lese majesty. Bing found guilty. King Charles was sentenced to decease and so killed. After the Civil War. the British people went through two leaders before Prince William and Queen Mary took the throne. Peoples called this the Glorious Revolution because the two swayers were able to subvert King James II without bloodshed. The English were granted new rights one time William and Mary took over.
The swayer couldn’t suspend Parliament’s Torahs. raise revenue enhancements without Parliament’s consent. interfer with the freedom of address. and they couldn’t punish citizens who petition the male monarch about grudges. Although the people of England gained this Bill of Rights. there were times when Parliament and the sovereign did non ever hold on one thing. When the two of them disagreed on something. it brought authorities to a deadlock. This led to the development of the Cabinet System. a group of authorities curates and one Prime Minister. The curates acted for the King but they truly represented the major party of Parliament. They became the nexus between Parliament and the sovereign. Finally. the cabinet became the centre of policymaking and power. The Cabinet System was chiefly created to go a nexus between the Parliament and sovereign when the two couldn’t agree on something. This political system continues on through England to this twenty-four hours.
One could reason that political systems have affected the civilization and history of many societies and states. Two illustrations of this would be the absolute monarchy of France and the constitutional monarchy of England. An absolute monarchy is when swayers use entire power to regulation and a constitutional monarchy is when the ruler’s power are limited by Torahs and legislative assembly. Absolute monarchy in France under Louis XIV consisted of a immature king’s memory of when the Lords tried to kill him which led to his absolutist ways. He built a big castle called Versailles and went to war with many different states. stacking up debts for France. He weakened the noble’s power and strengthened the cardinal authorities. Although Louis used his power perfectly. he did do France into one of the most powerful states of its clip.
The constitutional monarchy which genuinely began with the regulation of Prince William and Queen Mary. English sovereign couldn’t regulation without acquiring the consent of Parliament. a group of representatives for the province. nor could they raise revenue enhancements or base on balls Torahs without Parliament. Peoples were given new rights under the Bill of Rights and new systems. like the Cabinet System. were made to assist maintain the new authorities system strong. Both of these political systems had a sovereign as their primary swayer. although the manner they ruled was really different.
Absolute sovereign ruled with their entire power. able to do Torahs and raise revenue enhancements on their ain. though it was still frowned upon. Limited sovereign could merely do Torahs and raise revenue enhancements with consent of Parliament. and their power was limited by Torahs. Both of these two political systems seemed to take to the following 1. chiefly because of the English Civil War. The people saw how the English Civil War destroyed their state and its people. which led to the demand for a bound on the royal’s power. As the people realized that tyranny needed to be stopped. it gave birth to the new thought of constitutional monarchy. which still thrives as of today.