Prevalence of smoking among nursing and non nursing

Smoking causes assorted morbidity and mortality. Harmonizing to the baccy control province high spots, 2010, smoking is one of the most preventable causes of decease and diseases in the US. In Singapore, the prevalence of day-to-day tobacco users, aged 18 to 69 old ages, was 21.8 % in males and 3.5 % in females as reported by National Health Survey, 2004. Surveies suggested that nurses smoke as the same rate as other people of similar age and socio-economic position. ( Hughes & A ; Rissel, 1999 ; Rowe & A ; Macleod Clark, 2000 ) . Nurses are the health-care suppliers who are largely in contact with the people and patients and therefore they have to the function theoretical account. When nurses are smoking, they will non be able to deter the patients from smoking. This will in bend affect the beginning of smoking surcease plans, wellness publicity plan against smoke and so on. As such, it is of import to cognize the prevalence of smoking since before pupils graduated as nurses. Upon the consequences and findings, bar of smoke and smoke related wellness jobs will be modified and launched decently in the community.


The intent of this literature reappraisal is to compare the prevalence of smoke among nursing pupils and non-nursing pupils, to find the pupils ‘ attitude and beliefs towards smoke, to cognize the factors act uponing pupils to smoke and non to discontinue smoke and to advance anti-smoking plan among Singapore young person.

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Current issues or Singapore context

To my cognition, there are merely a few studies done in Singapore sing to the prevalence of smoke among the young person. When other states are making a batch of surveies on smoke in assorted positions, there is a demand for Singapore to make more surveies and research about this issue to advance the healthy life of all the people countrywide.

Psychosocial factors that influence smoking

The psychosocial factors include anxiousness, peer force per unit area and cognitive disagreement. There is a strong correlativity between anxiousness tonss and care of smoking wont ( Tselebis et al. , 2001 ) . It is besides stated that if the preventative smoke preventative techniques are aimed at the alleviation of anxiousness, it will be more effectual.

Friends were considered the major ground for get downing smoke, followed by pleasance, emphasis and wonder. It seems that young person use the unwanted behavior of smoke as a scheme to get by with emphasis and societal anxiousnesss instead than good interests such as reading books or playing athletics. ( Kader et al. , 2008 ) . Tendencies in young person smoke can assist to signal displacements in the baccy epidemic in Asia, peculiarly with respect to alterations in smoking prevalence among females. Understanding the beliefs, sentiments, and attitudes of youth-and the relation of these psychosocial factors to smoking position and susceptibleness to smoking-provides the starting point for developing effectual baccy control intercessions in this critical part. ( Parkinson et al. , 2009 )

Clark and McCann, 2008 demonstrated that siblings were more influential than parents in the determination to smoke. It shows that friends and association demands are a strong influence on the determination to get down smoke, and household members are besides influential. This added to troubles of smoking surcease, even when tobacco users understand the wellness hazards of smoke.

It was easier to go on to smoke than to confront the ill will shown to them by their smoke friends when seeking to discontinue. To stay an acceptable member of the equal group, it was indispensable to maintain smoke in that group. Student nurses feel that nursing environment is potentially nerve-racking.smoking among immature people is initiated and maintained through equal friendly relationship groups that web in response to defeat and feelings of subordination. ( Nasrabadi. et al. , 2004 )

Gender and smoke

Tobacco usage among Asiatic states is characterized by important gender differences. Although males are merely marginally more likely than females to smoke in many Western states, smoking rates among Asiatic males typically approach or exceed 50 % whereas fewer than 5 % of Asiatic adult females smoke. Traditional gender functions and limited entree to material resources have restricted baccy usage among Asiatic adult females to day of the month. However, as rapid socioeconomic alteration takes topographic point in Asia-including the motion of adult females into the paid workforce- societal traditions and adult females ‘s economic position are switching. Males were significantly more likely to keep positive aesthetic beliefs towards smoking than were females. ( Parkison. et al. , 2009 )

Beliefs and attitudes towards smoking ( cognition, discontinuing )

As in Western states, beliefs about smoking held by young person in Southeast Asia are associated with smoke position. Antismoking media may be an of import agencies of aiming beliefs about smoke among young person. In add-on, the presence of transnational baccy companies in Asia is increasing, and Asiatic adult females are now the mark of well-funded selling runs that link smoking with Western ideals of tenuity and glamor. Therefore, there is turning concern that baccy usage among Asiatic adult females will follow the flights observed in Western societies over the past 50 old ages and increase to degrees similar to those of males. Beliefs about smoke are of import forecasters of smoking behaviour among young person. The belief that parents disapprove of smoke has been shown to be a powerful forecaster of behavior-even more so than parental behavior. Young person who hold beliefs about the aesthetic benefits of smoke are besides at an increased hazard of smoking consumption ; such beliefs include the thought that smoking makes people look more cool, sexy, or mature. Males were more likely than females to believe that smoking makes immature work forces and immature adult females look more attractive and that smoke is a mark of being modern. Within Thailand, males were more likely than females to believe that smoking makes immature work forces and immature adult females look more attractive. Within Malaysia, there were no important gender differences. Overall, based on the positive aesthetic beliefs index, males held significantly more positive beliefs about the aesthetics of smoking compared to females. ( Parkison. et al. , 2009 )

There was minimum association between degrees of cognition and attitudes about being sensitive to smoking-related wellness hazards. It is stated after some articles and surveies are reviewed and resulted as there is no important difference in cognition about effects of smoking between tobacco users and non-smokers. Knowledge about the effects of smoke is non related to attitudes about the wont in nursing pupils. ( Clark. et al. , 2004 )

Cognitive disagreement is the psychological emphasis caused by incongruent beliefs. For case, believing that smoke is harmful while at the same clip believing it is loosen uping. It is unpleasant psychologically ; the person is normally motivated to diminish disagreement. Consequences in avoiding information that the tobacco users tend to disregard or undervalue the effects of smoking such as COPD, environment pollution, lung malignant neoplastic disease, etc. ( Pericas, 2009 )


A lower prevalence of smoke among the nursing community, together with a greater sensitiveness towards the job will increase professional criterions and lead to an betterment in the wellness and public assistance of our clients. ( Pericas, 2009 )

It has been shown that patient are less likely to take advice to discontinue smoking from wellness attention professionals who smoke and more likely to take advice from those who do non smoke.

Those who smoke are less likely to recommend the smoke surcease ; wellness attention developing plan may desire to put a greater accent on baccy consciousness and surcease among these future primary attention suppliers ( Pericas, 2009 )

To reason, there is a demand for nursing pupils so as to promote effectual anti-smoking behaviours since before they go out to the work topographic point.



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