Promote person centred approaches in health and social care
1: Understand the application of person centred approaches in health and social care.
1.01 Explain how and why person-centred values must influence all aspects of health and social care work.
The aspects of health and social care work are important because the care value base allows the care settings to meet the needs of all the clients. The care value base sets out rules and guidance for every practitioner to follow in order to provide service to an individual.
There are few points to remember and apply:
• Promoting anti-discriminatory practice
• Maintaining confidentiality of information
• Promoting and supporting individuals right to dignity, independence, choice and safety
• Acknowledge of people personal beliefs and identities
• Protecting individuals from abuse
• Providing effective communications and relationship
• Providing individualized care
1.2 Evaluate the use of care plans in applying person centred values. Care Planning is all about improving the lives of those who receive care. It informs us how care should be delivered to an individual according to person centred way . It helps us to understand what level of support an individual needs and how it should be delivered . These are a few examples on how to use care plans in applying person centred values :
Personal biography : We can obtain personal information from this part including desired name to be called, birthday, profession and interests which can help us to support individuality ,dignity and choices.
Mobility care plan: Lets us identify the individual’s mobility and the best way to support an individual’s independence.
Medical history : Provides us with information about individual’s past and present diagnosis .
Nutritional care plan: provides information of what an individual likes to eat and drink.
3:Be able to establish consent when providing care and support.
3.1 Analyse factors that influence the capacity of an individual to express consent.
Informed consent is a phrase often used in law to indicate that the consent a person gives meets certain minimum standards. As a literal matter, in the absence of fraud, it is redundant. An informed consent can be said to have been given based upon a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and future consequences of an action. In order to give informed consent. The individual concerned must have adequate reasoning faculties and be in possession of all relevant facts at the time consent is given. Impairments to reasoning and judgment which may make it impossible for someone to give informed consent include such as:
• factors as basic intellectual or emotional immaturity,
• High levels of stress such as PTSD or as severe mental retardation, severe mental illness, intoxication, severe sleep deprivation, Alzheimer’s disease, or being in a coma.
This term was first used in a 1957 medical malpractice case by Paul G. Gebhard. Some acts cannot legally take place because of a lack of informed consent. In cases where an individual is considered unable to give informed consent, another person is generally authorized to give consent on his behalf, e.g., parents or legal guardians of a child and caregivers for the mentally ill. However, if a severely injured person is brought to a hospital in an unconscious state and no-one is available to give informed consent, doctors will give whatever treatment is necessary to save their life. Which might involve major surgery, e.g., amputation. In cases where an individual is provided insufficient information to form a reasoned decision, when serious ethical issues arise.
3.03Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established.
It is considered an emergency if a person is apparently experiencing severe suffering or is at risk of sustaining serious bodily harm. The exception for emergency treatment applies if. The patient is mentally incapable of making the treatment decision The delay required to obtain consent will prolong the suffering or put the person at risk of sustaining serious bodily harm The exception for emergency treatment also applies if.
The patient is apparently capable, but communication cannot occur because of a language barrier or a disability Reasonable steps have been taken to find a practical means of communicating with the patient but such steps have been unsuccessful, and the delay required to find a practical means to communicate will prolong the suffering or put the person at risk of sustaining serious bodily harm. In addition, a health practitioner who believes that a person is mentally incapable, or where communication cannot take place after reasonable steps have been taken, may conduct an examination or diagnostic procedure without consent.
If the examination or diagnostic procedure is reasonably necessary to determine whether there is an emergency.
A person who is mentally capable has a right to refuse treatment even if it is an emergency. If there is a language barrier, or the person has a disability which prevents communication, treatment cannot be performed without consent. Where there is reason to believe that the person does not want the treatment. Mental capacity is specific to the treatment being performed. Mental capacity may also depend on timing. A person may be considered incapable with respect to treatment at one time and capable at another time. Nor is there a fixed age at which a person becomes mentally capable of consenting to treatment. Always to take in to account the resident’s best interests.
4.Be able to implement and promote active participation.
4.1 Describe different ways of applying active participation to meet individual’s need’s.
One of the most important steps to take in actively participating to meet an individual’s need is openly listen. A major problem we have is not knowing how to really listen to a person when they are talking to us. By listening you then are able to hear clearly what they want and how you can assist them.
The next thing that is important to remember is to not be judgmental. We must remember to put our values and belief system on hold when assisting an individual. They have the right to their feelings and thoughts, you need to respect their right. It is most important when participating with an individual in helping them meet their needs, that they always have the feeling of being empowered as they interact with you. To have a person feel they are valuable is what creates a “win-win” experience for everyone.
5.Be able to support the individual’s right to make choices.
05.4 Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others.
That depends on the mental capacity of the individual you want to support.
First, you must obtain their permission and then you must get them to express as exactly as possible what help they reckon they need.
Then you can offer further information, suggestions, and a plan to challenge such decisions. You could offer to be their spokesperson if they weren’t confident enough to speak out, or to accompany them to any hearing or appointment.
However, if the person is mentally impaired, you would have to get their signed permission to speak and act on their behalf before any health or social care workers would listen to you. Because of issues of confidentiality, you either have to be next of kin, or obtain powers of attorney or guardianship.
6. Be able to promote individuals well-being.
6.1 Explain the links between identity, self-image and self-esteem.
? Identity: Is a person’s conception and their expression of their individuality. The making of a person’s identity depends on the significance from others like parent and friends and family with in a social group and factual movie characters. The reflection of ourselves reflection our identities. This is describing as ‘Self-Image’.
? Self-Image: an individual’s self-image is a rhental representation of a person and their characteristics. This includes thing like for example; height, weight, hair and hair colour, gender, I.Q score. This can also include religious beliefs that they have. Self-image is important to a person and can relatively resistant to change.
? There are 3 types of self-image:
1. How I see myself.
2. How others see me.
3. How I see others.
Self-esteem is described as an internal self-evolution. This is where people compare each other’s description of themselves the way they are, and who they would like to become. Self-esteem also can depend of the ability to live with ideas made.
Self-esteem: is a psychological way to describe an individual’s emotions and how worthy they really are. Self-esteem assumes as a result of reflection and individual’s future attitudes worth themselves and the affects it has on themselves. I also affect; motivation, attitudes, confidence and their emotional well-being overall.
6.2 Analyze factors that contribute to the well-being of individuals.
Factors contributing to well-being.
1. Subjective well-being
2. Economic and employment situation
3. Education and intellectual development
4. Health and nutrition
6. Interpersonal relationships
7. Civic life
8. Cultural and spiritual activities
Respondents identified how a person’s mood can have a positive or negative effect on their well-being, and in turn, how experiencing well-being can affect a person’s mood. This is to a large extent dependent on an individual’s character and general outlook on life. A person’s subjective wellbeing is furthermore influenced by a number of uncontrollable factors, such as luck, fate, genetics and personality over which people can exercise very little influence. A factor that one is able control is the specific set of values that one holds, i.e. wellbeing can result from cultivating the values of sharing, altruism and being outward-looking. Satisfaction that stems from feeling good about oneself, having belief in yourself and your values, self-realization, recognition and success can be a great positive contributor to a person’s well-being. While personal growth and development positively influences well-being, so does stability and predictability in one’s life and work. Respondents from a number of different countries mentioned the importance of individual self-determination and the value of living in a society that provides a variety of possibilities for self-realization that one can choose from and also provides the well-being. Aggregate Report 8 opportunities to make those choices. Finally, for respondents from Italy, the UK, Portugal and Poland, subjective well-being is influenced by one’s ability to have expectations, to set yourself goals, to have dreams, and to fulfil your desires. Economic and employment situation: Respondents in the majority of countries were unanimous about the importance of money in order to attain a state of well-being.
7.Understand the role of risk assessment in enabling a person centered approach.
7.01Compare different uses of risk assessment in health and social care.
Risk assessments can be used in a number of different ways for example: two ways could be used for:
Risk assessment for infection control,
Risk assessment for an activity although.
They are both designed to reduce the risk of an injury/illness or an accident. A risk assessment for infection control will outline what can be done to reduce the risk of an infection being spread around. A risk assessment for an activity will be used to either stop or reduce the likelihood of an accident that wouldn’t normally be carried out.
7.2 Explain how risk taking and risk assessment relate to rights and responsibilities.
If an individual decides they don’t want to use a Zimmer frame anymore that is their choice, but as care staff our responsibility is to keep that person as free form harm as we can. So to do this we could produce a risk assessment and explain to the individual the risks of not using a frame anymore and then help them decide what they would like to do. This could mean finding a compromise e.g. instead of a frame would they feel more comfortable with a stick, because the staff have done this they have managed the risk of harm and respected the individual’s rights.
7.03 Explain why risk assessment need to be regularly revised.
Risk assessments need to be revised regularly because individual’s circumstances can change or their condition could improve or deteriorate. This means the risks to that individual can change and new steps will need to be taken to reduce the likelihood of any harm coming to the individual.