Learning – long lasting change in behavior resulting from experience Classical Conditioning – a form of learning in which the first stimulus is the signal of the occurrence of the second stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (US/UCS) – the original stimulus that elicits a response Unconditioned response (UR/UCR) – the involuntary, reflexive response to unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus – the stimulus associating with the original stimulus to elicit a response Conditioned response – salvation elicit from the bell (not getting there yet) Acquisition – learning is taken place once animals response to conditioned stimulus without the existence of unconditioned stimulus the animal has acquired a new behavior
Delayed conditioning – the procedure in which conditioned stimulus is presented first and then the unconditioned stimulus is presented while the conditioned stimulus is still evident/continued Extinction – the process of unlearning a behavior Spontaneous Recovery – after a conditioned response has been extinguished with no further training, the response briefly reappears upon the presentation of the conditioned stimulus Generalization – the tendency in which animals response to certain stimuli that are similar the conditioned stimulus Discriminate – in which subjects can be trained to tell the difference between various stimuli Aversive conditioning – negative responses to CSs/USs Eg.
Baby Albert experiment: loud noise(US), in which baby Albert fears (UR), is paired with white rat (originally US), so baby Albert then learned to be afraid of white fluffy stuff (generalization) white rat become CS; CR is the response to the white rat alone Second Order/Higher Order conditioning – when CS elicits a CR, the CS is then used as US to condition a response to a new stimulus Eg. Dog salivates when hearing bell rings. Pairing bells with flash lights or others will cause dog to salivate with flash light/ others alone. Learned taste aversion –developing aversion for a certain food/drink because you have experienced uncomfortable feelings after ingesting it.
Salient – easily noticeable and therefore create a more powerful conditioned response Operant conditioning – is a sort of learning based on the association of consequences of one’s behavior Law of effect – if the consequence of a behavior is pleasant, the stimulus-response (S-R) connection will be strengthened, and the likelihood of the behavior will increase; if the consequence of a behavior is unpleasant, the stimulus-response (S-R) connection will be weakened, and the likelihood of the behavior will decrease Instrumental learning – consequence is the instrument shaping the future behaviors Skinner box – is a box that has a way/path to deliver food and a lever to press to peck in order to get food Reinforcer – for the sample above, it will be the food.
It is something that reinforce/ motivate the subject to have a specific behavior Anything that makes a behavior likely to occur Reinforcement – the process of giving the reinforcer defined by its consequence Positive reinforcement: a behavior is strengthened for the addition of something pleasant Negative reinforcement: a behavior is strengthened for the removal of something unpleasant Escape learning – when one terminate an aversive stimulus Avoidance learning – enables one to avoid unpleasant stimulus altogether Punishment – unpleasant consequence that will a behavior, making a behavior less likely Shaping – a way to reinforce/speed up a behavior we desire to reach 1. Positive punishment: addition of something unpleasant to make a behavior less frequent 2.
Negative punishment/ omission training: the removal of something pleasant to make a behavior less frequent Chaining – when subjects are taught to perform a number of responses successively in order to get a reward Discriminative stimulus – the stimulus that the subject is able to distinguish from Primary reinforcers – rewards such as food, water and rest; whose natural properties are reinforcing Secondary reinforcers – things we have learned to value Generalized reinforcer – money, traded for virtually anything Token economy – a system of behavior modification that can be rewarded with tokens/symbols which can be exchanged with variety of reinforcers Premack principle – a principle that states that the reinforcers are not always effective to all subjects depending on how desired and what is desired by the subject.
learning is different from behavior, yet changes in behavior best demonstrates learning – learning must result from “experience” rather than “innate” or “biological change” CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan Pavlov, Russian psychologist: discovered “a kind of” learning while studying digestion in dogs – dogs pair the sounds in environment where they were fed with food, began to salivate upon hearing the sounds – Pavlov deduce the “basic principles” of classical conditioning Eg. First stimulus: the sounds in the environment Second stimulus: began to salivate simply upon hearing the sounds – People & animals can learn to associate neutral stimuli (example: the sound) with stimuli that produce involuntary, reflexive responses (example: food) to respond to the new stimulus as they did to the old one (example: salivate) – the unconditioned stimulus the food – food elicits the natural and involuntary response salivate – factors that affects acquisition: 1. Repeated pairings of unconditioned stimulus with conditioned stimulus yield stronger conditioned responses 2.
Order & timing of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus have impact on strength of conditioning – most effective conditioning present conditioned stimulus first and then to introduce the unconditioned stimulus while conditioned stimulus is still evident – Less effective methods of learning 1. Trace conditioning: the presentation of conditioned stimulus, followed by a short break, followed by unconditioned stimulus 2. Simultaneous condition: where both conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are presented at the same time 3. Backward condition: Unconditioned stimulus is presented first, follow by conditioned stimulus. This method is particularly ineffective. – CS no longer elicits CR classical conditioning for extinction – repeatedly presenting CS without US will cause extinction – people and animals will have the tendency to respond to similar conditioned stimulates, generalization~ Eg.
Animals will salivate to different kinds of ringing bells – to discriminate, for animals/people to tell the difference between the conditioned stimulates, the conditioned stimulates, present the specific CS with US while the other CSs with no US BIOLOGY AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING – learned taste aversions demonstrate not all US can be paired with any CSs – animals & humans are biologically prepared to associate strange taste with the feeling of sickness – the food (CS) must be salient in order for us to avoid it – sometimes taste aversions are acquired without good reason. Eg. If you are eating some mozzarella sticks a few hours before you fall ill with stomach flu, you might develop an aversion to that popular American appetizer even though it had nothing to do with your sickness
Edward Thorndike: first person to research on operant conditioning – Edward Thorndike states the law of effect about the pleasant consequence elicits pleasant behavior, unpleasant consequence elicits unpleasant behaviors – Edward Thorndike claimed is experiment to be instrumental learning because he believes that consequence is instrumental in shaping future behaviors – B. F. Skinner (another famous psychologist for this – behaviorism, area of studies) invented a contraption called Skinner box – 2 kinds of reinforcement 1. Positive reinforcement: a behavior is strengthened for the addition of something pleasant 2. Negative reinforcement: a behavior is strengthened for the removal of something unpleasant – B. F. Skinner eg. When the rat pushes the lever, the rat will receive its award(food) which cause the rat to push the lever more often – POSTIVE REINFORCEMENT – B. F. Skinner eg.
The rat hated loud noise but when the rat pushes the lever, the loud noise stops, hich cause the rat to push the lever more frequent to avoid the loud noise – NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT – the example above is also a escape learning because the rat can avoid an aversive stimulus for pressing the lever more often – an avoidance learning would be when the rat runs away from the loud noise (another behavior/response) to avoid what it hated – 2 types of punishment 1. Positive punishment: addition of something unpleasant to make a behavior less frequent 2. Negative punishment/ omission training: the removal of something pleasant to make a behavior less frequent Punishment versus Reinforcement – punishment is operant conditioning’s version of aversive conditioning – shaping helps to speed up a specific behavior we desired for – rat Barnabus is asked to go through a series of veritable obstacles in order to get food as reward chaining – the goal of chaining is to link a series of separate behaviors into one complex activity