Rome’s success was due to skillffil diplomacy and a well-disciplined army. The Roman army was composed of citizen-soldiers, who fought without pay and supplied their own weapons. The basic unit was the legion, made up of about 5,000 men. To ensure the success of the soldiers in battle, Roman commanders instituted a system of rewards and punishment. Bravery and courage were rewarded with praise and gifts, but cowards were punished shamefully and often put to death. Rome’s conquest of the Italian peninsula brought it into contact with a new rival, Carthage. Carthage was located on.
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aEUR? -the northern coast of Africa. Between 2O4Rc and l4O~c~, Rome fought three wars with Carthage. These were known as the Punic Wars.
1ct Punic War.
-Romans defeat Carthage, forcing it to surrender Sicily, Corsica, and Sardina. Twenty-three years later Carthage would seek revenge Llnder.
their new general Hannibal.
2nd Punic War.
“Hannibal led the Carthaginian Army in a surprise attack on the Rornans.
aEUR?The Romans were expecting the attack to come from the south, but Hannibal had other plans. Starting in Spain, Hannibal led his army through France and into the Alps Mountains. This expedition cost him many of his men, but in the end his attack caught the Romans completely off guard. For 1 5 years, Hannibal pounced across Italy winning battle after battle, but they were never able to capture Rome itself In the end, the Romans out flanked Hannibal by sending an army to attack Carthage.
3rd Punic War.
— After allowing Hannibal to remain free afler the 2nd Punic War, lie am,., returned to Carthage and rebuilt its economy. “Fhe Romans once again.
feared that he might try to retaliate. In the end. Rome attacked and completely destroyed the city of Carthage Survivors were killed or sold into slavery. Carthage and the region surrounding it became the new Roman province of Africa.
The Romans went on to capture lands in the eastern Mediterranean, The divided.