Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the germ and inner husk of rice & rice grain hulls. It is also known as rice bran extract. It is notable for its high smoke point of 213 °C and its mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir frying and deep frying. It is popular as oil for healthy cooking in several Asian countries including Japan and China. The healthiest portion of rice is the oil extracted from the otherwise unused bran. Rice bran oil was first used in Asian countries, but its use has spread because it’s rich in antioxidants and healthy fats.
Properties of Rice bran oil Food energy per 100 g 3,700 kJ (880 kcal) Smoke point 213 °C (415 °F) Iodine value 99-108 Acid value 1. 2 Saponification value 180-190 Unsaponifiable value 3-5 Composition of Rice bran oil Rice bran oil has a composition similar to that of peanut oil, with 38% monounsaturated, 37% polyunsaturated, and 25% saturated fatty acids. The fatty acid composition is: Fatty acidPercentage C14:0 Myristic acid 0. 6% C16:0 Palmitic acid 21. 5% C18:0 Stearic acid 2. 9% C18:1 Oleic acid 38. 4% C18:2 Linoleic acid 34. 4% C18:3 ? -Linolenic acid . 2% Nutrient Content of Rice bran oil per tablespoon One tablespoon of rice bran oil provides 120 calories and about 13 g of fat. It also has 4 mg of vitamin E and approximately 3 micrograms of vitamin K. Uses of Rice bran oil •
Rice bran wax, obtained from rice bran oil, is used as a substitute for carnauba wax in cosmetics, confectionery, shoe creams and polishing compounds. •It is edible oil which is used in the preparation of vegetable ghee. •Great for salad dressing too. • It can be used as deep frying medium. •It can be used for baking. It is used as skin protector in sunscreen products and hair conditioners is on the increase in the United States. •Rice bran oil is also noted for its high content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including 42 percent oleic acid & heart-healthy antioxidants, including gamma oryzanol. Physical Characteristics of the rice bran Oil •High Smoke Point: It has high smoking point of 213 °C (415 °F) and can be used for deep frying. •Appealing Flavor: Rice bran oil adds an appealing flavor to foods. It has a flavor ideal for Indian cooking. So we can include this oil in our day to day cooking.
It does not give any off flavor while frying or even stir frying •It is viscous in nature and hence will be absorbed lesser by the foods and the food cooked in it will not be dripping in oil or soggy. •Good texture: It gives good texture so it can be used for baking. Rice bran oil allows foods to resist oil saturation, helping to reduce the sometimes greasy texture of fried foods. Popcorn kernels can pop even bigger when cooked in rice bran oil. •Longer Shelf Life: It has good shelf life due to its particular blend of components •Cost effectiveness: It is not expensive as olive oil.
Biological Characteristics of the rice bran Oil •modulation of pituitary secretion •inhibition of gastric acid secretion •inhibition of platelet aggregation •lowering of blood pressure •regulation of cholesterol level/Cholesterol-Lowering Potential •antioxidant action •Anti-Cancer Effects •Skin Protector •Hypoallergenic Health benefits of rice bran oil 1. Lowers Cholesterol level Rice bran can be beneficial in the fight against heart disease by reducing total cholesterol levels, including the bad LDL cholesterol and triglycerides by 20 percent, according to a 2005 study by Italian researchers.
Rice bran oil contains gamma oryzanol, a group of ferulate esters of triterpene alcohols and phytosterols that have been linked to many health benefits. Gamma oryzanol is effective in reducing plasma cholesterol and reducing cholesterol absorption, decreasing early atherosclerosis. In addition, gamma oryzanol inhibits platelet aggregation that could lead to blood clots. Rice bran oil contains tocotrienol (a form of Vitamin E) which has been found to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that synthesizes cholesterol, a major factor in heart disease. . Skin Protector Originating in the Japanese culture, skin care with rice bran oil is becoming more popular. To this day, one of the highest compliments a Japanese woman can receive is to be called a “nuka bijin” which means “a rice bran beauty. ” Having smooth healthy skin is due to the oryzanol in the rice bran oil that whitens the skin slightly. As the skin is exposed to sunlight, the rice bran oil reacts as a sunscreen protecting the skin from harmful ultraviolet rays.
The oryzanol impedes melanin pigmentation by restraining the erythema activity of tyrosinase as it stops the ultraviolet rays’ transmission at the skin’s surface. 3. Antioxidant activity/ Toxin-Cleansing Benefits Rice bran oil is a healthy oil because of its high antioxidant quality. Antioxidants fight free radicals and the oxidative damage that they have on body cells. Rice bran oil has the highest oxidative stability index value compared to other oils such as soybean or sunflower oil, according to “Food & Beverage Asia” in 2010. The antioxidants found in rice bran oil contribute to this high value.
Rice bran oil beats olive oil in its vitamin E power, as it contains both the tocopherol and tocotrienol forms of the vitamin, whereas olive oil contains only the tocopherol form — and less of that than rice bran oil. Additionally, rice bran oil contains significant amounts of the antioxidant oryzanol, whereas olive oil has none. Olive oil, however, contains more of the health-enhancing antioxidant known as DHPEA-EDA, known for its heart-protecting capacity. 4. Hypoallergenic Rice Bran Oil is hypoallergenic. For those who have an intolerance or sensitivity to other cooking oils this is an excellent oil alternative 5.
Anti-Cancer Effects Rice bran oil contains significant levels of both gamma and delta tocotrienols (approximately 500 ppm), forms of Vitamin E, that have been found to be able to accumulate in cancer cells and kill the tumors. In a study conducted at Kyushu University in Japan, researchers looked at the effects of tocotrienols on mouse cancer cells. There was a significant delay in growth in the cancer cells. “Our results suggested that accumulation is critical for the anti-tumor activity of tocotrienols,” said Japanese lead researcher, Yuhei Hiura, reporting in “The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 6. Relieve painful symptom of Menopause The rice bran oil component ? -oryzanol was shown in Japan to be effective in relieving hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause. Researchers found 90% of the women found some form of relief from hot flashes after taking a rice bran oil supplement for four to six weeks. 7. Balance of Essential Fatty Acids Essential fatty acids are very important to our daily diet. A balanced fat intake should contain approximately 30 percent saturated fat, 33 percent polyunsaturated fat and 37 percent monounsaturated fat.
The fatty acid profile of rice bran oil is among the healthiest when compared to other vegetable oils. It contains four times the amount of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which are known to fight the effects of premature aging and regulating our metabolism. Rice bran oil contains no trans fat and is high in monounsaturated fatty acids. Each of these is vital in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and promoting healthy skin. Extraction Process: Solvent Extraction Process is used for extracting crude rice bran oil from rice bran.
Fig: Flow Sheet for rice bran oil extraction. Refining Process To make crude rice bran oil to be edible oil, Gum, Free Fatty Acid, color pigment, odor- volatile matter and wax have to be removed from Rice Bran Oil. Every production process is closely monitored resulting in high Oryzanol Rice Bran Oil that is suitable for healthy cooking as well as cosmetics and spa products. In order to obtain high quality refined Rice Bran Oil, the refining process begins by reducing excess free fatty acid and then decreasing the color with activated clay.
After decreasing color, the oil is forwarded to the crystallization process before filtering the wax through a filter press machine. The next process is to remove odor by using high-pressure steam deodorizer at a temperature of 230-240 degrees Celsius. The heating medium used in this process is high pressure steam. No thermal oil or PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) involved in the production process at all. The result is high quality and safe rice bran oil. Conventional Refining Process Free Fatty Acid in crude rice bran oil is removed by neutralize the oil with caustic soda and become soapstock.
In the same time, gamma Oryzanol, Tocopherol, Tocotrienol and some color pigment also been removed from rice bran oil. Refined rice bran oil from this process has lighter colour, less gamma-Oryzanol, less Tocopherol, less Tocotrienol. Fig: Conventional refining process of crude rice bran oil Physical Refining Process With this process, Free Fatty Acid in crude rice bran oil is removed by heat and vacuum in De-Acid process and let most of gamma Oryzanol, Tocopherol and Tocotrienol remain in rice bran oil.