First of all we should understand Pakistan ‘s economic system and on what factors it depends. In that we can easy understand the function of IMF on our economic system.
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A. Economy of Pakistan
TheA economic system of PakistanA is theA twenty-seventh largestA economic system in the universe in footings ofA buying power, and theA 48th largestA in absolute dollar footings. Pakistan is the 2nd largest economic system inA South Asia. Pakistan ‘s economic system chiefly encompasses,
And other industries.
B. Economic History
At the clip of independency in 1947, Pakistan was a really hapless state and its economic system majorly depends on agribusiness. Since independency, Pakistan ‘s mean economic growing rate has been higher than the mean growing rate of the universe economic system during the period. Average annualA was 6.8 % in the sixtiess, 4.8 % in the 1970s, and 6.5 % in the 1980s. Average one-year growing fell to 4.6 % in the 1990s with significantly lower growing in the 2nd half of that decennary. Industrial-sector growing, including fabrication, was besides above norm. During the 1960s, Pakistan was seen as a theoretical account of economic development around the universe, and at that place was much congratulations for its economic patterned advance.
The tabular array which gives every five old ages advancement of GDP, US Dollar Exchange Rate, Inflation Index, and Per Capita Income is given on the following page.
Gross Domestic Product
US Dollar Exchange
( 2000=100 )
Per Capita Income
( asA % of USA )
4.76 Pakistani Rupees
4.76 Pakistani Rupees
4.76 Pakistani Rupees
9.91 Pakistani Rupees
9.97 Pakistani Rupees
16.28 Pakistani Rupees
21.41 Pakistani Rupees
30.62 Pakistani Rupees
51.64 Pakistani Rupees
59.86 Pakistani Rupees
C. INTERNATIONAL pecuniary fund
The International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) is an organisation of 186 states, working to assist the development of planetary pecuniary cooperation, unafraid fiscal stableness, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growing, and cut down poorness around the universe. The IMF works to assist development of planetary growing and economic stableness. It provides policy advice and funding to members, in economic troubles and besides works with developing states to assist them accomplish macroeconomic stableness and cut down poorness.
The IMF ‘s cardinal mission is to assist guarantee stableness in the international system. It does so in three ways: maintaining path of the planetary economic system and the economic systems of member states ; imparting to states with balance of payments troubles ; and giving practical aid to members.
The International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) is the international organisation that oversees the planetary fiscal system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member states, in peculiar those with an impact on exchange rate and the balance of payments. It is an organisation formed with a declared aim of stabilising international exchange rates and easing development. [ 1 ] It besides offers extremely leveraged loans, chiefly to poorer states. Its central offices are in Washington, D.C. , United States.
The International Monetary Fund was conceived in July 1944 during the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The representatives of 45 authoritiess met in the Mount Washington Hotel in the country of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, with the delegates to the conference holding on a model for international economic cooperation. [ 2 ] The IMF was officially organized on December 27, 1945, when the first 29 states signed its Articles of Agreement. The statutory intents of the IMF today are the same as when they were formulated in 1943 ( see # Assistance and reforms ) . The International Monetary Fund was established, along with the World Bank, at a conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA, in the shutting phases of World War II. The participants represented the authoritiess shortly to win the war against fascism. They were concerned about the rebuilding of Europe and of the planetary economic system after a annihilating war.
The cardinal argument at Bretton Woods was between the British and US deputations stand foring, severally, broad and conservative visions of planetary economic establishments. The British deputation, led by Maynard Keynes, imagined that the new IMF should be a concerted fund which member provinces could pull upon to keep economic activity and employment through periodic crises. This position suggested an IMF assisting authoritiess to move as the US authorities had during the New Deal in response to the great recession of the 1930s.
By contrast, the US deputation to Bretton Woods foresaw an IMF more like a bank, doing certain that borrowing provinces could refund their debts on clip. This more conservative position was less concerned to avoid recession and unemployment. The US position prevailed, and set the phase for how economic crises have been handled since World War II ( Harris 1988 ) .
Since the Second World War, the International Monetary Fund has provided loans to authoritiess confronting economic crises. The loans have come to be known as structural accommodation loans because they aim to assist borrowing authoritiess adjust the construction of economic activity.
The presence of the IMF as an international loaning establishment continues to germinate with the altering conditions of globalisation. Most late the IMF has begun to concentrate its policy-making stratgies to integrate poorness decrease policies in add-on to making economic stableness ( New Generation – HIPC )
E. Organization and aim
The International Monetary Fund was created in July 1944, originally with 45 members, [ 3 ] with a end to stabilise exchange rates and help the Reconstruction of the universe ‘s international payment system. States contributed to a pool which could be borrowed from, on a impermanent footing, by states with payment instabilities ( Condon, 2007 ) . The IMF was of import when it was foremost created because it helped the universe stabilise the economic system. The IMF is still of import because it works to better the economic systems of its member states. [ 4 ]
The IMF describes itself as “ an organisation of 186 states ( as of June 29, 2009 ) , working to further planetary pecuniary cooperation, unafraid fiscal stableness, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growing, and cut down poorness ” . With the exclusion of Taiwan ( expelled in 1980 ) , North Korea, Cuba ( left in 1964 ) , Andorra, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Tuvalu and Nauru, all UN member provinces participate straight in the IMF. Member provinces are represented on a 24-member Executive Board ( five Executive Directors are appointed by the five members with the largest quotas, 19 Executive Directors are elected by the staying members ) , and all members appoint a Governor to the IMF ‘s Board of Governors. [ 5 ]
F. What does the IMF make?
Most people think of the IMF as an establishment that provides exigency credits to states that have found themselves in troubles, either as a effect of hapless economic policies or through external fortunes, such as a sudden bead in trade good monetary values, or a fiscal crisis in a adjacent state. In return the state is obliged to enforce painful asceticism policies, normally affecting decreases of budget shortages, through disbursement cuts or increased gross ( revenue enhancement ) , a rise in involvement rates to cut down rising prices, and an change of the exchange rate ( a devaluation ) .
This position, while non inaccurate, gives merely a partial image of the world of the Fund ‘s operations, or of what it is supposed to make. Its authorization, as laid down in the first Article of Agreement in 1944 in Bretton Woods, NH, is really general: to advance international pecuniary cooperation, facilitate the growing of universe trade, promote exchange rate stableness, and to assist to make a many-sided system of payments. In order to accomplish these aims, the Fund was supposed to supply short term balance of payments support to states in demand of extra international militias.
It is now an about cosmopolitan fiscal establishment, holding grown from the 44 provinces represented at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference to 182 states today. Now it includes about every economic system of the universe. ( There are merely a few exclusions: Cuba, North Korea, and Taiwan. )
Who runs it? The IMF is owned by the authoritiess of its member states, represented through a Board of Governors. The Governor for each member state is normally the Minister of Finance or sometimes the Central Bank Governor ( in the instance of the United States, the Secretary of the Treasury ) . Vote is in conformity with the size of a state ‘s share-holding in the Fund ( or “ quota ” ) , and many of import determinations require particular bulks ( 85 % of the ballot ) . There is no effort to give an equal voice to every state, as there is in the United Nations. Sporadically, quotas are recalculated to reflect altering economic size.
The United States, the largest member of the IMF, presently has 17.78 % of the ballot, and therefore can blackball any major determination of the Fund it feels is unacceptable. Under the footings of its Articles of Agreement, the IMF ‘s central office are located in the largest member state: they have ever been in Washington D.C..
Meetings of the full Board of Governors are a instead cumbrous one-year event ; a smaller and more manageable organic structure is the alleged “ Interim Committee ” , of 24 Governors, which meets twice a twelvemonth and is charged with describing to the Governors ( and in pattern devising recommendations which stand a good opportunity of success ) on “ the direction and operation of the international pecuniary system and on proposals to amend the Articles of Agreement ” .
Day to twenty-four hours determinations are made by an Executive Board. States are grouped into constituencies to elect 24 Executive Directors as members of the Board, with the exclusion that the five largest members of the IMF ( the United States, Germany, Japan, France and the United Kingdom ) have their ain Executive Directors. The Executive Board besides appoints a Managing Director. The staff of the IMF ( presently 2,660 ) is recruited internationally, but without any quotas as to nationality ( as is the pattern in the United Nations ) .
How large is it? Fund quotas for member states are ab initio determined by a computation based on the size of the national economic system ( GDP, current history minutess in the balance of payments ) . They are sporadically increased, in response to comprehend demands for the IMF ‘s operations. The Articles of Agreement provide for a general reappraisal of the quotas every five old ages. There have been a sum of 12 such quota reappraisals, in 4 of which it was decided that no addition was needed. In the other 8, there was a general addition, and some redistribution of quotas to reflect altering places in the universe economic system. In the most recent unit of ammunition of additions, the entire quota was raised by 45 % , from SDR 146 bn. to 212 bn. ( approx. $ 291 – on September 3, 1999, SDR= $ 1.37494 ) , with the U.S. portion being set at SDR 37,149.3. The size of the IMF, measured by the sum of IMF quotas, measured as a proportion of universe trade fell aggressively between 1946 and the mid-1970s ; since so this ratio has been stable, and even shown a little addition.
2. Factors impacting economic system
Growth And Investment
Money and Credit
Trade and Payments
External and Domestic Debt
Health And Nutrition
Population, Labor Force and Employment
Conveyance and Communication
Pakistan ‘s fabrication sector is turning from 2000. In 1999, big graduated table fabrication is 1.5 % and it is 19.9 % in 2004-05. So it makes an mean 8.8 % by the terminal of 2007. Below is growing of big graduated table fabrication,
1999-00 – 1.5 %
2000-01 – 11 %
2001-02 – 3.5 %
2002-03 – 7.2 %
2003-04 – 18.1 %
2004-05 – 19.9 %
2005-06 – 8.7 %
2006-07 – 8.6 %
2007-08 – 5 %
Pakistan ‘s finance and insurance sector section besides showed a great development from 2000. In 2005, it is at Rs.311, 741 million. It shows a growing of 166 % since 2000.
C. Stock market:
“ Business Week ” the international magazine declared Pakistan ‘s stock market, the best executing stock market index in the universe, in the first four old ages of twenty-first century. But in 2008, there is a great diminution in Pakistan ‘s economic system due to uncertain political environment and many other grounds.
Pakistan has diverse civilizations, people and landscapes. Tourism in PakistanA is a turning industry. To advancing Pakistan ‘s unique and assorted cultural heritages, PM launch “ Visit Pakistan ” selling run in 2007. In 2009, The World Economic Forum ‘s Travel & A ; Tourism Competitiveness Report ranks Pakistan as one of the top 25 % tourer finishs for its World Heritage sites. Some celebrated tourer musca volitanss are shown below,
K2, world’sA second-highestA mountain, in northern
Damn-e Koh Park in Islamabad
DHA Marina Club in Karachi
TheA Badshahi mosqueA in LahoreA epitomizes the beauty, passion and magnificence of the Mughal epoch.
The income of a authorities from revenue enhancement, excise responsibilities, imposts, or other beginnings, appropriated to the payment of the public disbursals. TheA Board of RevenueA has collected about one trillion Rupees ( $ 14.1 billion ) in revenue enhancements in the 2007-2008.
3. Sectors of Pakistan economic system
PakistanA ranks fifthA in theA Muslim worldA and 20th worldwide in farm end product. About 25 % of Pakistan ‘s entire land country is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the universe. Agribusiness histories for approximately 23 % of GDP and employs approximately 44 % of the labour force. A Zarai Taraqiati Bank LimitedA is lending a batch in our agribusiness sector.
PakistanA ranks forty-firstA in the universe and 55th worldwide in mill end product. Pakistan ‘s industrial sector histories for approximately 24 % of GDP. Cotton fabric production and dress fabrication are Pakistan ‘s largest industries, accounting for approximately 66 % of the ware exports and about 40 % of the employed labor force.A Merchandise exports mean export of goods non services. Other major industries include cement, fertiliser, comestible oil, sugar, steel, baccy, chemicals, machinery, and nutrient processing.
C. Automobile industry:
Pakistan is an emerging market for cars and automotive parts. The entire part of Auto industry to GDP in 2007 is 2.8 % . Auto sector soon, contributes 16 % to the fabrication sector which besides is expected to increase 25 % in the following 7 old ages. But in my sentiment this anticipation ca n’t be right due to high rising prices and deficit of CNG.
D. CNG industry:
Compressed Natural Gas ( CNG ) is a replacement for gasolene ( gasoline ) or diesel fuel. It is considered to be anA A environmentally “ clean ” option to those fuels. In 2009, Pakistan is one of the largest users of CNG ( tight natural gas ) in the universe. Soon, more than 2,900 CNG Stationss are runing in the state in 85 metropoliss and towns. It has provided employment to many people. But now this industry has a diminution and deficit of CNG is making a large job for CNG station proprietors and the employs working at these Stationss. Many CNG Stationss closed and many are traveling to shut if we do n’t contend with the deficit job of CNG.
E. Cement industry:
Growth of cement industry is justly considered a barometer for economic activity. In 1947, Pakistan had inherited 4 cementA workss with a entire capacity of 0.5 million dozenss.
The industry comprises of 29 houses, with the installed production capacity ofA 44.09 million tons.A There are four foreign companies, three armed forces companies and 16 privateA companies listed in the stock exchanges.A The cement sector is lending above Rs 30 billion to the national treasury in the signifier of revenue enhancements. ExchequerA was a portion of the authorities ‘s chapeau was responsible for the direction and aggregation ofA grosss.
Cement industry is besides functioning the state by supplying occupation chances and soon more than 150,000 individuals are employed straight or indirectly by the industry.
F. IT industry:
Pakistan ‘s IT industry has been lifting steadily. The Government of Pakistan has been proactively developing the IT sector in Pakistan. A few of the inducements offered include revenue enhancement freedom boulder clay 2016, constitution of IT Parks with low rent, foreign ownership of equity invested in IT and 100 % repatriation of net income allowed to IT companies. Net income repatriation is an of import factor that determines whether ‘foreign direct investing ‘ in another state is really profitable for the parent house.
Entire figure of IT companies registered with PSEB
Number of significant IT companies region-wise dissolution
84A A Others
Entire figure of foreign IT and telecommunication companies working in Pakistan
Entire industry size
US $ 2.8 billion ( WTO-prescribed expression )
IT and IT-enabled services exports
US $ 1.4 billion ( WTO-prescribed expression )
Percentage growing in exports over the last one twelvemonth
Number of IT graduates produced per twelvemonth
Export marks for the current financial twelvemonth 2007-2008
US $ 162 million
Pakistan ‘s fabric industry and vesture sector has ever been a major subscriber to theA foreign exchangeA earning and still contributes about 55 % to the entire exports.
Fabric exports in 1999 were $ 5.2 billion and rose to go $ 10.5 billion by 2007. Textile exports managed to increase at a really nice growing of 16 % in 2006. There is development in other sectors and exports of other sectors increases hence textile exports portion in entire export of Pakistan has declined from 67 % in 1997 to 55 % in 2008.The top purchasers of Pakistani fabric goods are:
USA, UK, Japan, Korea, Saudi Arabia, Italy, Turkey, Germany, Etc.
4. IMF aid to Pakistan
When IMF is progressing loans to their members, they non merely analyze the economic conditions of their members but the borrower will besides hold to border its policies in the visible radiation of waies given by IMF governments.
The inquiry in my head is that when and how much was lent to Pakistan by IMF. And what were the conditions imposed by IMF and what were the effects of these loans.
Pakistan joined IMF on 11th July, 1950. IMF is supplying fiscal aid to Pakistan since 1952. Harmonizing to 1977 statistics, Pakistan borrowed 1193 million dollars from IMF. Since 1980, the fund has made four chief understandings with Pakistan as,
In December, 1988
In February, 1994
In July, 1997
A. THE Year 2008:
As a consequence of elections of 18th February 2008, General Musharaf had to give up and Asif Ali Zardari became the president of Pakistan. At that clip, the state was entrapped into economic troubles. Not merely merchandise shortage had gone to $ 20 billion, but the financial shortage besides reached 4.7 % of GDP. Foreign militias had touched at lowest degree.
The IMF ‘s Executive Board has approved a $ 7.6 billion loan for Pakistan to back up its plan to stabilise and reconstruct the economic system while spread outing its societal safety cyberspace to protect the hapless.
“ The Government ‘s plan has two aims: foremost, to reconstruct overall economic stableness and assurance through a tightening of macroeconomic policies, and 2nd, to make so in a mode that ensures societal stableness and equal support for the hapless during the accommodation procedure, ” said Juan Carlos Di Tata, the IMF mission head to Pakistan.
Of the $ 7.6 billion loan, $ 3.1 billion will be made available by the IMF instantly to beef up the modesty place. And the regular monitoring of the economic system by the IMF will demo how the macroeconomic aims set by the Government are being met and whether they need to be adjusted in the visible radiation of altering fortunes.
The Pakistan governments have already taken some hard stairss to accomplish these aims: energy subsidies have been cut and the involvement rate has been increased to fasten pecuniary policy. The governments ‘ plan for the coming 24 months envisages a figure of extra stairss:
The financial shortage, excepting grants, will be brought to down from 7.4 per centum of GDP in 2007/08 ( get downing July 1 ) to a more manageable 4.2 per centum in 2008/09 and 3.3 per centum in 2009/10-in line with what it was three old ages ago. This financial accommodation will be chiefly achieved by phasing out energy subsidies and beef uping gross mobilisation through revenue enhancement policy and disposal steps.
The State Bank of Pakistan ( SBP ) will move on pecuniary policy to construct its international militias, conveying down rising prices to 6 per centum in 2010, and extinguish cardinal bank funding of the authorities. The plan includes steps to better pecuniary direction and heighten the SBP ‘s bank declaration capacity, and avoid the usage of public resources to back up the stock market.
Outgo on the societal safety cyberspace will be increased to protect the hapless through both hard currency transportations and targeted electricity subsidies. The financial plan for 2008/09 envisages an addition in disbursement on the societal safety cyberspace of 0.6 per centum points of GDP to 0.9 per centum of GDP.
B. THE Year 2009:
The IMF ‘s Executive Board agreed to increase loaning to Pakistan by an excess $ 3.2 billion to fund precedence disbursement and assist the authorities provide aid to about three million people displaced by military operations and a hard security state of affairs.
The Board reviewed advancement under a $ 7.6 billion Stand-By Arrangement for Pakistan that was agreed in November last twelvemonth. During the August 7 treatment, Directors agreed to increase loaning by $ 3.2 billion, after a petition from the Pakistan authorities to run into the state ‘s increased balance of payments demands ensuing from higher oil monetary values.
C. EFFECTS OF IMF PROGRAMES:
IMF governments think that the job of Pakistan increased because of non-compliance with the IMF plans. But it is non true. The IMF plan has led to increase the charges of gas, electricity, gasoline and telephone. The infliction of gross revenues revenue enhancement and cut in duty rates on the advice of IMF has greatly affected the incomes of the hapless and in-between category earners. They have widened the spreads between the incomes. The absolute poorness has increased which has promoted unsocial activities. But this is non all because of IMF, we are responsible for it. If our financial shortage and trade shortage decreases so we should non travel to IMF for funding. But we should be prepared to pay more in the signifier of revenue enhancements and reduces imports ; peculiarly oil etc, the dependance on IMF may travel down.
5.CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION