Royal Navy In The Air Engineering Environment English Language Essay

By August 13, 2017 English Language

Today we all live in a 24/7 society and as such we expect to be able to make and acquire anything we want ( within ground ) at anytime of the twenty-four hours or dark. This demand is one of the grounds why many organisations and services have had to incite some kind of shiftwork form for their employees. Today about 1 in 5 employed people follow some kind of shiftwork modus operandi. And this is on the addition.

All three services within the UK Armed Forces have worked a figure of displacement working modus operandis for many old ages, non merely within the field of Aviation but covering everything that would be required to bring forth a battle force capable of supporting the United Kingdom and its involvements. Within Aviation and Aeronautical Engineering in peculiar there are a figure of modus operandis that are wildly used to great consequence. However, merely because we follow these modus operandis does non needfully intend that they are the best modus operandis.

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This study sets out to find the human factors associated with displacement working modus operandis including the negative psychological and physiological effects of displacement work.

Then to look into the assorted modus operandis that are presently being used within the 3 services and besides the modus operandis that are used to great consequence within industry.

With the consequence of suggesting a displacement working form for usage both in shore constitutions within the United Kingdom.

2.0 Maintenance Human Factors

The Civil Aviation Authority ( CAA ) figure one Safety Risk Issue is Crew and Human Factors with Maintenance Human Factors being portion of it.

Human Performance can be affected by:

Drugs, medical specialties or intoxicant

Physical fittingness

Fatigue, weariness and circadian beat

Environmental factors

Stress and stressors


Social factors

This study will concentrate and spread out on point 3 – Fatigue, weariness and circadian beat

2.1 Sleep

Question: Why do we necessitate kip?

Answer: To reconstruct both physical and mental map.

How much slumber do we necessitate?

Although Margaret Thatcher claimed to merely necessitate four hours a dark sleep the gait of 20 first century life means that we are more likely to necessitate around 10 hours of sleep per dark.

Today we are populating in a Sleep-deprived Society. In that past 20 old ages, we ‘ve added about 148 hours to you one-year working and transposing clip ( which is equal to a full months working Time ( Gross, 2009, p. 113 ) .

A suggested unsmooth regulation of pollex from Dement a innovator in sleep research is that we require 1 hr of slumber for every 2 hours we are awake. Therefore a lower limit of 8 hours sleep per twenty-four hours.

During sleep research lab experiments it was found that increasing your slumber from 8 to 8 ? hours per dark has the possible to increase productiveness by 25 % ( Gross, 2009, p. 112 ) .

2.1.2 Sleep Deprivation and the Effects on Health and Performance

It has been proved that sleep want is unsafe and potentially deadly ( non that you are likely to decease from deficiency of slumber but that you could from your actions or inactivities as a consequence ) . Both the Exon Valdez and the Challenger Space Shuttle were attributed to human mistake caused by utmost sleep want. Several writers have besides attributed legion unwellnesss to kip want that include fleshiness, diabetes and memory loss ( Gross, 2009, p. 113 ) .

A recent survey into the consequence of displacement work looked at the different slumber forms of marine workers. They studied the sleep differences of workers at place and on board. They concluded that 70 – 80 % of Marine accidents are the consequence of human mistake

Some of the effects on public presentation can be as follows:


Ocular and haptic misperception

Mild freak out

Irritability and short tempered.


Negative temper provinces

Involuntary slumber ( micro slumber ) .

Short term undertakings ( with motive ) can frequently be performed satisfactory.

Poor public presentation is more marked during circadian beat depressions.

Memory affected.

2.1.3 Fatigue and Sleep Loss

Whatever the particular cause, the chief side-effects of shiftwork that are evident to the worker himself are those of fatigue and loss of slumber. Sleep becomes a major preoccupation of the displacement worker, and it is possible to do generalizations about the sum of slumber taken by twenty-four hours and at dark, with about 2 hours less sleep in the former than the latter.

Human mistake is inevitable and can non be eliminated wholly. Fatigue has been reported as one of the chief factors lending to maintenance mistake.

Fatigue is the fatigue that accrues organize using oneself to a undertaking over a long period of clip.

Fatigue can be mental or physical.

Fatigue consequences in both an inability to go on a undertaking ( mental and physical ) and a disinclination to execute the undertaking ( motive ) .

Sleep and weariness are closely related. Fatigue usually dissipates during normal remainder and slumber.

Each individual has a different ability to defy weariness which normally diminishes with age.

In the workplace, working long hours, working during normal sleep hours and working on revolving displacement agendas all produce weariness of some extent ( Civil Aviation Authority [ CAA ] , 2002, Ch. 4, p.13 ) .

2.2 Circadian Rhythm

Most animate beings including worlds display a Circadian Rhythm, from the Latin Circa – approximately and dies – twenty-four hours, ‘about a twenty-four hours ‘ .

A figure of physiological and mental maps are affected by the circadian timing system, these include:

Hormonal end product

Heart rate

Metabolic rate

Breathing rate

Body temperature

Alertness and even urine elimination

Many surveies have shown that the cyclicity or beat of a figure of aforesaid physiological and behavioral maps persist if we all of a sudden reverse out activity form and slumber during the twenty-four hours and are active during the dark. This indicates that these beats are internally controlled ( Gross, 2009, p. 201 ) .

However, our circadian beat are kept on the once-every -24-hour agenda by regular day-to-day environmental ( exogenic ) cues called zeitgebers ( from the German significance ‘time givers ‘ ) . The most of import zeitgebers the day-to-day rhythm of light and dark. If we persist with our reversal of sleep and activity, the organic structure ‘s circadian beat will ( after a period of acclimatization ) contrary and go synchronised to the new set of exogenic hints ( Gross, 2009, p. 201 ) .

Some people can take five to seven yearss to set, others take up to 14 yearss, and some ne’er achieve a complete reversal. The conversion period is sometimes really nerve-racking, and displacement workers frequently report sing insomnia, digestive jobs, crossness, weariness, even depression, when altering work displacements. In displacement work, the zeitgebers stay the same, but workers are forced to set their natural sleep-wake rhythms in order to run into the demands of altering work agendas ( Gross, 2009, p. 201 ) .

The psychological hurt that frequently accompanies shiftwork from its oncoming may be the primary factor that provokes many ( about 20-50 % , depending on the beginning informations ) to go forth shiftwork ( CAA, 2003, p.4 ) .

2.2.1 Circadian Rhythm and Shift Work

It has been said that there are two things incorrect with shiftwork ; holding to work when you ought to be asleep, and holding to kip when you ought to be awake. Although shiftwork has been with us since Roman Times ( normal metropolis traffic in those yearss being restricted to the dark hours ) , there is small uncertainty that shiftwork involves forms of behaviour that is fundamentally unnatural to the human animate being ( Monk, Folkard, 1983, p. 97 ) .

The rapid growing in shiftwork over the last few decennaries has meant that society can no longer rely on a little pool of people that can get by merrily with displacement work. In Europe and the US it has been estimated that approximately 20 % of the work-force in presently engaged in some kind of displacement work with the figure around the 17 % for the United Kingdom ( Monk, Folkard, 1983, p. 97 ) .

For workers to successfully get by with shiftwork there are basically three factors which have to be ‘got right ‘ , viz. sleep, societal and household life, and circadian beat ( Monk, Folkard, 1983, p. 97 ) .

The circadian beat and their accommodation ( or, instead, deficiency of it ) has dominated much of the recent research in the shiftwork country. They provide a temporal construction to life that is disrupted by the demand to work at dark. That a construction exists is obvious, with dramatic differences in behaviour and physiology between provinces of slumber and wakefulness.

2.2.2 Circadian Rhythm Change ( Monk, Folkard, 1983, p. 101 )

From the above treatment of circadian beat it becomes clear that the form with which forenoon, eventide and night-shifts are worked is of import in two respects. First the rate with which shifts alteration will find the grade of circadian beat stage accommodation that can happen, with small or no stage accommodation happening when merely one or two displacements of a peculiar type are worked before altering to a different type. Second the way of rotary motion would besides look to be of import with forenoon ; eventide, dark rotary motion facilitates accommodation better than dark, flushing forenoon.

Although there are many different types of displacement systems it is possible to make three wide classs. These are:

The Permanent Shift System.

This is where an person merely works one kind of displacement eg nightwatch security.

The Slowly Rotating Shift System.

This is where the displacement system rotates easy ( ie hebdomadally, biweekly, or monthly ) . This type of system is likely the one usage most often, peculiarly when the system is non uninterrupted ( ie when there are times of yearss when there is no 1 working ) ; it is peculiarly prevailing in Britain and North America.

Many other position points is that the hebdomadal rotating modus operandi should be avoided due to the fact that merely as the shiftworker starts to accommodate to the new modus operandi that displacement alterations and he/she must get down once more. The really easy revolving system ( 3-4 hebdomads ) is more acceptable but this would necessitate the displacement worker to keep his sleep/wake routine even on his off yearss.

The Rapidly Rotating Shift System.

Under this type of system the worker ne’er works more than one or two displacements in a row before altering to a different clip. Therefore, he might work two forenoon displacements, followed by two flushing displacements, followed by two dark displacements followed by two or three yearss away, so the rhythm repeats itself.

2.2.3 Rhythms in Physiological Measures ( Monk, Folkard, 1983, p. 104 )

For people to work at dark so either their circadian beat will necessitate to set to go in stage with the new agenda or they will hold to kip and work at clip that are inappropriate to their circadian beat.

Surveies have shown that it can take a considerable sum of clip for single circadian beat to set to the new agenda with some persons taking 12 yearss to go aligned.

Because this accommodation does take so long so adept sentiment has divided into to groups:

That there is a lasting displacement system with the single life by the same everyday even on their yearss off.

That the quickly revolving system should be adhered to. This everyday minimizes the displacement of the circadian beat. With the deficiency of accommodation to be a positive thing as they believe that the changeless re-setting on the circadian system is more harmful that populating a few yearss with their circadian system that is in the incorrect stage.

There are two distinguishable disadvantages to the quickly revolving system these are that the dark displacement public presentation may be impaired and that sleep dept may rapidly construct up necessitating that two or three yearss off are given after each short tally of dark responsibility to reload the batteries.

2.2.4 Meadowlarks and Owls ( Gross, 2009, p. 113 )

Surveies have found that 5-10 % of the population autumn into two classs ; Larks ( forenoon types/early birds ) wake early, ready to confront the twenty-four hours and bird of Minerva ( dark adepts/night birds ) wake subsequently, battle to wake up, and remain up subsequently at dark.

There is some grounds to propose that Owls circadian beat are longer than 24hrs, while larks ‘ rhythms are much closer to the ‘classic 24 hours ‘ . Merely 5-10 % of the population falls at either terminal of this spectrum, with most of us falling someplace in between.

However, forenoon types can digest the punishing agenda of late displacements better, ands suffer fewer physical jobs than the eventide types. The important factor is how easy a individual ‘s organic structure clock can be reset. Because forenoon people ‘s redstem storksbills are more stable and need no tuning they ‘re precisely 24hours- even on displacements the clock stays changeless.

These happening suggest that dark workers should seek to point their whole life towards being a daylight individual, who merely on occasion stays up all dark to work. Shifts should be broken into units of merely a few yearss to understate circadian break.

However, Chronobiologists ( those who study biological beat ) recommend that the manner to keep watchfulness and cut down the hazard of accidents is to seek and accommodating the organic structure clock to accommodate to the full the new work forms, doing displacement alterations less frequently non more.

2.3 Diurnal Variation

Diurnal fluctuation considers the effects of the clip of twenty-four hours have on people ‘s ability to execute assorted undertakings. These diurnal fluctuations in public presentation are thought to reflect the 24hrs beat that are now known to be in the huge bulk of biological maps. Under normal fortunes they result in predictable tendencies in public presentation over the twenty-four hours, with the precise nature of these tendencies being influenced by assorted factors such as the demands of the undertaking and single differences. Such clip of twenty-four hours effects on public presentation have obvious practical deductions in a assortment of state of affairss such as the school timetabling and shiftwork systems ( Folkard, 1983, p. 245 ) .

There is some grounds that the effects of emphasis on public presentation differ markedly depending on the clip of twenty-four hours. Clearly, the influence of clip of twenty-four hours has both theoretical and practical deductions for the emphasis and public presentation country.

2.3.1 Short Term and Long Term Memory

It has normally been assumed that time-of-day effects in public presentation reflect the individual circadian beat that is itself controlled by a individual ‘Biological Clock. This implies that if an person ‘s public presentation on one undertaking is low at a peculiar clip of the twenty-four hours, so his/her public presentation on all other undertakings at the same clip of twenty-four hours would besides be low ( Folkard, 1983, p. 249 ) .

Several surveies have been carried out on the public presentation of memory undertakings have shown that memory undertakings may differ over the twenty-four hours in relation to other undertakings. However, the exclusion to the through the twenty-four hours betterment in public presentation is found with memory undertakings.

Several surveies have been carried out in relation to short and long term memory. Short term ( or Immediate ) memory has shown to be opposite to the motor skill public presentation as it is highest first thing in the forenoon and lowest in the early eventide. Besides that the difference between highest and lowest public presentations is well greater than the divergence in the motor accomplishment trials. Surveies have besides found that long term ( or delayed ) memory is more inline with motor accomplishment public presentation and is superior when presented the stuff in the afternoon or eventide.

2.3.2 Working Memory

Surveies have shown that different types of memory procedures may demo different tendencies over the twenty-four hours. Many of the undertakings that people perform are, nevertheless non pure memory 1s, despite the fact that they are clearly more complex than the simple immediate processing undertakings such as ocular hunt. These undertakings, which include mental arithmetic, reading, concluding, have been characterized as affecting working memory and are going more frequent in industrial state of affairss due to the increased usage of high engineering. They have in common the fact that they involve both immediate processing and short term memory. Much experimental grounds exists that public presentation on these undertakings reaches a maximal about mid-day ( Folkard, 1983, p. 258 ) .

2.3.3 Sensor and Motor Skill Performance

This country has had a great trade of research carried out since the 1960 ‘s due to the increased demand to keep high degrees of productiveness and safety on assorted displacement systems ( Folkard, 1983, p. 252 ) . Several surveies have found that public presentation is low in the forenoon, high at about 20:00. Afternoon high quality for the detector and motor accomplishment public presentation. A figure of writers have reported similar tendencies including reaction times and watchfulness public presentation. Therefore the betterment of public presentation over the twenty-four hours for perceptual -motor undertakings necessitating immediate processing of information appears to hold at least some generalization ( Folkard, 1983, p. 254 ) .

2.4 Decision

The decision to be made from all the surveies carried out sing Shiftwork, Circadian Rhythms and Diurnal Variations is that there is no individual displacement form that is preferred over the others without taking into history the person and the nature of undertaking to be carried out. Each modus operandi has advantages and disadvantages over the others.

Further work would be required in order to look into whether it is possible to scheduled specific aircraft care to co-occur with the times of the twenty-four hours when public presentation for that peculiar type of undertaking is optimum.

3.0 Working Time Regulations

Adult workers can non be forced to work more than 48 hours a hebdomad on mean – this is usually averaged over 17 hebdomads. You can work more than 48 hours in one hebdomad, every bit long as the norm over 17 hebdomads is less than 48 hours per hebdomad.

Your working hebdomad is non covered by the on the job clip bounds if you have a occupation:

where you can take freely how long you will work ( eg a pull offing executive )

in the armed forces, exigency services and constabularies – in some fortunes

as a domestic retainer in private houses, as a sea conveyance worker, a nomadic worker in inland waterways or a lake conveyance worker on board sea traveling fishing vass

The Working Time Regulations 1998 ( WTR ) , which brought into force the EU Working Time Directive, originally became portion of British jurisprudence on 1 Oct 98 and have been amended later. The Armed Forces are capable to the ordinances. Important freedoms were granted which allow employers considerable flexibleness in implementing the ordinances.

The WTR govern the maximal hours an employee can work. Failure to follow with the Working Time Regulations would amount to a breach of Health and Safety Torahs which in bend may ensue in legal action being taken against the MOD and/or a Commanding Officer.

3.1 Armed Forces Working Time Regulations Exemptions and Derogations

Regulation 18 ( 2 ) ( a ) of the WTR provides freedom where features peculiar to the Regular Armed Forces ‘inevitably struggle ‘ with some of the ordinances. This is non a cover freedom ; it does non use to routine activities undertaken by members of the Regular Armed Forces. In pattern the nature of the activity is such that it can non be made to follow with the WTR without the damaging consequence on operational effectivity, the freedom should use.

Basically, this includes the undermentioned activities:

Operationss ( including military assistance to civil governments, where it is non possible to carry on activities within the prescribed on the job clip bounds.

Support of and readying for operations.

Exercises and developing imitating operational conditions, including their support.

Training ( including exercisings ) aimed at doing weariness and emphasis to fix for or imitate an operational state of affairs.

Working at Sea or in the Air

Work at sea or in the air is capable to the WTR. However, where it can be shown that attachment to normal on the job clip bounds would necessarily hold an inauspicious impact upon operational effectivity, the sea and air responsibilities in inquiry will be regarded as falling within the range of the ‘inevitable struggles ‘ freedom of the WTR. Flying hours are dealt with individually.

Working Limit Opt-Out

There is legal procedure by which workers can hold to work longer than the 48 hr bound. This Opt-Out understanding must be in composing and signed by the worker.

However, this Opt-Out procedure does non use in the instance of regular military forces, as the hours worked will either by governed by forces working everyday ordinances, or the relevant freedoms will be applicable.

Working at darks

A dark worker is person who works at least 3 hours at dark. A dark worker can non choose out of the dark clip working bound.

Particular Hazards

Where a dark worker ‘s work involves particular jeopardies or heavy physical or mental strain, there is an absolute bound of eight hours on the worker ‘s on the job clip each twenty-four hours. This is non an norm!


Although the Working Time Regulations give rigorous guidelines for the working hebdomad it is apparent that the regular forces have a figure of freedoms and disparagements that could ensue in the Soldier, Sailor and Airman being expected to work far in surplus of the maximal allowable hebdomadal hours. As such the on the job clip ordinances are merely truly applicable to UK based none operational forces, whether this gives rise to flight safety deductions are evidences for another study.

4.0 Shiftwork

4.1 What is Shift Work?

Shift work occurs in a work agenda that utilizes 24 hours a twenty-four hours and on occasion, 7 yearss a hebdomad, to maintain an organisation operating. Shift work occurs whenever 24 hr coverage is necessary or when a 24 hr twenty-four hours optimizes work end product and productiveness.

4.2 Who Works Shift Work

Once considered a fabrication issue, displacement work occurs today in many industries and Fieldss. The constabulary force, military, security, health care, retail, eating houses, cordial reception, service Stationss, transit, fire brigade, client service call Centres, newspapers, media, and any installation that houses people 24 hours a twenty-four hours such as prisons and nursing places, and more, necessitate displacement work to maintain their operations running.

4.3 Why do we work a displacement form?

There are a figure of personal grounds why people chose to work a displacement modus operandi, these include:

More clip with the household.

A 2nd Job.

Minding the kids whilst the other spouse is at work.

Ratess of wage for displacement work tend to be greater than the standard rates.

Traveling clip can be greatly reduced due to transposing to work outside the usual haste hr times. This has the added advantage that as you will be able to go farther within the same period it offers up the chance to populate where you want to and non every bit near as possible to the topographic point of work.

Enable other things to be done during the twenty-four hours such as attend college etc.

There are less outside intervention and clip can be given to be more productive.

This is non a personal pick but it might be that they do n’t hold a pick in the affair. If they want the occupation they have to work the modus operandi.

Aviation Maintenance and Shiftwork

CAP715 ( 2002, p. 14 ) inside informations that the demand for shiftwork within the civil air power sector is due to the fact that most aircraft motions occur between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. to suit in with the demands of riders. Therefore aircraft care applied scientists are required whenever aircraft are on the land, such as during bend arounds. However, this programming means that aircraft are frequently available for more important care during the dark. Thus, aircraft technology is clearly 24hours concern and it is inevitable that, to carry through commercial duties, aircraft care applied scientists normally work displacements.

The Armed Forces and Shiftwork

Unlike the civilian air power industry whose primary driver is necessarily to do money, the armed forces is non a company interested in doing a net income for stockholders. Their intent is the defending of the United Kingdom and its involvements and the strengthening of international peace and stableness. This is a 365 yearss a twelvemonth 24 hour a twenty-four hours committedness and as such the armed forces ( Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and British Army ) will be for good on responsibility to carry through their intent.

Within the Military Aviation Environment ( across all three services ) there are fundamentally two types of squadrons:

Front Line Squadrons

These squadrons are predominately involved in operations and hence necessitate a 24/7 displacement modus operandi because of the 24/7 nature of their intent and therefore upholders will necessitate to be on ticker at all times to cover any contingency.

Second Line Squadrons

These squadrons are predominately required for developing both aircrew and land crew that will finally be supplied to the front line squadrons.

The bulk of aircrew preparation is carried out during daylight hours with a smaller per centum of the clip used for dark clip winging. However, this demand for aircrew preparation means that the bulk of the clip available for the upholders to transport out the modus operandi scheduled care on the aircraft is after the completion of planned winging, normally at dark.

Apart from winging front line operational missions and preparation there is besides a demand associated with both front and 2nd line squadrons ; that is to maintain their aircrew current in both twenty-four hours and dark clip winging by accruing a specified Numberss of twenty-four hours and dark winging hours each month. This demand besides necessitates the demand for a 24 hr ticker system.

5.0 Shift working modus operandis

General Shift Work Patterns

Below is a sample of normally used shiftwork forms, the forenoon displacement is most normally 6 am – 2 autopsy with the eventide displacement being 3 autopsy -12 autopsy midnight and the dark displacement most normally 6 autopsy -6 am:

Three-shift working

The twenty-four hours is divided into three working periods: forenoon, afternoon and dark. This type of displacement work normally, but non ever, involves one or more hebdomads of forenoons, followed by one or more hebdomads of afternoon, followed by one or more hebdomads of darks.

Continental Shifts

This is a uninterrupted three-shift system that rotates quickly ; for illustration, three forenoons, so two afternoons, so two darks. Normally there is a interruption between displacement alterations.

Two-shift system early/late-double twenty-four hours

Normally two displacements of eight hours each ; for illustration, 6 am -2 autopsy and 2 autopsy -10 autopsy. Shifts are normally alternated hebdomadal or over a longer interval.

5.1.3 Split displacements

These are full displacements divided into two distinguishable parts with a spread of several hours in between. Used in industries where extremum demands are met at different times of the twenty-four hours, for illustration catering, rider conveyance and service industries.

Specific Shift Work Routines

Below is a sample of specific displacement work modus operandis followed by administrations within the service sector and outside the British military environment:

5.2.1 Fire Brigade

Concentrating on wholetime firemans the Fire Brigade supply a day-and-night service by runing a two displacement, four-watch system at Stationss – ruddy, white, bluish and green.

Duties may either be assigned to a twenty-four hours staffed station where you work 4 yearss on, 4 yearss away ( from 0700 – 1900 ) or a displacement station you work 2 yearss ( from 0700 – 1900 ) , 2 darks ( from 1900 – 0700 ) with four yearss away.

5.2.2 Fire Brigade Control Room Staff

Control Staff responsibility displacement form is two twenty-four hours displacements, followed by two dark displacements followed by four Rotas leave yearss. Day duties commence at 0800 and complete at 1730 and dark responsibilities start at 1730 and complete at 0800.

Air Ambulance/ Police Helicopters

Probes that shown that the air ambulance and the constabulary choppers utilise an about indistinguishable ticker modus operandi with the lone difference being the ratio of applied scientists to aircraft/bases.

Each applied scientist will work a 12 hours displacement covering the dark clip hours of 19:00 – 07:00. The applied scientist will work for 4 displacements so have four off, 6 displacements so 4 away and eventually 4 on and the 6 off and so repetition.

The off clip care is covered by the on ticker applied scientist at another base. He/she will merely transport out care on the aircraft he is covering merely if the aircraft is grounded due to an aircraft mistake which needs to be rectified before the aircraft can wing once more.

This is non a 24 hr displacement ticker modus operandi similar to the other modus operandis that the writer has investigated due to the fact that there is no 24 hr technology screen, merely dark clip screen.

5.3 MAE Working Routines

Probes by the writer have shown that the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy and the British Army utilise really similar ticker modus operandis within the military air power environment.

Three ticker modus operandis that are representative of the bulk of the Military forces modus operandis and that will be discussed farther are:

The 24 About Watch System.

The Search and Rescue 5 Watch System.

The ‘Thrust ‘ Watch System.

5.3.1 The 24 About Watch System


The first modus operandi is the ’24 About ‘ Watch System. This is the most common modus operandi followed within Military Aviation Environment. There are three typical groups of upholders used for this modus operandi. A Port Watch, a Starboard Watch and a Night Watch ( sometimes called the ‘Slip Watch ‘ ) . Routine ( see Appendix 1 )

Port and Starboard Watches surrogate every 24 hours with the ticker conversion being 12:00 each twenty-four hours ( Monday to Friday ) with the dark ticker covering the period from 22:30 to 07:30 Monday to Thursday inclusive.

The ticker that starts at 12:00 on Friday remain at work until completion of work on the Friday, will cover any extra demands for work over the weekend ( which will be an exclusion instead that a regulation ) and so will work until 12:00 on the Monday. This will intend that every other weekend you will be away from 12:00 on the Friday until 12:00 the undermentioned Monday. Port and Starboard Watches work about 35 hours a hebdomad each with darks working 36 hours a hebdomad.

Unless there is a work force demand, forces really seldom alteration from one ticker to another with port and starboard tickers working the same modus operandi over a two hebdomad period. System Advantages and Disadvantages:

The 24 About Routine is a front-runner within the MAE for a figure of grounds:

You have 24 hours off to make what of all time you want.

Every other weekend you have an extended weekend ( 12:00 Friday – 12:00 Monday ) .

Do n’t hold to work darks.

Any sleep shortage can be easy caught up on your off watch period.

Night ticker merely has to work 4 darks and have 3 darks away.

The everyday comparatively easy to coordinate.

The down side to this modus operandi is that the dark ticker is ever in a battle with their circadian beat. It will ne’er be to the full adjusted as I have no uncertainty that the upholders will seek and populate a normal life from Friday to Monday dark and non populate the same dark modus operandi. Therefore sleep shortage could be an issue.

There could potentially a smaller sleep shortage experience by the tickers on the yearss of their on ticker period ( completing at 22:30 and so back to work once more by 07:30 the undermentioned twenty-four hours, does non go forth a batch of clip to acquire in your 8 hours of slumber ) . Civilian Variation

The writer discovered that Babcocks run a 24 about everyday whilst keeping the RAF Search and Rescue aircraft down in the Falklands Islands. However they do non hold a dark ticker, and are on call from about 20:00 each eventide until the undermentioned forenoon. Besides they work 7 yearss a hebdomad, working 8 hebdomads on and so hold four hebdomads away.

The Thrust Watch System


An experimental modus operandi that was used by 848 Naval Air Squadron was the ‘Thrust ‘ Watch System. This modus operandi was alone to 848 and comparatively complicated compared to the ’24 About ‘ modus operandi.

Routine ( see Appendix 2 )

This everyday uses eight tickers with two tickers ever working at the same clip e.g. Port Watch A and Port Watch B working together and Port Watch C and Port Watch D and so on. There is besides a dark Watch that works Monday Night 19:00 – 07:00 and Tuesday and Wednesday 22:00 – 10:00.

The everyday revolves around merely working 3 yearss ( 37.5hours ) a hebdomad and holding a responsibility weekend 1 in 4 with dark ticker working 36 hours with 4 darks away. At any one clip during the hebdomad there will be at least 50 % of available ticker work force working. The two exclusions to this are on Tuesday Morning and Thursday eventide.

The extra work force on Tuesday allows forces to be freed up for other activities such as athletics, personal disposal and Quality Assurance procedures etc.

The extra work force on the Thursday is due to ‘Thrust ‘ rush, this increases the work force by 25 % between 13:30 to 22:30 to co-occur with the busiest clip of the hebdomad for planned aircraft care. By and large no dark winging is carried out on a Thursday dark to help the care program. The extra work force besides allowed for the work to go on over the eventide repast times. During quiet periods the Thrust Watch can be stood down until about 16:30-17:00. System Advantages and Disadvantages:

This modus operandi was really popular with upholders and likely more so than the 24hr about modus operandi. This was mostly down to the fact that you merely worked 3 yearss a hebdomad and the upholders had complete yearss off work instead than a 24hour period ( afternoon so forenoon ) .

When the single worked late ( 22:30 ) he/she either has the undermentioned twenty-four hours off or a ulterior start clip the following. Leting the person to hold the needed slumber. Other times there is plentifulness of clip for remainder and convalescence. Allows for minimal circadian beat displacement ( except dark ticker ) .

The lone existent disadvantage to the ‘Thrust System ‘ apart from the dark ticker ever being in changeless conflict with their circadian beat was that it is comparatively complicated to administrate compared to the 24hour about system. Although 848 Squadron is a 2nd line unit it has a figure of front line operational duties, so when these are combined with forces ‘s demand to be off on classs, on leave, on exercising or deployed on operation it was an about impossible occupation to co-ordinate work force.

The Search and Rescue 5 Watch System


This below ticker modus operandi is used by 771 Squadron Search and Rescue ( SAR ) Squadron based at Royal Naval Air Station Culdrose. 771 Squadron have experimented with assorted ticker modus operandis over the last 15-20 old ages but ever return to the 5 Watch System. This modus operandi is rather alone within the Royal Navy due to the fact that the Squadron is required to supply 24hours a twenty-four hours 7 yearss a hebdomad Search and Rescue capableness.

Routine ( see Appendix 3 )

The everyday revolves around a 5 hebdomad 7 yearss a hebdomad ticker period. On any one twenty-four hours there will be a ticker covering the daylight hours ( 07:00 – 18: -00 ) followed by a different ticker covering the eventide hours ( 18:00 – 07:00 ) . Each ticker will work 7 yearss of 07:00 – 18:00 and so hold 7 yearss off so work 7 yearss of 18:00 – 07:00 and so hold 14 yearss away and so the rhythm will be repeated. Due to the fact that persons merely work 2 hebdomads out of 5 the Squadrons leave ( vacation ) policy is that all one-year leave entitled ( 38 yearss ) is withdrawn.

System Advantages and Disadvantages


A favorite modus operandi with upholders merely holding to work 2 hebdomads out of five.

Circadian beat can remain reasonably changeless will little consequence during the bulk of the modus operandi.

Apart from possible sleep shortage during the dark displacement this can be cancelled out during the remainder of the 5 hebdomad modus operandi.


Labour intensive, 5 separate tickers.

Circadian beat can be affected during the dark displacement with subsequent alterations in public presentation.

Circadian beat ne’er has adequate clip to switch decently to the dark displacement modus operandi so the dark clip public presentation will ne’er be on par with the twenty-four hours clip public presentation.

6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

It has been shown that there a figure of physiological and psychological effects associated with shiftwork. Experiments have besides shown that persons circadian beat can be affected due to the working modus operandi that they follow and besides that the diurnal fluctuations have been shown to consequence Individuals public presentation as different times during the twenty-four hours.

The chief decision to be made from this survey is that there is no individual optimum form and the displacement system should be tailored to the single demands and the specific nature of the undertakings to be performed. Each of the modus operandis covered within this study have the ain specific advantages and disadvantages.

The recommendation from this study is that a similar modus operandi to the Thrust Watch System would be the ideal modus operandi to follow from within the MAE if it would be possible to enlighten the co-ordination of manpower issues.


Civil Aviation Authority. ( 2002 ) . CAP715. An debut to Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Human Factors for JAR66.

Civil Aviation Authority. ( 2003 ) . CAA Paper 2002/06. Work Hours of Aircraft Maintenance Personnel.

Monk, T. H. , Folkard, S. ( 1983 ) . Circadian Rhythms and Shiftwork. In G. R. J. Hockey ( Ed. ) , Stress and Fatigue in Human Performance ( pp. 97-122 ) . Chichester: Wiley.

Keeping, D. H. ( 1983 ) . Fatigue. In G. R. J. Hockey ( Ed. ) , Stress and Fatigue in Human Performance ( pp. 145-168 ) . Chichester: Wiley.

Folkard, S. ( 1983 ) . Diurnal Variation. In G. R. J. Hockey ( Ed. ) , Stress and Fatigue in Human Performance ( pp. 245-272 ) . Chichester: Wiley.

Gross, R. ( 2009 ) . Psychology. The scientific discipline of head and behavior ( 5th ed. ) . Dubai: Hodder Arnold.


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