Rwanda Genocide Literature Review

December 21, 2017 Management

Under colonial ruling, “race” became the control determinant of power; as a consequence, “race” became a symbol of oppression (Straus 2013). Deeply rooted in Rwanda, Huts were unhappy with the differential treatment under the colonial ruling that Tutsis were privileged over Huts. After Rwanda was granted independence, Huts were in control of Rwanda. Huts revoked all privileges that Tutsis entitled and latter pogroms were launched against the Tutsis. Tutsis formed a guerilla army called the Rwanda Patriotic Front. RPR started invading Rwanda creating a wide spread of violence.

A peace agreement came by and the RPR and the Rwanda government sign the peace agreement and it was agreed that UN(United Nation) will monitor the peace agreement and prevent further bloodshed that will put the peace agreement at risk. The focus of this analysis would be General Romeo Dallier who was the Force Commander for United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNARM). Dallier was hammered with a great deal of resistance along the way. In the beginning he was sent to conduct assessment of the situation in order to make recommendations for the mission. Dallier knew that he had a tight timeline to follow.

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Following his assessment, he was required to recommend the amount of troops that should be deployed. From his findings He had his expectations and he knew to himself that recommending a chapter seven which is sending a full force to invade Rwanda and enforce peace would not be accepted by I-JNI. Ultimately he recommended 2,500 troops for the mission knowing ideally 5,500 troops were required. Dallier expectations were one of the failures in preventing the genocide. Merriam-Webster dictionary define expectation as a belief that something will happen or is likely to happen.

Expectations are things that are volatile and things kept changing. This is one of his mistakes as a leader that he would haunt him later. He did not have any contingency plan and as a leader he lacks foresight. Dallier was acting too fast, executing too fast. Although time was an important concern but the amount of troops played a vital role in this genocide. The presence of this peacekeeping force is crucial in Rwanda, Dallier decided to hold a flag-raising ceremony. The flag-raising ceremony serves as a symbolic ceremony to remind Rwanda the urgency of the peace process.

We can identify Dallier’s adaptive leadership quality as he could have used other methods to show Nun’s presence. But flag-raising ceremony is executed with utmost respect and commonly practiced throughout the world. People can sense the seriousness of flag-raising and it signals identity especially on environment where communication is challenging. Issuance of power is something we should looked into in this review. Although Dallier is the force commander for the peacekeeping operation, he has very little power to make decisions.

Weber defined power as the chance of a person of number of persons to realize their own will in a communal action, even against the resistance of others (Weber 1948). It is not possible for power to be exercised without knowledge it is impossible for knowledge not to engender power (Faculty 1980). The incident where Dallier discovered the weapon caches, he recommended to the head of mission, Boob-Boob to search and seize the weapons. Boob-Boob denied his request. After Dallier received a tipped off that the weapons will be used for the mass murder of Tutsis.

Knowing the urgency of the situation, Dallier Jump through the chain of command, seeking headquarters directly for permission to mount a search and seize operation of the weapons. He went over Boob-Boob head because Boob-Boob he knew that Boob- Boob did not want to go against Rwanda Government. Disappointedly Dallier’s request was once again denied by headquarters. As a result of this, Dallier was unable to make decisive actions to stop the mass murder. The main objective of this peacekeeping operation was to monitor the implementation of peace in Rwanda.

The weapon cache and the tip off were sufficient to Justify the upcoming killings but UN chooses to be bureaucratic to remain within limits of chapter six mandate. Just because conflict was not observable did not mean that it did not exist. (Saunders 1979). UN did not see the bigger picture of what is coming instead they choose to follow rules and regulations which are inflexible. Jacques-Roger Boob-Boob the head of mission for this peacekeeping mission plays an important role as a leader in this genocide. His Job is to take over the political aspect of the mission and act as the overall head.

Under great political tension Boob-Boob and his staff adopted diplomatic office hours and long lunch breaks. This demonstrates how much effort he put in this mission it is also clear that his concern for this mission are not as great as Dallier. In an event, Dallier uncovered weapons caches. He commended Boob-Boob to launch and search and size operation. But Boob-Boob denied his request, citing this would harm the peace process. The weapons caches are obvious for a negative reason. Instead of consulting higher headquarters for advice he made the decision to deny Dallier for the search and seize operation.

Boob-Boob blatantly denies the request and did not consider the consequences that may occur. To further examine the failure of this peacekeeping mission and why UN was unable to prevent the genocide we look into the leadership aspect of UN as an organization. Under UN Charter Article 5 Chapter 23, maintenance of international ace and security (United Nation 1963), Nun’s Charter states that UN are responsible to maintain international peace and security. At a point of time when Dallier recognized the fact that he required assistance for more troops to deal with 300,000 refugees flooding into Rwanda.

Dallier asked for reinforcement to deal with the situation, his request was denied. Clearly UN did not support him and they were bureaucratic. They turned down his request due to the fact that Dallier had not included the possible needs of reinforcement in his original report. Their bureaucratic nature made them believed that their decision was reasonable. Dallier could not persuade UN and he had no contingency plan. This procedural inflexibility demonstrates traits of negative leadership in I-JNI. Although Dallier is the force commander he could not act within his authority.

UN has shown serious bureaucratic problem, initially it was the submission of Dallier’s recommendation for the peacekeeping mission. Despite the urgent nature of the situation, it was put through a process of slow layers of higher authority approval before it can reach a resolution. Subsequently it was the denial of request from Dallier for logics support and expedition of phase two troops. All these clearly show the bureaucratic nature of I-JNI. Clientèles stated that mountains of paper and rules only slow an organization’s capacity to achieve stated goals” (Clientèles 2013).

During a point in time, 10 Belgium paratroopers were killed by the Huts. They were killed with an agenda. The Huts knew that the Belgium will withdraw at the first sign of trouble, they tactically choose the target. Leading the death of the 10 Belgium troopers, instead of providing assistance to Rwanda, they withdraw all but 270 peace keeping force at a critical time. Ultimately the genocide occurred. Over the course of 100 days, 800,000 people lost their life in this genocide. Dallier was unable to stop the genocide. Dallier blamed himself and UN for this failure.

He criticized UN for their bureaucratic practice which was one of the major factors why this peacekeeping mission was a failure. There are two views for this failure that we must look into with a different angle. Firstly it is an omnipotent view of management that UN is directly responsible for the failure of the mission. They had the power to control but their bureaucracy nature caused a significant impact to this genocide. It is a symbolic view of management that Dallier is not directly responsible for the failure. UN created the environment for Dallier to work with for this mission.

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