Schizophrenia person’s cultural or religious background or

April 1, 2019 Cultural

Schizophrenia is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and other symptoms that cause social or occupational dysfunction. For a diagnosis, symptoms must have been present for six months and include at least one month of active symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Delusions. A delusion is a belief that is clearly false and that indicates an abnormality in the affected person’s content of thought. The false belief is not accounted for by the person’s cultural or religious background or his or her level of intelligence. The key feature of a delusion is the degree to which the person is convinced that the belief is true. A person with a delusion will hold firmly to the belief regardless of evidence to the contrary. Delusions can be difficult to distinguish from overvalued ideas, which are unreasonable ideas that a person holds, but the affected person has at least some level of doubt as to its truthfulness. A person with a delusion is absolutely convinced that the delusion is real.
Types
Delusions are categorized as bizarre or non-bizarre.
Bizarre Delusion. A bizarre delusion is a delusion that is very strange and completely implausible for the person’s culture; an example of a bizarre delusion would be that aliens have removed the affected person’s brain.
Types of bizarre delusions
Nihilistic delusion. A delusion whose theme centers on the nonexistence of self or parts of self, others, or the world. A person with this type of delusion may have the false belief that the world is ending.
Delusions of control. Belief that one’s thoughts or actions are being controlled by outside, alien forces. Common delusions of control include thought broadcasting (“My private thoughts are being transmitted to others”), thought insertion (“Someone is planting thoughts in my head”), and thought withdrawal (“The CIA is robbing me of my thoughts”).
Types of non-bizarre delusions
Persecutory delusion. These are the most common type of delusions and involve the theme of being followed, harassed, cheated, poisoned or drugged, conspired against, spied on, attacked, or obstructed in the pursuit of goals. Sometimes the delusion is isolated and fragmented (such as the false belief that co-workers are harassing), but sometimes are well-organized belief systems involving a complex set of delusions (“systematized delusions”). A person with a set of persecutory delusions may be believe, for example, that he or she is being followed by government organizations because the “persecuted” person has been falsely identified as a spy. These systems of beliefs can be so broad and complex that they can explain everything that happens to the person.
Delusion of reference. The person falsely believes that insignificant remarks, events, or objects in one’s environment have personal meaning or significance. For instance, a person may believe that he or she is receiving special messages from the news anchorperson on television. Usually the meaning assigned to these events is negative, but the “messages” can also have a grandiose quality.
Erotomania. A delusion in which one believes that another person, usually someone of higher status, is in love with him or her. It is common for individuals with this type of delusion to attempt to contact the other person (through phone calls, letters, gifts, and sometimes stalking).
Grandiose delusion. An individual exaggerates his or her sense of self-importance and is convinced that he or she has special powers, talents, or abilities. Sometimes, the individual may actually believe that he or she is a famous person (for example, a rock star or Christ). More commonly, a person with this delusion believes he or she has accomplished some great achievement for which they have not received sufficient recognition.
Delusional jealousy (or delusion of infidelity): A person with this delusion falsely believes that his or her spouse or lover is having an affair. This delusion stems from pathological jealousy and the person often gathers “evidence” and confronts the spouse about the nonexistent affair.
Somatic delusion. A delusion whose content pertains to bodily functioning, bodily sensations, or physical appearance. Usually the false belief is that the body is somehow diseased, abnormal, or changed. An example of a somatic delusion would be a person who believes that his or her body is infested with parasites.
Hallucination. A hallucination is a sensation or sensory perception that a person wem2rexperiences in the absence of a relevant external stimulus. That is, a person experiences something that doesn’t really exist (except in their mind). A hallucination can occur in any sensory modality — visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, etc.
Auditory hallucinations (e.g. hearing voices or some other sound) are most common type of hallucination in schizophrenia. Visual hallucinations are also relatively common.
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Avolition. Apathy or avolition, refers to a lack of motivation and a seeming absence of interest in or an inability to persist in what are usually routine activities, including daily work, hobbies, or social activities.
Asociality. Asociality refer to impairment in social relationships. People with schizophrenia may have few friends, poor social skills, and very little interest in being with other people. People lost interest in close relationships and they wish to spend much of their time alone.
Anhedonia. Loss of the capacity to experience pleasure. The inability to gain pleasure from normally pleasurable experiences.
Blunted Affect. Blunted affect refers to a lack of outward expression of emotion. A person with symptom may stare vacantly, the muscle of the face motionless, the eyes lifeless. When spoken to the person may answer in a flat and toneless voice and not look at his or her conversational partner.
Alogia. Alogia refers to a significant reduction in the amount of speech. A person with this symptom may answer a question with one or two words and will not be likely to elaborate answer.
Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
Disorganized speech. Peoples with schizophrenia have problem in organizing ideas and in speaking so that a listener can understand. They may respond to queries with an unrelated answer, start sentences with one topic and end somewhere completely different, speak incoherently, or say illogical things.
Common signs of disorganized speech include:
Loose associations. Rapidly shifting from topic to topic, with no connection between one thought and the next.
Neologisms. Made-up words or phrases that only have meaning to you.
Perseveration. Repetition of words and statements; saying the same thing over and over.
Clang. Meaningless use of rhyming words (“I said the bread and read the shed and fed Ned at the head”).
Disorganized behavior. Schizophrenia negatively impacts goal-directed behavior. A person with disorganized schizophrenia is likely to have difficulty beginning a specific task or difficulty finishing a task. Independent functioning is exceptionally difficult due to this gross disorganization.
Disorganized behavior can manifest as the following:
• A decline in overall daily functioning
• Unpredictable or inappropriate emotional responses
• Lack of impulse control
• Behaviors that appear bizarre or lack purpose
• Routine behaviors such as bathing, dressing, or brushing teeth can be severely impaired or lost.
Stages of schizophrenia
Prodromal Stage. This is the first stage and refers to the period of a year before the illness begins to manifest. The term ‘prodrome’, which is derived from ‘prodromos’ – a Greek term which means something that appears before an event, signalling the occurrence of the event.
People in this stage of schizophrenia tend to isolate themselves from others, they will often stay in their rooms, sleep most of the day and not want to see friends or family. Their work or school performance can often take a turn for the worst due to their motivation being decreased as well as a loss of interest in things they once found joy in.
In this stage, close friends and family are able to feel as though something is wrong with the person developing schizophrenia. They may suspect the changes in personality and behavior.
Acute Stage. The acute or active stage describes the period when someone is starting to show symptoms of schizophrenia that are psychotic in nature. These include delusions, hallucinations and/or extremely disorganised behaviour. This stage represents the full development of schizophrenia – and it can be said that the disorder has ‘activated’.
This is where diagnosis due to psychosis is possible. The behaviour of the patient may have become serious enough to require hospitalisation. When treated, many of the symptoms of schizophrenia can disappear. If this stage is not treated, the symptoms can last from several weeks to months, or even indefinitely. For many people with schizophrenia, this stage is characterised by symptoms that are positive for schizophrenia.
Residual Stage. This is known as the final stage of schizophrenia. These symptoms are very similar to those of the prodromal stage. Patients in this stage are often not seen to be psychotic, but their symptoms shift from positive to negative. These symptoms are:
• Lack of enthusiasm, energy or interest, experiencing extreme apathetic emotions.
• Withdrawing socially.
• Lacking initiative and drive.
Although the symptoms in this stage may not be psychotic, the person suffering from schizophrenia may still express beliefs that are strange.
Example;
A 20 years old girl starts to act out, sleep more and isolates herself from her friends (prodromal stage), some of her family and friends think that maybe she has a study issue. She then starts to believe that her teacher don’t like her and will harm her. Her friends make fun of her beliefs and refused to agree with her thoughts. After this she becomes quiet and afaired from her teacher and avoid to face her teacher. Her mom then notices that she may need help and takes her to see a doctor. He then diagnoses her with schizophrenia after hearing about her bizarre beliefs (acute/active stage).
Then she gets the treatment that she needs, her symptoms are managed and she is somewhat able to return to a normal life. She now only believes that the teacher does not like her but he will not harm her. (residual stage).

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