To mensurate the major caput losingss of the fluid utilizing Scott Fluid Circuit System. Equally good as, analysing the relation between the force per unit area, speed and the clash originating from the flow.

## Abstraction:

In this lab, an attack of Reynolds theory was used to find the caput loss within the flow of the fluid actioning Scott fluid circuit. The Experiment was conducted utilizing two different sizes of pipes which were A? in and 1 in.

For the A? in, the Moody chart was referred for the value of clash factor utilizing the raggedness and the Reynolds no. The Roughness curve does be given to shut out at Reynolds figure = 10^5 after which the curve analysis is required to find the appropriate clash factor. The experiment did reason the least possible % mistake for the Venturi metre tallness of 5.25 inches. Other mistakes does be given to depict the mistake in the analysis of the information or some other elements factoring the information aggregation.

## Theory:

Harmonizing to Reynolds, there are two types of pipe flows:

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

Laminar flows are low in speed and the fluid atoms move in a consecutive line. Whereas, the turbulent flows are high in speed and gesture of the fluid atoms are irregular.

As the fluids are syrupy, they lose energy when fluxing due to clash. The Pressure loss due to clash is termed as the caput loss.

The Flow Rate, Q ; Q1 = Q2 = Constant

Or, V1 = V2 = Constant

Change in the Pressure and Gravity can be equated to the caput loss, i.e,

Head loss due to clash is in a round pipe, fluxing laminar or turbulent flow for

f=friction factor

L=length of pipe

D=diameter of pipe.

I?= Kinematic viscousness

And for the Reynolds figure, Re = V*D / I?

Iµ , which is the roughness coefficient related to the raggedness of the walls.

And mentioning to the Moody chart relates to the raggedness Iµ and the Reynolds figure for finding the clash factor, ( degree Fahrenheit ) .

## Apparatus:

Manometer

Rotometer

Pump

Venturi Tube

## Procedure:

Make certain all equipments are clean.

Undertaking is divided into separate group.

Make sure that the system valves are closed, i.e. If the pipe flow with diameter A? inches is used, do certain that the valves other pipes are closed. This manner there will be no escape in the system.

Recording the force per unit area degrees and do certain that there is no back force per unit area physique in the pump and that all flow is uninterrupted.

## Data Analysis & A ; Calculations:

Sample computation utilizing major A? inches

First convert a?†P in inches to foots:

Flow rate = Q =

Flow Rate = Q =

Flow Rate = Q = 0.018364 ft3 / sec

Converting Flow Rate from ( ft3 / sec ) to ( gallons / minute )

448.8311688 ft3/s/g/m * .015 ft3/s = 8.242475 gallons / minute

Velocity = Flow Rate / Area = Q / A = .015 ft3 / sec / .003360986 ft2 = 5.463979 foot / sec

Reynolds Number = ( 5 * D ) / I? = ( 4.556 foot / sec * 1.025 * 1 foot / 12 in ) / ( .000011 ft2 / sec ) = 42428.63

Friction Factor = Recorded utilizing Moody Chart = 0.0217

Head Loss = f * ( L / D ) * ( V2 / 2 * g )

Head Loss = 0.0217 * ( 5 foot / 1.025 in * 1 foot / 12 in ) * ( ( 5.463979 ft/sec ) 2 / 2 * 32.2 foot / sec2 )

Head Loss = 0.58887 foot

Indicated Head Loss = 0.541667 foot

## FOR 3/4 INCHES PIPE

## Roughness, vitamin E ( foot ) =

## 0.000005

## Length L=

## 5

## foot

## e/D =

## 5.85366E-05

## Cadmium =

## 0.98

## I? = d/D=

## 0.609756098

## M =

## 1.077224

## AT =

## 0.002130529

## ft^2

## Area of 3/4 in pipe =

## 0.003361

## ft^2

## Kinematic Viscosity =

## 0.000011

## ft^2/sec

## Throat diameter, vitamin D =

## 0.625

## inches

## =

## 0.052083

## foot

## Major Diamerter, D =

## 1.025

## inches

## =

## 0.085417

## foot

## Venturi Meter

## ( inches )

## Venturi Meter

## ( feets )

## Flow Rate,

## Q, ( ft^3/sec )

## Flow Rate,

## Q, ( gpm )

## Speed

## ( ft/sec )

## Reynolds

## Number

## Clash

## Factor

## ( degree Fahrenheit )

## Calculated

## Head Loss

## ( foot )

## Indicated

## Head Loss

## ( inches )

## Indicated

## Head Loss

## ( pess )

## Error ( % )

## 11

## 0.916666667

## 0.066388

## 29.79674

## 19.75241

## 153380.5

## 0.0185

## 6.560751

## 11.75

## 0.979167

## 570.0341

## 9.125

## 0.760416667

## 0.055072

## 24.71775

## 16.38552

## 127236.1

## 0.0195

## 4.758793

## 10

## 0.833333

## 471.0552

## 7.125

## 0.59375

## 0.043001

## 19.30016

## 12.79418

## 99348.72

## 0.02

## 2.975748

## 9.75

## 0.8125

## 266.2459

## 5.25

## 0.4375

## 0.031685

## 14.22117

## 9.427288

## 73204.32

## 0.0217

## 1.752971

## 6.5

## 0.541667

## 223.6255

## 3.125

## 0.260416667

## 0.01886

## 8.464983

## 5.611481

## 43574

## 0.0245

## 0.701233

## 5

## 0.416667

## -68.296

## FOR 1 INCHES PIPE

## Roughness, vitamin E ( foot ) =

## 0.000005

## Length L=

## 5

## foot

## e/D =

## 5.85366E-05

## Cadmium =

## 0.98

## I? = d/D=

## 0.609756098

## M =

## 1.077224

## AT =

## 0.002130529

## ft^2

## Area of 1 in pipe =

## 0.00573

## ft^2

## Kinematic Viscosity =

## 0.000011

## ft^2/sec

## Throat diameter, vitamin D =

## 0.625

## inches

## =

## 0.052083

## foot

## Major Diamerter, D =

## 1.025

## inches

## =

## 0.085417

## foot

## Venturi Meter

## ( inches )

## Venturi Meter

## ( feets )

## Flow Rate,

## Q, ( ft^3/sec )

## Flow Rate,

## Q, ( gpm )

## Speed

## ( ft/sec )

## Reynolds

## Number

## Clash

## Factor

## ( degree Fahrenheit )

## Calculated

## Head Loss

## ( foot )

## Indicated

## Head Loss

## ( inches )

## Indicated

## Head Loss

## ( pess )

## Error ( % )

## 16.375

## 1.364583333

## 0.098827

## 44.35651

## 17.24648

## 133921.5

## 0.0165

## 4.460939

## 6.125

## 0.510417

## 773.9798

## 12.625

## 1.052083333

## 0.076195

## 34.19853

## 13.2969

## 103252.5

## 0.017

## 2.732067

## 5.625

## 0.46875

## 482.841

## 8.75

## 0.729166667

## 0.052808

## 23.70195

## 9.215675

## 71561.11

## 0.0193

## 1.489886

## 5

## 0.416667

## 257.5727

## 4.5

## 0.375

## 0.027159

## 12.18957

## 4.73949

## 36802.86

## 0.022

## 0.449187

## 4.375

## 0.364583

## 23.20564

## 1.75

## 0.145833333

## 0.010562

## 4.74039

## 1.843135

## 14312.22

## 0.0295

## 0.091091

## 3.625

## 0.302083

## 69.84558

## Consequences:

## Mistake Analysis:

% Error = [ Experimental value – Actual Value ] / [ Actual Value ] * 100 %

% Error = [ 0.58887 – 0.541667 ] / [ 0.541667 ] *100 % = 8.714433 %

## Decision:

The information collected and calculated consequences make clot the equation, hafnium = degree Fahrenheit * ( L / vitamin D ) * ( V2 / 2 * g ) , demoing that pipe caput loss equals the alteration in the amount of force per unit area and gravitation caput. Hence, it can be said that the clash factor is a map of the Reynolds Number, and therefore the raggedness factor is valid.