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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO PRIMARY SCHOOL SYLLABUS AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM [*October 2001] TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Goals of The Agricultural Science Curriculum for Primary Schools Summary of The Curriculum Infant Year One Profile Term II ……………………………………………………………. Infant Year One …………………………………………………………………………………… Infant Year Two…………………………………………………………………………………… Standard One Profile Term II …………………………………………………………………… Standard One ……………………………………………………………………………………… Standard Two Profile Term II……………………………………………………………………..

Standard Two………………………………………………………………………………………. Standard Three Profile Term II…………………………………………………………………….. Standard Three …………………………………………………………………………………….. Standard Four Profile Term II……………………………………………………………………… Standard Four ……………………………………………………………………………………… Standard Five Profile Term II……………………………………………………………………… Standard Five………………………………………………………………………………………. Assessment………………………………………………………………………………………… Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………… Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………………………. 1 2 5 8 9 15 16 21 22 30 31 36 37 41 42 45 i

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INTRODUCTION “Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be fee from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop their physical and mental faculties. ” FAO 1974 World Food Conference. The original Agricultural Science Curriculum subscribes to the above believe and was used in our schools effectively , so much so that to this day , the garden and quiz competitions are dynamic aspects of the curriculum in the primary schools of the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Revision of this curriculum started in 1998 and is now completed, having been piloted successfully in over two hundred [200] schools in the eight Educational Districts.

This Draft {2001} has been modified using feedback from Primary Schools Principals, teachers as well as pupils, parents, Schools Supervisors and Curriculum Facilitators. This Curriculum introduces the integrated approach to teaching Agricultural Science at the primary level. Its main premise is to guide teachers in the creation of effective learning experience leading to the development of skills and basic concepts in Agricultural Science. The Curriculum is also intended to focus the pupils’ minds on the importance of the preservations of the environment as well as on developing technologies in modern day agriculture.

The content of this curriculum exposes the pupil to agriculture as a career and attempts to clear misconceptions about agricultural pursuits. ii GOALS Certain goals were identified in formulating this curriculum in Agricultural science. They are as follows:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The practice and principles of healthy living including mental, physical and emotional well- being. The demonstration of basic understanding of elementary concepts in Science and Technology. Development of an understanding of the environment and problems caused by its degradation.

The practice of habits which demonstrate care of the environment. Appreciation of the value of entrepreneurship, self- reliance and a positive work ethic. Demonstration of the skills in crop and animal husbandry and soil conservation. Development of knowledge and appreciation of career pathways in agriculture. iii Summary of the Agricultural Science Curriculum This curriculum consists of eleven main topics. These topics are as follows:1. ENVIRONMENT. 2. ROOT MEDIA /SOIL 3. CROPS 4. LIVESTOCK. 5. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 6. FERTILIZERS, MANURES AND ARGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS 7.

WEATHER 8. AGRO-PROCESSING 9. CROPPINGS METHODS 10. NURSERY 11. FARMSS, AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS IN ARICULTURE Each topic was constructed with relevant sub-components that are critical to facilitate the pupils’ appreciation and understanding of this curriculum. Each content, skills and practical activities that are outline within this curriculum are inter- related and together promote integration amongst the other curricula of the primary school. The following three pages summarize some of the sub-components of the eleven main topics. iv TOPICS ENVIRONMENT

Infant Yr 1 Identify Components of the Environment Infant Yr 2 Standard 1 Components Landforms living /non living things Standard 2 Safety with agricultural chemicals Standard 3 Standard 4 Standard 5 Problems in the environment Conservation Recycle/reuse items in Conservation agriculture practices ROOT MEDIA/SOIL Recognize that most plants grow in soil. Soil conditions for plant growth Soil fertility Potting soil Nursery soil Potting media Seedbeds Primary tillage Secondary Tillage Drainage Types of soil Physical/ chemical properties of soil. Experiments CROPS

Parts of a plant Indentify plants in Simple Parts used as the environment recoding food. Plants around us. of plant growth Uses of plants Parts of the plant Types of crops Ornamentals/ Food crops Animals Livestock farms Types/ pet/care Aquaculture of small/large. Animal enemies of the farmer Selecting seeds Germinating seedlings. Conditions of growth Harvesting crops. Post Woody and soft stem harvest plants. practices Economic crops Integrated Export and local Pest markets *. Management An illegal crop Design a small garden plan. [IPM] Importance of flowers agriculture.

Produce plants by layering. Budding/Grafting. Improving varieties of crops. Improving breeds of Livestock Genetic Engineering Cloning. Livestock Animals around us . Farm animals and their young. Rearing Rabbits Classification of livestockhelpful and harmful. Poultry farming v Topics Livestock Infant yr 1 Animals around us Farm animals Infant yr 2 Types of animals Std 1 Types of livestock/ farms Aquaculture Std 2 Rearing rabbits Classification of livestock Std 3 Poultry farming Std 4 Beneficial insects Std5 Improving breeds of livestock Genetic engineering Cloning

Helpful and harmful animals Helpful and harmful animals Diseases and pests Differences between pest and diseases Pest and diseases Weather instruments Land preparation tools and equipment Tools and Equipment Identifying tools in germination Safety with Agricultural Chemicals * Fertilizers, Manures and Agricultural Chemicals Nursery tools Plant propagation Tools Simple and complete fertilizers The nutrients for a plant Application methods Types of organic manures Compose making See appendix D vi Topics Weather Infant yr 1 Effects of weather on the environment Infant yr 2 Std 1 Std 2

Dry/ Wet season activities Wind; rain; sun light; Temperature Std 3 Drainage and wet season activities Std 4 Std 5 Wind And Pollution Agro Processing Agro processing of food materials drying, salting bottling labeling Curing [drying] Animal pelts Poultry processing Agro-processors Agro-processing of non food materials Importance of agro- processing Cropping Methods Use of nursery Pot and trough Grow-box [See appendix B] Directing seeding Indirect seeding Organic farming Cultural practices Crop rotation: intercropping etc. The nursery [see appendix A] Tissue culture Hydroponics

Nursery Germination of seedlings. Perform germination Maintenance of germination plants. Nursery Soil Seed- box technology Thinning out Hardening off Transplanting seedlings Asexual reproduction [cutting the buds] Plant propagator Plant propagator [ see appendix c ] Farms. Types of Animal Agencies and farms Organizations Vets Garden shops Farm animals and importance of them. Types of farms Farm products and activities Jobs. The farm and the community Markets* Training agencies. Financial organizations research agencies Technology in agriculture. vii Infant Topics st Year Topics Components of the environment. Plants in the environment. Parts of the plant. Germination of the seeds. Animals around us Farm animals. Uses of animals e. g. clothing Needs of animals. Sample profile of pupils Attainment Infant term II Year One Understand that there are plants in the environment 2nd Year Topics. Types of animals Pets. Importance of farm animals. Care of animals. Record of plant growth Tools used in germination Maintenance of germination plants. Name main parts of a plant Record seed germination 1. Collect and name seeds. 2. Identify edible and inedible seeds. . Say what is germination. 1 ARICUTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE FIRST YEAR TERM 1: ENVIRONMENT TOPICS SKILLS (a) Indentify components of the environment OBJECTIVES 1. Observe plants in the environment 2. Observe animals in the environment 3. Identify agriculture buildings in the environment/on the farm. 4. Identify simple landforms 5. Discuss the effects of whether on the environment. 6. Identify plants use as ornamentals. CONTENT Plants –plants in their environment{school and at home} Short and tall plants Animals –Animals and common insects in their environment. a} home {b} school {c} village {2 lessons} Compose ,nursery shed ,animals pens –poultry, rabbits Fish ponds/aquarium{2 lessons} Pet housing Mountains, hills valleys, rivers {2lessons} Dry – bush fire -Draught/ lack of water -wet season -rain fall -weather in terms of seasons Ornamentals {common} hibiscus, croton ,rose, ,ixoras, bignonias, bougainvillea, periwinkle ,jump-up and kissme ,palms and indoor plants {2} lessons Plants used as food- cabbage ,lettuce, tomato, eddoes, peppers, dasheen,,cassava, bodi ,corn fruits {2 lessons} Plants used or medical purposes –aloe vera , wonder of the world, wild senna ,and fever grass, caraille Trees with dense foliage e. g. mango, almond, chennette, and banyan. TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Collect specimens, nature walks, and chats Charts ,pictures, charts, nature corner, nature walks Show and tell Nature walk Making models Plaster seed Drawings Collect pictures Pictures Charts Listening to weather forecast/role play Wind picking Weeds Making weather maps Nature walks Charts Projects-propagate one variety Incidental teaching Nature garden Fruit day Collect specimens Charts Nature walks /garden Nature walks, drawings Collecting pictures b) Identify plants in the environment 7. Name common plants used as foods. a. Above the soil b. In the soil. (underground) 8. Name common plants used for medicinal purposes 9. Identify plants that provide us with shade 2 FIRST YEAR TERN 2- PLANT STUDY TOPICS /LESSONS [1] plants around us OBJECTIVES Understand that there are plants in the environment Tall Short Annual CONTENT Plants Shade Fruit Vegetables Ornamental etc. Home/below grown Parts of the plant – Above /below ground TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Walk around the school to see plants in their environment 2] parts of a plant Name the main parts of a plantRoot Stem Leave Flower Fruit 1 collect and name seeds 2. identify edible and non edible seeds Students Draws parts and plants {3} seedsA . edible B. non edible Seeds from plants edible-peas Non edible pommerac Collecting and classify (4) Germination of seeds {2 lessons} Say what is germination Perform germination skills record seed as a source of the new plant Understanding of germination conditions necessary for water and air germination, warmth, moisture time factor. Sowing a variety of seeds. 3

FIRST YEAR-TERM III ANIMAL STUDY AND THE ENVIRONMENT TOPIC/LESSONS [1] Animals around us [ 2 lessons ] OBJECTIVES 1] Name common animals in the environment CONTENT Animals of various classifications e. g. birds insects, reptiles ,fishes etc,{immediate/extended environment] Farm animals –fish, goats. Meat –turkey ,ducks Milk- goats and cows Eggs- chicken Differences –sizes etc Cow- calf Duck – ducklings TEACHING/LEARNING ACTIVITIES Collection of pictures drawings coloring modeling 2]Farm animals and their young 1]identify farm animals and associate them with the food we obtain from them

Visit to nearby farm Singing- old mc Donald Setting up an animal farm Observation of pictures. 3]farm animals and their young 1]Name the young of farm animals 2] Indentify the different physical characteristics between the young and the adult 1] Name animals and state the clothing material we obtain from them. 4] Animals supply us with clothing. Rabbits –skin Alligator- skins –shoes Cows- leather-shoes Goats-skin Needs of animals’ food (grass, corn), water ,air, shelter (pens) Observation of pictures and samples Charts based on pictures making models. 5] Animals and their needs. )Recognise that animals have various needs 1) Recognise that most plants grow in soil. Medium of plant growth Nature walks 1) Water-e. g. lilies 2) Other trees- e. g. vines 3) Generally- soil 6] Soil 4 SECOND YEAR TERM I: ANIMAL STUDY Topic/ Lesson ANIMAL STUDY 1. Types of Animals Objectives Content Teaching Learning/Activities Field tripsSugar Cane Seed Centre Industry Farms. Semantic map 1. Show and tell pets 2. Collection of leisure pets 1. Name common animals in the 1. Farm animals –cow, pig, etc. environment. a)Farm b)Zoo c)Neighborhood 2. Other animals- snakes, birds . Pets 1. Understand what a pet is. 2. Name some common pets. Common pets-on the farm and home Examples and characteristics 3. Importance of Pets 1. Appreciate that pets are kept for Pets as companions, protection, for leisure time activities at home and on recreation (sports) e. g. Tobago Goat Race. the farm. Donkey Derby. Show and tell pets Terrarium Aquarium 4. Care of Pets 1. Understanding the importance of caring for pets/animals. Ways of caring for pets/animals e. g. shelter, food, health care, love, communicating. 1. Collect pictures 2. semantic mapping 3. Field Trips . Types of Farm Animals 1. Name common farm animals in the environment 2. State the uses of these animals Categories-food, clothing, work. Cow, sheep, goat, fish, rabbit 1. Collect pictures 2. Semantic mapping 3. Field Trips 6. Importance of Farm Animals 1. Appreciate that animals can bring in income Functions-income (manure, transport, meat) 1. Housing,sanitation,feeding,medication Homes. Tools food vets. 1. Visit by farmers to talk to pupils 1. Visit by farmer, vet. 7. Care of Animals 1. Know how to care for farm Animal 5 SECOND YEAR TERM II: GERMINATION TOPIC/ LESSON 1.

Germinate seeds in the garden. OBJECTIVES 1. Learn about conditions for germination. CONTENT 1. Nursery. 2. Simple grow box. TEACHING LEARNING/ACTIVITIES 1. Sowing of seeds. 2. Observing germination process. 2. Record of plant growth 1. Simple recording of plant growth. 1. Growth of plant in nursery/grow box 2. Tall plants/vine plants. 1. Tools use in nursery/grow box 1. Measurement of plant growth. (Average using stick. ) 1. Identifying tools used. 3. Tools used in germination 1. Use of tools 4. Maintenance of germinated plants. a)Water b)Aeration c)Weed control 1. Plant need for water. . Plant need for air 3. Weed removal and benefits to plants. 1. Times and ways of watering plants. 2. Spacing of plants/open spaces. 3. Manual and mechanical methods 1. Use of water cans/containers/a. m. and p. m. 2. Use of nursery/direct air and light. 3. Displays visit a garden shop. 6 SECOND YEAR TERM III: FRIENDS AND ENEMIES OF THE FARMER LESSON 1) Plant friends of the farmer. (3 lessons) OBJECTIVE 1) List some plant friends of the farmer 2) State how they are useful. CONTENT 1) Food for animals and people. 2)Shade –Pink Poui 3)Housing-Teak 4)Medicine-ginger 5) Beauty-ornamentals.

Weeds-nut grass Parasites-wild pines ,vines Toxic plants-alamanda, cow itch, nettles, razor grass. Food- chickens, cow, goat, rabbit Clothing- sheep, cow Formation of fruits-butterflies etc. Controlling pests- birds, lizards etc. Labour- donkeys, buffalypso Protection-dogs 1) Bats- spread diseases. 2)Mongoose-eats chickens 3)Birds- destroys crops e. g. corn 4)Squirrel-destroy cocoa pods 5)Snakes, Scorpions, Centipede- stings animals and people 1)Caterpillars, batchacs, mole crickets-destroys crops 2)Weevils-destroys seeds e. g. corn 3)Ticks-suck blood in animals 4)Froghoppers-spread disease.

Plants –weeding ,cutting Animals- spraying ,traps, baits ACTIVITIES Nature walks Collecting specimens Displays Collect pictures 2) Plant enemies of the farmer. 1)Name plant enemies of the farmer 2) Describe how they are harmful. 3)Animal friends of the farmer. (2 Lessons) 1) Name some animal friend of the farmer. 2) State how they are harmful to the farmer. Display of specimens. Drawing ,coloring animals Classifying 4) Large animals –enemies of the farmer. 1)Name some enemies of the farmer 2) State how they are harmful to the farmer. 5)Small animals –enemies of the farmer. 1)Name some animal enemies of the farmer. )State how they are harmful to the farmer, 6)Control of enemies Collect pictures. Classification exercises, drawing colouring animals. Collecting pictures picture album Role playing. Collection of specimens Nature walks Making observation in school garden. 1)State ways of collecting plants and animal enemies of the farmer. 7 STARNDARD ONE TOPICS Components of the environment Crop growth and Land forms on the environment Parts of the Plant. Types of farms e. g. Vegetable/ornamental/ Poultry/Aqua Culture Jobs on the farm. Farms and the community Uses of plants (food, flowers, medicine. Agro –Processing Understand importance of Farm and community Link activities between farmer and people in the community Sample Profile of Pupils’ Attainment STD 1. Term 11 Understand that different people do different jobs on the farm. Describe activities and products on the different types of farm. Identify types of farm. Name the crops that grow on different farms 8 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE STANDARD 1TERM 1 THE ENVIRONMENT TOPIC Components of the environment. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. Identify aspects of the environment 2. Recognise landforms in the environment. . distinguishing between living and non-living things in the environment 1. 2. Name landforms found in Trinidad and Tobago. List some crops that can be grown on the landforms. CONTENT Living things in the environment. Animals and plants. TEACHING/LEARNING/ ACTIVITIES Make models (clay;plasticene) Nature Walks Field Trips Collect pictures and make a picture album. Crops grow on the landforms in the environment Landforms in the environment. 1.. Mountains, hills and Valleys. 2. Plains and Swamps. Landforms e. g. Northern Range, Nariva Swamp, Caroni Plains, San Fernando Hill.

Mountain and Hills-cocoa ,coffee Valleys- vegetables Plains-sugar-cane Swamps-rice/root crops Trace the map of Trinidad Field Trips in the community/ countryside. Simple map skills Make a crop distribution map. 9 TOPIC Parts of the plant. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. Draw and label the external parts of the plant. 2. List some of the functions of these parts of the plant. 3. Recognise that part of some plants are useful to people. CONTENT Drawing of a simple tomato plant. Label: ? Roots ? Stems ? Leaves ? Fruits ? Flowers Plantation farms Vegetables farms Meat farms Dairy farms Aquaculture farms 1. Fruit crops e. g. omato, sweet pepper, paw-paw 2. Leave Crops- cabbage ,lettuce, spinach, aloe vera 3. Root Crops-carrot, cassava, yam 4. Cereals –rice [wetland/dryl and] Corn [field ,sweet] 5. Legumes –peas, bodi peanuts 6. Stems –sugarcane ,ginger TEACHING/LEARNING/ACTIVITIES Label drawings of the parts of the plants. Identify these parts on specimen plants. Match the parts of the plant and crops that people use as food. Observe the different structure (architecture) of crops (plants) in the environment. Types of farms 1. List the different types of farms 2. Describe the activities on these farms. 3 List some of the products from these farms.

Classify crops according to: A) The part of the plant used. B) The type of crop Different crops on farms Display the various crops in a market corner in the classroom. Visit to school garden Visit to the neighbourhood market Make charts and labels. 10 STANDARD I TERM II AGRICULTURAL FARMS AND JOBS TOPIC Jobs on the farm Plantation farms SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Understand that different people do different jobs on a farm Name crops grown on plantation farms Describe some activities on these farms. Describe the vegetables that are produced on the vegetable farms. Group vegetables. Demonstrate some activities on the vegetable farm.

Grow vegetables Describe the activities and products on the ornamental flower farm CONTENT Jobs –farmer, driver, labourer Some long term crops are cocoa, sugarcane, coffee, paw-paw and coconuts Examples of groups of vegetables on the farm: Leafy crops Root crops Fruit crops Flower and Stem crops Name the ornamental plants: 1. Flowering e. g. Anthurium, Heliconias ,Ginger Lilies, Ixoras 2. Foilage:e. g. crotons,Josephs Coat, Silver Mangrove, Lantanas TEACHING LEARNING ACTIVITIES Collect pictures, role playing Resource persons Visits to the plantation farm Displays of samples of plantation crops.

Collect and display pictures and samples. Identify the groups of vegetables Name the vegetables in the displays An ongoing activity for the term ;grow and care for vegetables crops e. g. leafy, fruit and root crops Collect and display specimen A foliage collection(shapes of crotons’ leaves) Vegetable farms Flower and ornamental plant farms 11 Poultry Farms Livestock farms [meat] Identify two types of chicken farms List the different types of poultry Describe some activities on the poultry farms List poultry products Identify livestock reared for meat List products from the meat farms

Housing, feeding medication, collection of eggs etc. Collect and display pictures. Invite a poultry farmer to discuss the activities on the farm. Rearing poultry [broilers: a term activity 6 weeks] Keeping daily records of poultry rearing. Collect land display labels and tins. Match the meat products with the livestock. Make a model of a livestock farm. Dairy Farms Aquaculture Farms Name and describe the activities done in a dairy farm –cattle, goat. List products and processed products from the dairy farm. Name livestock on the aquaculture farms Develop a concept of a mixed farm.

Show the inter –relationship between crops and livestock on the farm Understand the importance of the farm And community Link activities between the farmer and the people in the community. Mixed Farms The Farms and the Community Cattle ,goats ,sheep, pigs rabbits and wild animals Name meats and the different products. Housing, feeding, care of pregnant and young. Fresh milk, butter and cheese. Sweets/fresh water fishes: Tilapia, Cascadura ,Conchs. Prawns. A mixed farm has both crops and livestock. Name and describe the activities done on a mixed farm.

The farmer provides –food, raw materials, manures employment recreation. Farmers depend on consumers, shop owners, public health officers, market vendors and the veterinarian. Collect and display pictures on wall charts. Invite a dairy farmer to discuss the activities on the farm. A School aquarium Create a composite picture with clippings of these animals. Chat with the owners of mixed farms. Role playing, semantic mapping Charts with resource personnel 9farmersand professionals). Agro- tourism(farm visits). 12 STANDARD 1 TERM III: PLANTS TOPICS Uses of Plants SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES List the various uses of plants.

CONTENT Commercial crops Food for humans and animals Beautifying our environment Medicines, Fibres, Building Material, Gum, Rubber, Soil and Water Conservation, Homes for animals Making organic matter Medicine Food-tomato, sweet potato, lettuce ,orange Leaf-lettuce, patchoi ,cabbage Stem- sugar cane , spinach, celery Bark- mauby, spice. Flower -cauliflower TEACHING LEARNING ACTIVITIES Collection and observation of pictures Specimen displays Garden visit ,field trip Searching the website for each use Plants which supply food 1)Name plants which supply us with food. 2)Identify the parts of the plant that we eat

Collection and observation of specimen. Garden visit , fieldtrip if possible Ornamentals 1)Name and identify ornamental plants. 2)Name the parts of the plant that beautify the environment. 3)Distinguish between foliage ornamentals and flowering ornamentals, Flowering and foliage ornamentals Small plants –e. g. Roses, Croton, Hibiscus, Ixora, Lantana, Ficus, Ferns, Impatiens, ’Jump and kiss’, Bougainvillea, Duranta, Orchids, Cacti. Trees –e. g. pink/yellow poui,Cassia, Palms, Flamboyant, Pines,Firs Nature walks Collection and observation of specimen in the environment. Growing ornamentals Search the web for ‘Topiary” –Art of shaping plants. 3 TOPICS Plants which supply building materials. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1)List trees which supply us with building materials. CONTENT Lumber –cedar ,teak, mora, crappo, mahogany, etc. Uses of lumber on the farms-pens, houses, fences, trellis etc Thatch- carat, tirite Common medicinal plants: Aloes, shadon beni, saffron , fever grass, Shinning bush, Shandilay, periwinkle, neem. Symptoms: cough, fever, diarrhea, boils, worms. TEACHING LEARNING ACTIVITES Collect samoles from saw mill or wood-work shops. Collect pictures of farm buildings/structures. Collection and observation of specimen. Making a herb book.

Chart with a herbalist[pupils’ relatives who are knowledgeable about the topic]. Medicinal Plants 1)identify plants which are used as medicine 2)Match some medicinal plants with the symptoms of illness Collect and display different raw materials and finished products. 1)Use dyes to dye cloth 2)Grow grasses to help soil conservation[keep soil covered] 3) Make simple handicraft items using bamboo, coconut straw, etc. Other uses of plants. State the use of plants for other purposes Fibre- coconut, cotton, hemp Gums- rubber Perfumes-rosemary Dye- saffron, teak leaves, red mangrove Soil and water conservation grass ,bamboo, other trees.

Furniture Handicraft baskets Plants protect plants. Processing methods are: Drying :cocoa , sliced fruits, seeds Salting slices fruits ,meats, Drying and salting: fish meats Store foods properly in bottles Label bottle :product; ingredients, dates[made; use before] Process foods. Store foods properly in bottles Label bottles Display labels of different processed foods Computer generated / hand written labels. Agro-processing [food products] Process raw materials using simple methods of processing. Give reasons for processing foods Understand the importance of cleanliness in agro-processing.

Store foods. Label containers with processed foods. Match common facts on labels of different processed food products. 14 Pot and trough culture List containers used in pot and trough culture. Prepare pots and troughs for growing crops New containers: clay and plastic pots Recycled containers: tins, pots, plastic containers, bins, bamboo, boxes. Steps in preparing pots and troughs: 1)Punch holes in the bottom of the containers. 2)Cover with a layer of rough un-sifted potting soil. 3)Fill the remainder of container with prepared potting soil. 4)Place plant and water.

Collect containers Prepare containers Fill containers with potting soil Grow crops/ornamentals in the containers. Grow box culture Identify features of a simple grow box. Prepare the grow box mix. State the advantages of using the grow box method to produce crops. Construct a grow box and produce crops in the grow box. Materials to build the grow box Location for the grow box Materials to make the grow box mix Measurements for a standard grow box. Design and layout of a grow box Construct a grow box Measure ratios of materials and mix the materials to fill the grow box.

Grow crops in the grow box Observing and recording. Caring for farm animals (rabbits) List ways of caring for farm animals. Identify feeds for rabbits. Name the family of the rabbit Describe a simple hutch Provide good animal husbandry while rearing rabbits Feeding – grass, ration, water Housing Sanitation Medication Rear rabbits[ a male and a female ] Hold rabbits properly 17 STANDARD II TERM II THE WEATHER AND THE FARMER TOPIC The weather SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Define weather List four elements of the weather Describe some effects of the weather. CONTENT Wind ,sunlight ,temperature, clouds and rainfall.

Bad weather for example are floods; drought Agro-processing by drying Repairing livestock housing Land preparation; Irrigation Digging drains Protecting livestock Rain water refills ponds and rivers Rain fed agriculture Floods, damage to crops Wind vane Rain gauge Anemometer Thermometer TEACHING LEARNING ACTIVITIES Make charts and symbols Collect newspaper clippings Record the weather details from the TV; radio or newspaper. Visit to a nearby farm Resource person to chat about the activities on the farm Match pictures /labels of animals with their housing.

Draw livestock and their housing Collect pictures of different damages Construct the simple instruments using low cost /recycled items Classroom display of these items Use the items to collect data about the weather Make a model of a wind break using simple low cost items. Dry season activities on List some of the activities on the crop the farms farms and the livestock farms. Wet season activities on the farms. Weather instruments List some of the activities on the crop farms and the livestock farms Identify housing for some of the livestock Effects of heavy rainfall Identify the meteorologist as the weatherman.

Name some of the instruments that are used to measure the elements of the weather. The wind Sunlight and temperature List some of the effects of the wind on the crops and livestock. Construct a windbreak Discuss the advantage of having a windbreak. Discuss the advantage of having a windbreak on the farm Wilting of plants Heat stress Protection from strong winds. Grow an erect plant to demonstrate responses to a source of light. Observe the effects of light on the growth of seedlings. List activities which require sunlight Describe the effects of temperature on crops and livestock

Erect seedlings Agro-processing, curing pelts 18 STANDARD II TERM III ANIMAL STUDY TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Classification Classify animals according to wild, farm or of animals. domestic animals. Determine some of the uses of these different groups of animals. CONTENT Wild animals –agouti, deer Farm animals –cow ,goat , sheep Domestic animals-chickens , ducks, dogs. TEACHING /LEARNING ACTIVITIES Poster making on wild animals. Making a scrap book with these pictures Visit zoo farm (Note that some wildlife are being domesticated. Specimen collections. Cattle, horses, donkeys, dogs.

Helpful animals Name and describe the usefulness of some large animals on the farm. Lizards, frogs and birds. Name and describe the usefulness of some small animals on the farm Honeybee, lady bird beetle ,Jack Spaniard Name and describe the usefulness of some insects on the farm. Monkeys ,escaped farm animals ,caimans Name and describe some large animals that the farmer considers harmful to the farm Harmful animals Name and describe some small animals that the farmer considers harmful to the farm. Name and describe some insects that the farmer considers harmful to farm. Name some other animals that are considered as pests on the farm

Group discussions and research Birds, squirrels and opossum Specimen collection. Harmful insects- bachac, mealy bug, citrus blackfly Picture collections Picture collection. Group and individual research. Semantic mapping to show how they are helpful 19 Other harmful pest on the farm Diseases in crops and livestock Distinguish between pest and vectors. List some diseases of crops and livestock Parasites: worms ticks Collect pictures Specimen displays Match diseases with crops and/or livestock Understand that diseases are caused by vectors. Infections are caused by vectors. e. g. he mosquito spreads certain diseases, the tick spreads diseases. The froghopper causes bunchy top disease in paw-paw. Poor health is caused by harsh environmental factors e. g. crops[ too high or low temperature waterlogging, wind, poor nutrition, inadequate water. e. g livestock:[noise, temperature, poor nutrition and water, unclean pens, floods. Link pest and the diseases. Identify factors in the environment that cause poor health Illustrate using diagrams, drawings or selected pictures of crops and livestock in poor health. Other causes of poor health 20 Standard Three Term Two Objective Three

Plotting media. Seed box technique. Seedbeds. Selecting seeds. Direct/ indirect seeding. Preparation of seedling for transplanting. Transplanting seedling. Propagation of plants. Manure. Inorganic fertilisers. Economic crops of the country. Land preparation. Tools and equipment. A model backyard garden Sample profile of Pupils’ Attainment STD III Term II N a). Recognize the effects of N. P. K on plant growth. on plant growth. b) State the most suitable fertilizer to apply at the appropriate stage of growth. Describe methods of Applying manure and fertiliser. Identify common manures and fertilizers. 21

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE STANDARD III TERM I SEEDLING/CROP PRODUCTION TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (1) Plotting Media Identify different types of plotting media. Discuss the differences in texture and materials of the plotting media. State the various uses of the plotting media. (2) Seed Box Technology Discuss reasons why seeds are germinated in seed boxes and containers. CONTENT Different types of plotting media: Plotting soil Nursery soil Pro mix, Peat moss, Top soil, TEACHING/LEARNING ACTIVITIES Observation of some of the physical properties of the media Visit to agro-shops to collect/ record data.

Display the different types of media. Practical activity Construct seed boxes Materials and tools to construct a seed box Dimensions of a seed box First layer: dry grass/ straw/ leaves Second layer: coarse unsifted soil Third layer: prepared nursery soil. Prepare seedling and seed trays: Prepare of seed- boxes/ seedling/ seedling trays [Filling with nursery soil]. Germinate seeds in seedling trays and speeding trays. Germinate seeds in recycled containers. Identify other containers and trays that are used to germinate seeds. Describe some differences between these trays and containers.

Construct seed boxes. Prepare seed boxes with materials to germinate seeds. Recognize that seedbeds are also used to germinate seeds. State some advantages in using seedbeds. Record daily activities in a journal/ record book Practical activity: Prepare a seed bed. Location of seedbed. Land clearing. 22 Prepare a seedbed; Seedbeds Prepare a small seedbed. Primary and secondary tillage Germinate seeds on a seedbed. Surface layer of nursery soil List the materials that are used to protect young seedlings. Spacing drills Sowing seeds. List the criteria that are used to select viable seeds.

State some reason why viable seeds germinate properly. Separate viable seeds from defective seeds. Point out the main difference between monocotyledon seeds and dicotyledon seeds. Viable seeds are: Not damaged Firm and non smelly etc. Defective seeds are non- viable seeds. Monocotyledon seeds [corn, rice] and dicotyledon seeds [ red beans; bodi] Design as simple cloche to protect seedlings. Practical activity Select viable seeds from a given quantity of seeds. Select defective seeds from the same heap of seeds. Examine water soaked seeds. Selection of Seeds Direct Seeding Determine that direct seeding is single activity.

Name the activities in preparing a plot of land for direct seeding. Sow seeds directly in a prepared garden plot Prepare the soil e. g. treatment of soil, addition of organic manure etc. Measure the spacing to dig holes to sow seeds. Practical activities: Sow seeds directly using the single hole method. Practice broadcasting using sand / gravel Make observations and keep daily records of activities List the spacing to grow different vegetable crops. 23 State the depth that seeds are sown. Direct Seeding Describe three methods of direct seeding Select seeds that are directly seeded.

Direct seeder equipment; manual direct seeding [broadcasting and single hole placing] Make simple tools to measure spacing on the prepared plots. Practical activity List three major activities of indirect seeding. Identify the differences between direct seeding and indirect seeding. Select seeds that can be indirectly seeded. Discuss some reasons for thinning out seedlings. Review seed box technology Selecting healthy seedlings. Steps in indirect seeding: e. g. germination; care and management of seedlings; thinning out; hardening off; transplanting seedlings Effects of overcrowding.

Selecting healthy seedlings. The proper technique to thin out seedlings. Demonstrate thinning out. Reasons for hardening off seedlings. Replanting healthy seedling that are thinned out. List reasons for hardening off seedlings. Need to protect seedlings during hardening off. Thin out a seed box/ seedbed. Thin out a seed box/ seedbed. Practical activity Demonstrate the transplanting of a seedling. Transplant hardened seedlings (4- 6 weeks old) from seed trays/ seedbeds to garden. Simple activities to prepare garden plots: Treatment of soil, Measuring spacing, depth of holes.

Practical activity Transplanting seedlings on t the prepared plots. Potting a seedling Record all the steps and activities in this process. Demonstrate how to plot a seedling. 24 List some practices to care for the seedlings after transplanting. Addition of organic manure Need to protect the seedling during transplanting Record the daily management practices in maintaining a healthy plant. Propagation of Plants Asexually [vegetative reproduction] List different parts of a plant that can be used to propagate new plants. Identify the bud as the main organ for vegetative production.

Examine the parts that make new plants [buds] on: Dasheen; eddoes Examine the parts that make new plants on: on the pineapple: [offsets] on the ginger lily flowers[offsets] of the banana/plantain:[suckers] Characteristics of a selected mature plant: (a) High yields of fruit/flowers/ foliage (b) Good quality fruit/flowers/ foliage (c) Resistance to diseases Quality of cuttings- size, straightness, length, part of the stem to take cutting Plants to take woody cuttings (e. g. croton, plums, cherry, guavas). Plants to take the soft stem cuttings [jump and kiss; josephs coat].

Protection of cuttings Materials to build a propagator for one (1 ) cutting: Practical activity Display these different parts of crops/ plants. Produce a chart illustrating these parts with the names. Produce new plants e. g. pineapple and ginger lily; banana/ plantain Propagating Plants by Cuttings [vegetative reproduction] List 3 characteristics to select trees/ shrubs to take cuttings Take cuttings from these selected trees/shrubs. Distinguish between soft stem / woody stem cuttings. State that [sexual] reproduction by seeds is different from reproduction using plant parts [asexual reproduction].

Identify trees in the neighborhood/ schools compound that can be selected for cuttings. Take cuttings from the mentioned plants. Pot woody and soft stemmed cuttings A Simple Plant Propagator State the uses of the plant propagator. Construct a simple plant propagator. a] Container 1: 2 liter plastic bottle, sharp sand, sawdust b] Container 2: Sharp sand, sawdust, plastic sheet, bucket or pan, 2 stakes. Practical activity Make the propagator [ Group/ class activity] Produce new plants from cuttings in the propagator. [use soft stemmed and woody cuttings]. Set a cutting [woody/ soft stem] in the propagator 5 STANDARD III TERM II MANURES AND FERTILIZERS TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Give a simple definition of an organic manure. State the different sources of organic manures. Describe some of the physical characteristics of manure. Name different types of organic fertilizers. CONTENT How manure is obtained from plants and animals. Types- decayed trees; Pen manure, Green manure, Compost, Liquid manure, Filter press mud. TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Collect and display samples [small heaps outside the building] Label heaps [sources of organic manures]. Manures (organic fertilizers) Making a Compost

List materials which can be included in a compost. Biodegradable [organic] materials- vegetable peelings, remains of plants. Sources of theses materials. Collect materials for making a compost. Making a compost heap Name the processes involved in composting. Describe the three stages in composting. Record the time allowed for each stage. Stags involved in process of making a compost. Conditions for a good compost. Compost materials in a bin. Apply compost to the crops on the prepared garden plots. Understand that composting reduces waste in the environment. Processes- decay/ decompose. 26 Inorganic Fertilizers

Identify and name common inorganic fertilizers (simple, complete) Name three major nutrients provided by fertilizers. Recognize the effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium on plant growth. Simple – Urea, Sulphate of Ammonia Ratios of complete fertilisers e. g. 12. 24. 12, 12. 12. 17. 2, 20. 20. 20. Major nutrients: Nitrogen (N)- Leaf and stem growth Phosphorous [P]- Root development, Potassium [K]- Flowering. Growth stage: complete fertiliser and extra nitrogen Bearing stage: complete fertiliser with extra potassium From: e. g. granular; Liquid Collect and display samples of different fertilisers.

Examine samples of the different fertilisers. Practical activity Make a fertiliser chart showing what fertiliser will be applied to a sweet crop at Week 2 Week 5 Week 8 Practice these methods with sawdust/ sand or gravel. State which are the most suitable fertilizers to apply at the appropriate stage of growth. Describe three forms of inorganic fertilizers. Methods of application: e. g. Broadcasting; Incorporating; Spot application. Advantages1) Make the soil rich (fertile). 2) Improves growth and yield. State advantages of applying fertilisers to the soil Describe methods of applying fertilizers/manures

Compare two potted plants e. g. tomato: One plant in a fertile soil One plant in a poor soil. 27 STANDARD III TERM III TOPIC; CULTIVATION OF CROPS TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Economic Crops of the Name some economic crops of our Country country. List some crops [raw materials] that are exported. List some processed food [crops] that are exported List some livestock products that are exported. Understand the importance of agriculture to the country. Discuss the ill effects that illegal crops have on the family. CONTENT Economic crops- Sugar cane, cocoa, coffee, rice, citrus etc. Importance1) For local industry 2) For export

TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Collect samples Display items in class Visit to the fresh market. Display labels on a chart in the classroom Agriculture provides food, employment, and earns foreign exchange through exports. An illegal crop is marijuana. Make simple flow charts showing paths of distribution from the farm to the consumer. Practical activity. Practical exercises by pupils. Land Preparation Practices Describe the two main forms of tillage. List the different land preparation practices in primary tillage. List the different land preparation practices in secondary tillage.

Discuss the importance of these two practices in crop production. Name three different types of drains. State two reasons why drains are needed. Land preparation practices: Land clearing Primary tillage Ploughing Secondary tillage Refining Application of manures and fertilisers Drainage of soil around prepared plots. Plot formation (length, width, height). Demonstrations with manual tools. Display of samples of soil that were primary tilled alone i. e. [clods] Secondary tilled i. e. [refined soil] Compare the physical structures of these two prepared soils. 28 TOPIC 3) Tools and Equipment used in Land Preparation

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Identify some of the tools and equipment used in land preparation. State the uses of some tools and equipment in land preparation. Match tools and equipment with the varied land preparation operations. CONTENT TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Tools and equipment used in primary and Discussion based on pictures secondary tillage. Collect pictures and display on charts Equipment- tractor, plough, rotavator Tools- cutlass, fork, hoe, spades, garden line Practical Exercise by pupils Prepared plots with: Condiments Legumes Fruit crops Medicinal Root crops

A Model Backyard Garden Draw a plan of a small vegetable garden Design a backyard garden. Home visits School/Backyard Garden Competition 29 Standard Four Topics Managing seedlings. Managing crops. Harvesting crops. Component of soil. Types of soil. Physical properties of soil. A fertile soil. Composition of fertile soil. Chemical properties of soil. The nursery. Seed box technology. . Sample Profile of Pupils’ Attainment STD IV Term II List the characteristics of fertile soil. Recognise the physical properties in sand, silt, clay, and loam Name nutrients present in soil.

Recognise the physical properties in sand, silt, clay, loam. List five components of a fertile soil. 30 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE STANDARD IV TERM I INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT [IPM] TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Integrated Pest List four stages of Integrated Pest Management Management. (IPM) Describe the benefits of using IPM State three problems of excess pesticide use in agriculture. Pest and Disease Tolerance. State that pest and disease tolerance is the initial stage of IPM. List three advantages of pest and disease tolerance in crops.

Identify cultural practices as the second major stage of IPM Performance cultural practices involved in the field management of crops. Describe these activities that are practised in the garden. List appropriate crops to be included in the cropping practice. Discuss the importance of biological control in IPM. Distinguish between a predator and a prey. List two main methods of biological control of insect pests. CONTENT Pest and disease tolerance Cultural practices Biological control Pesticide control TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Draw a concept map using IPM as the theme

Do proper seed/ cutting selection Identify healthy plants in the environment. Characteristics of healthy seeds Locate the suitable parts of the stem to take cuttings. Characteristics of healthy plants from which cuttings are made. Cultural practices i. e. moulding, staking, pruning, mulching, irrigation, fertilising, weed control. Practice the activities in the school garden. Record these activities in their journals. Cultural Practices Cropping Practices Inter- row cultivation, crop rotation, intercropping, cover cropping, multiple cropping. Develop flow charts to illustrate crop rotation.

Biological Control of Pests. Using the natural enemies of pest. Using the pheromones [scents] of the female insect to trap the male insects. Draw tables to list predators and preys. Design a simple trap that may be used as a pheromone trap. 31 Agricultural Pesticides on a Farm Identify when agricultural pesticides should be used on the farm. Describe bio- friendly pesticides. Describe two activities within the four major stages of IPM Demonstrate the proper techniques of harvesting of common fruit and vegetable crops. Agricultural pesticides is the final stage in controlling pests on the farm

Visit to the agricultural shop. Collect labels and brochures of various pesticides. Design a detailed concept map to describe IPM When harvesting consider maturity period of crop (with respect to use), harvesting time, harvesting periods. Harvesting tools and equipment e. g. Knife; lettuce, pakchoi, carailli, spinach Cutlass [machete]: bananas Goulet: cocoa, coconuts, paw- paw Harvesters: rice, sugar cane Practical activity Record taking Participate in harvesting activities in the school garden. Make a flow chart to show the sequence of post harvest. Describe each activity of post harvest care.

Sequence the activities of post harvest care. Describe three benefits of proper post harvest care. Post harvest activities: Sorting, cleaning, washing, grading Discuss the effects of poor post harvest. 32 STANDARD IV SOIL STUDY TOPIC TERM II SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1) List five components of soil 1) Components of soil CONTENT Components- sand, silt, clay, humus, air, water, etc. Soil organisms- earth worms, snails, millipede, mole, cricket etc. Types- sand, silt, clay, loam structure and texture of soil. TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Practical activity Experiment to show layers in soil sample.

Observing soil organisms Experiment to show soil has air. Observation of different soil types. 2) Types of soil Recognize and identify the four main types of soil. Define the term loan Recognize the physical properties in sand, silt, clay, loam. 3) Physical properties of soil Physical properties- drainage, water retention air/ pore space, capillarity. Controlled experiments to explore these physical properties. Characteristics- made up of sand, silt and clay combined good drainage/water retention. Practical activities [group work]. Experimenting with different soil samples. )A fertile soil List the characteristics of fertile soil. List nutrients required by crops Describe the major activities which improve a soil’s fertility. State the various components and percentages in a loamy soil. Observe growth of seeding in different soil samples (sand, clay, loam). 5)Composition of a fertile soil Air 25% Humus 5% Mineral matter (sand, silt, clay) 45% Water 25% Nutrients- N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S. Ph scale- acidic/ alkaline. Use of limestone. Drawing pie chart to represent percentages. 6) Chemical Properties of soil. Name nutrients present in the soil.

Draw and discuss the use of a Ph scale. State one way of reducing soil acidity. Oral discussions. Practical activities in the school garden. 33 Conservation Practices List five methods of soil conservation. Describe the benefits of proper soil conservation practices. Describe three effects of soil loss on crop and livestock production. Methods- contour (drainage and cropping) ground covers, grass barriers, terracing with bamboo/ wooden planks, mulching, soil traps. Models to show soil erosion and conservation practices. Demonstrate some of these methods in the school garden. 4 STANDARD IV TERM III TOPIC- THE NURSERY TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1) The Nursery 1) State the function of a nursery. CONTENT Function1) Sowing/ germination of seeds 2) Protecting seedlings, from rain/ sunlight TEACHING/LEARNING ACTIVITIES Visit to school garden nursery. Observation of pictures. Structure of the nursery Structure Covered with plastic sheets, saran netting or polythene Raised shelves Locating the nursery Sitting- low wing, shaded from sunlight, good drainage. Growing crops without chemicals Collect specimens of the protective crops. Grow the crops Blend in ater the leaves, cloves and fruits of these plants to make an organic pesticide. Organic farming Define organic farming. List three advantages of organic farming. Describe simple methods of pest and disease management. Identify plants that are used to control pests. Describe the process of application of organic pesticides. Cultural practices: land preparation seed selection crop rotation. Neem, marigold, garlic, hot pepper. 35 Standard Five Topics Technology in Agriculture The Flower Roles of Organisations/ Agencies in Agriculture in Trinidad and Tobago. Plant Propagation Relate the importance of the flower in food production.

Sample Profile of Pupils’ Attainment STD IV Term II Name some of the major Agencies in Trinidad and Tobago Show the relationship Between the flower and New plants Identify the functions of these organisations. Classify flowers as valuable products that are cold. Collect data and collate data from these institutions. 36 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE STANDARD FIVE TERM I AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT Agriculture and the Outline three problems that Soil erosion: Loss of top soil. Loss of different Environment affect the environment. orms [biodiversity] of living things. Carbon dioxide; CFC, nitrous oxide List some green house gases. Greenhouse gases to cause the climate change of Describe the dangers of the world to change. agricultural chemicals that remain in the water and soil. Poverty/ Lack of proper nutrition/unable to produce food/depends on other countries for Discuss the outcomes of these food. problems. TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Make a model to demonstrate soil erosion List some green house gases Collect pictures and display on charts Display a map of the country where pollution occurs.

Agriculture and the Environment List some practices in agriculture that benefit the environment. Discuss how these practices are beneficial. Suggest ways how proper agriculture practices can help the environment. Crop cover to prevent soil erosion Reforestation to prevent erosion on slopes and replace forests that were cut down for logs Organic farming/ organic fertilisers allows and encourages natural food chains so living creatures are not destroyed. Organic farming/organic fertilisers reduce the quantity of agricultural chemicals in the environment.

The leaves of all plants absorb CO2 [Green house gas] from the atmosphere. Composting reduces wastes in the environment. Draw and label diagrams/ figures/ pictures to illustrate soil conversation measures. Build a model to show a simple food chain Write/ e-mail correspondence to the environmental authorities and ministry of food production [Agriculture]. Discussion with qualified professional individuals in the classroom/ field trips Measure how much organic waste material is sent to the compost heap. Set up a system in the classroom to separate wastes. 37 Technology in Agriculture

List three major technologies that are applied to agriculture. Describe these terms. List two crops that are produced by tissue culture. State some advantages of tissue culture over other means of asexual reproduction. List reasons why hydroponics is used in agriculture. Discuss the use of green houses in temperate climates/ tropical climates. Ago- processing [non- food products] Explain the role of genetic engineering in crop and livestock production. Provide reasons that livestock and crops are genetically modified. Give examples of some crops that are genetically modified.

List some breeds of livestock that have been genetically engineered. Tissue Culture; Cloning, Genetic engineering, genetically modified foods [banana] Collect information on current world events. Use the internet to secure information. Group research and written projects. Mass production of new plants Ideal specimens Disease free propagation Soil-less agriculture green houses Hydroponics; soil- less growth Poor soil conditions; limited water resources; off-season demand for high priced crops. Green houses: temperature control; humidity and water control; air control.

Oral presentation to their peers. Display on brochures and information on these topics. Experiments/ hydroponics project to product crops using this system. Produce flow charts. Improving the Quality of Livestock and Crops Lumber; cut flowers; Coconut brooms/ thatch Genetic engineering is a process of change to get desired traits/ characteristics. Genetic engineering is done to improve breeds of livestock and varieties of crops. Genetic engineering improves the breeds of livestock and varieties of crops Buffalypso Match the reasons for G E with selection of cuttings. 8 STANDARD V TERMM II AGRICULTURAL ORGANISATIONS/ AGENCIES IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TOPIC SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT The Flower Discuss the importance of the Flowers grow into fruits. flower in food production Show the relationship between the flower and new plants. Sexual reproduction in flowers to produce seeds. Role of helpful insects in pollination Ornamental flower trade TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Matching seeds and fruits Create a flow chart/ cycle flower…… fruit……. Seeds… . new plant Making simple bouquets with ornamental flowers.

Insect collection Field observation of the activities in insects Visits to the flower shop. Web searches: ‘flower trade’ Roles of Organizations/ Agencies in Agriculture in Trinidad and Tobago. List flowers sold locally and internationally as valuable products. Name some of the major Agencies in T&T Identify the functions of these organizations. Collect and display data from these institutions. ADB; EMA;IICA CARDI; NAMDEVCO; IMA CARIRI; Caroni [1975] Limited; Min of Food Production and Marine Resources; University of the West Indies; Commercial Banks; Livestock Board; ECIAF; FTC; EXIM Bank; etc.

Horticultural society. Collect brochures Chats with resource personnel Field Trips Role Playing Communication via their websites. Sow viable seeds of Cleopatra Mandarin/ local avocado/ long or rose mango in bags of potting soil. These seedlings are required for next term’s activities. Preparation for Budding/ Grafting. Produce seedlings of Citrus/ Mango/ Avocado. 39 STANDARD V TERM III PLANT PROPAGATION TOPIC The Plant Propagator SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES List materials used in making a propagator List the tools and materials needed to construct a propagator.

Construct and prepare a simple propagator Name plants that are commonly propagated by layering. Performing air layering on the hibiscus. Illustrate simple ground layering CONTENT Construction of propagationrecycling- used fridges, stoves, oil containers, filing cabinets. Materials in the propagatorgravel, sand, rooting medium (sawdust, rice husk, sharp sand) Air layering- hibiscus, rose, croton Ground layering- coleus (Joseph’s coat), Spanish Thyme Selection of high quality materials [stems] Budding: citrus, oranges, grapefruits Grafting: mango, avocado TEACHING/ LEARNING ACTIVITIES Construct a propagator

Collect materials for the propagator Propagation by Layering Collection, labeling, display, sowing, experimenting, record keeping. Propagation by Budding/ Grafting Name plants which are propagated by budding Perform a simple graft. Give examples of plants that are produced as rootstock. Identify suitable trees to remove scion. Cut of stem [scion] that will be grafted on the root stock. Pupils may do a graft of one of the fruit crops or demonstrate the graft using appropriate materials. 40 ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Demonstration of skills Quiz. Garden and Classroom Projects. Essays.

Cloze Passages. Portfolios. Material Production e. g. Brochures, Posters, Charts etc. Record Keeping. Models e. g. Soil Conversation, Landforms, Farms etc. 41 APPENDIX A NURSEY 42 APPENDIX B GARDEN TOUGHS 43 APPENDIX C PROPAGATOR 44 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Ministry of Education expresses its sincerest thanks and appreciation to the following for their contribution. ? ? The past Agricultural Science Facilities who drafted the document that was introduced as the pilot programme. Principals and teachers of the schools that are participated in the pilot programme which was conducted prior to the completion of this document.

Their comments and contributions were valid as these were used to guide the coordinators of this project. The Supervisory Staff of the Education Districts. Curriculum Facilitators from the eight Education District. The Agricultural Science Facilitators [2000-2002] from the Education Districts: RAI GUALBANCE South- East HUGH GABRIEL Port of Spain and Environs ? KARSIEPARSAD HERAMAN North- East JAGLAL RAMRAJ Victoria RAWLE SEEPERSAD St. Patrick ABRAHAM SEECHARAN Caroni JEFFERY MANMOHAN St. George East SAMUEL CHARLES Tobago ? ? ?

All the individuals who have contributed immensely towards the completion of this document. The curriculum recommended here attempts to expose the primary school pupil to some of the modern trends in the field of Agriculture and encourages practice in basic skills that can be mastered within the periods timetabled for the teaching of Agricultural Science. My sincerest regards to all the contributors for their critique, comments and encouragement throughout this exercise. Dipwatee Maharaj Curriculum Officer: Agricultural Science Ministry of Education Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. October 2001. 45


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