This paper will cover about the Poetry of the Twentieth Century. Especially it deals about Simon Armitage and Carol Ann Duffy. The first portion trades about their lifes. The 2nd portion negotiations about the scene of their plants, a description of the epoch when they start working and descriptions of the chief facets of those old ages. In the 3rd portion of this paper there is an analysis of the manner that they used in their plants. Then there is an analysis of some of their verse forms. And in the last portion as a decision you can happen my sentiments about the subject.
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In this subdivision the life of the two of them are presented. First there is the life of Simon Armitage and so the life of Carol Ann Duffy.
Simon Armitage was born in 1963. He was born in the small town of Marsden and today he lives in West Yorkshire, in England. He is a alumnus in Geography at Portsmouth University and besides he studied societal work in the University of Manchester. In this university he besides made his thesis that talked about the effects of the force in telecasting. He had a occupation as Probation Officer in the Greater Manchester until 1994.
After he published his city manager works he published some limited edition booklets. In these booklets we can happen, for illustration: Human Geography, The Distance Between Stars, The Walking Horses, Around Robinson, and Suitcase, etc.
Simon Armitage was a instructor in the University of Leeds and in the University of Lowa ‘s Writers ‘ Workshop. Nowadays he is a senior lector at Manchester Metropolitan University. And he is besides an Artist in Residence at London ‘s South Bank. He is Vice President of the Poetry Society.
Talking about his plants, he had verse forms, novels, wireless and telecasting plants, etc.
Within his poesy works we can happen: Rapid climb! ( 1989 ) , Xanadu ( 1992 ) , Kid ( 1992 ) , Book of Matches ( 1993 ) , The Dead Sea Poems ( 1995 ) , Moon Country ( 1996 ) , CloudCuckooLand ( 1997 ) , Killing Time ( 1999 ) , Selected Poems ( 2001 ) , Traveling Songs ( 2002 ) , The Universal Home Doctor ( 2002 ) , Tyrannosaurus Rex Versus the Corduroy Kid ( 2006 ) and Sing Stars ( 2010 ) .
He has two novels: the first of them was published in 2001 and its name is Small Green Man, the 2nd novel is The White Stuff published in 2004.
He has other type of plants: he writes for wireless, telecasting and movie, and he is besides the writer of four phase dramas.
Carol Ann Duffy
Carol Ann Duffy was born in 1955, in Glasgow, Scotland. She had four brothers. She went to St. Austin Roman Catholic Primary School, St. Joseph ‘s Convent School and Stafford Girls ‘ High School. She attended to the University of Liverpool, where she studied Philosophy. She besides had a work as a free-lance author in London. She has a girl in common with her hubby, the novelist Jackie Kay, whose name is Ella. Since 2002 she is a instructor of Creative Writing in the University of Manchester, where she lives presents.
Her plants can be divided into: grownup poesy aggregations, books for kids, anthologies and dramas.
Within her aggregations of big poesy we can happen: Standing Female Nude ( 1985 ) , Selling Manhattan ( 1987 ) , The Other Country ( 1990 ) , Average Time ( 1993 ) , The World ‘s Wife ( 1999 ) ; Feminine Gospels ( 2002 ) , and Rapture ( 2005 ) .
Her verse forms for kids are collected in New & A ; Collected Poems forA Children ( 2009 ) .A She besides has image books for kids as: Underwater Farmyard ( 2002 ) , Doris the Giant ( 2004 ) , Moon Zoo ( 2005 ) , A The Tear Thief ( 2007 ) , and The Princess ‘s Blankets ( 2009 ) .
The anthologies that were edited by Carol Ann were: Out of Fashion ( 2004 ) , Answering Back ( 2007 ) , and To The Moon: An Anthology of Lunar Poems ( 2009 ) .
She wrote four dramas: Take My Husband ( 1982 ) , Cavern of Dreams ( 1984 ) , Small Women, Big Boys ( 1986 ) and Loss ( 1986 ) .
These two writers stated composing more or less at the same clip, in the latest 1880ss. The life in the Eightiess in Britain as Malcolm Bradbury ( 1994 ) said: “ it was a clip of many revaluations and restructurings, and of lifting uncertainties, dark prognostications and revelatory feelings among a good many of its creative person and intellectuals ” .
In history footings, it can be said that some of import facts occurred in these old ages. This drumhead starts one twelvemonth after that the first work by Carol Ann Duffy was published.
1984: Strike of the Coal Miners. Trade Union Act. The British Telecom became private.
1985: Anglo-Irish Agreement: an understanding between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.
1986: Riots ( perturbations ) in Brixton or Lambeth. The London Stock Exchange was deregulated. Besides in this twelvemonth the British Gas became private.
1987: Individual European Act ( the alteration of the Treaty of Rome, 1957 ) . The British Air passages were privatized.
1988: Alliance between the SDP and the broad party.
1989: Opening of Berlin Wall. Release of Guildford-Four.
Talking about the features of the poesy in the Eightiess and some particular characteristics of these two writers it can be said that:
The poesy of nowadays present assorted ethnicities, civilizations or nationalities. It moved from a nationalist poesy to a more international one. It besides changes from a centralist, “ male ” and academic pattern poesy to a cultural amusement for all the people and multicultural one.
Old subjects change to religious, cultural, sexual and ideological pluralism. We can besides happen the concerns of minorities, sexual orientation, beginning, gender or linguistic communication. Randall Stevenson ( 2004: 212 ) said that: “ In “ Poet for Our Timess ” ( 1990 ) Carol Ann Duffy defined headlines, in 1980 ‘s, as “ the verse form of the decennary ” – a “ bottom line of art ” sometimes used sensationally by her coevalss to integrate into poesy the immediate world of the urban life ”
The traditional linguistic communication used in the United Kingdom turned into new ways of authorship, for illustration, the usage of idioms as Gaelic or new grammar regulations. New lexical points and words like linguistic communications of ancient settlements of Britain or different slang words are included in the verse form of the modern-day poesy. In the poesy of the late century we can happen linguistic communication break, formal escapade and challenges to conventional facts.
New types of poesy appear: national poesy, adult females ‘s poesy or multicultural poesy are common in this period.
Women ‘s poesy became more popular at the terminal of the 1970 ‘s. The subjects of the adult females ‘s poesy ( Randall Stevenson, 2004: 222 ) are: “ day- to-day experience, and adult females ‘s feelings about experiences [ aˆ¦ ] work, friendly relationship, household relationship, abortion, childbearing and sexual relationships- heterosexual and sapphic ”
The “ black ” poesy became more popular because of the fact that “ black ” immigrants came to England and wrote their verse forms at that place.
Poetry became a manner of amusement, it can be found in theaters, saloons or bars. It turns to an art merely for few people to a popular art. This can be the effect of the enlargement of the publication houses from London to many metropoliss through England.
The poesy of the late 20th century and the 21st century it is more focussed to be an international poesy.
In this subdivision the manner of both writers is traveling to be analyzed. First of all there are characteristics that are characteristic in both writers ; this is because they belong to the same period. Then there are specific characteristics of each of them.
The used to compose about issues that are relevant to today ‘s society. They write about past experiences or characters of other life styles to research them.
Both of them give ideas and feelings that we might see one time or subjects that are relevant to everybody.
Talking about the construction and the manner of the verse forms it can be said that:
They have different types of verse forms with different constructions as: narrative verse forms, sonnets, structured poetry or free poetry.
Within the manner, and specifically linguistic communication, we can happen that they use a conversational linguistic communication, but within this simple linguistic communication there are complex thoughts. Some illustrations of linguistic communications techniques that they used are: initial rhyme, onomatopoeia, repeat, etc. The linguistic communication that they used is important for people to understand their plants.
Additionally to the common features, Simon Armitage has more specific features.
He belongs to the “ New Generation ” and as Randall Stevenson ( 2004: 229 ) quotation mark from the Penguin Book of the Contemporary British Poetry ( 1982 ) “ they are distinguished by “ handiness, democracy and reactivity ” and by reassertion of “ the art ‘s significance as public vocalization ” ( p.16 ) ” .
Armitage ‘s verse forms make an geographic expedition of relationships and the impact that they have on the life of people. In his verse form we can happen mentions about North England or Yorkshire idiom. His plants must be interpreted on a personal degree by the reader.
Ian Hamilton ( 1992:16 ) “ Armitage ‘s verse forms are both steadfastly grounded in topographic point and broad in their inventive, emotional and proficient scope, traveling easy between anecdote, larger narrative, art and political relations ”
Carol Ann Duffy
Duffy ‘s verse forms reflect depressed or disturbed members of society. These characters are resent with the universe in which they live.
Her subjects are kids, adult females, love, etc ; and she uses the point of position of a character. These character that she creates are normally stray people who feel shut out from society.
Although she is a adult female she does n’t utilize the typical characteristics of adult females ‘s authorship. She is less advanced than her male coevalss and usage curiously paratactic beat
Ian Hamilton ( 1992: 137 ) says that: “ [ … ] Duffy aims her poetic fire at obvious victims, easy marks, but her best work combines lyric strength with plain-speaking ”
In this subdivision you can happen three verse forms of each writer and their analysis. First you can happen the verse forms by Simon Armitage and so the verse forms by Carol Ann Duffy.
November ( by Simon Armitage )
We walk to the ward from the severely parked auto
with your grandmother taking four short stairss to our two
We have brought her here to decease and we know it.
You check her towel, soap and household bangles,
pare her nails. Parcel her in the unsmooth covers
and she sinks down into her incontinency.
It is clip John. In their pastelike bloodless smilings,
in their slack chests, their amazed encephalons and their phalacrosis,
and in us John: we are about these monsters
You ‘re shattered. You give me the keys and I drive
through the dusk zone, past the celebrated station
to your house, to blunt ourselves with intoxicant.
Inside, we feel the panic of the twilight Begin.
Outside we watch the eventide, neglecting once more,
and we let it go on. We can state nil.
Sometimes the Sun sequins and we feel alive
One thing we have to acquire, John, is out of this life.
The verse form is divided in five three lines stanzas and in the last portion of the verse form there is a pair which give the feeling that the verse form is non finished or that have a sudden terminal.
The 11 lines have a regular beat.
In my sentiment the rubric of the verse form, November has a symbolic significance. I think that because it is the penultimate it can mention to the terminal of the twelvemonth and possibly to the terminal of the life, possibly it refers to the 3rd age, when people are older. Besides the dark can hold the same significance as the rubric.
In the 3rd stanza we can happen that Armitage describes the old people as if they were monsters.
In the last portion of the verse form the poet do n’t stop the verse form with a decision possibly he desire the readers to reflect about the verse form and the subject that it deals about, or he wants to stand for the surprise of decease.
The verse form is narrated in first individual but with a mention to a individual called John. Simon Armitage usage words that include the reader in the verse form and show a state of affairs that we all will confront someday. He uses pronouns as we, you, her or their, and that could hold the map of include the reader in the verse form.
The subjects of this verse form are the relationship with the household and besides the inevitable passing of clip.
Kid ( by Simon Armitage )
Batman, large shooting, when you gave the order
to turn up, so allow me free to roll
leeward, freely through the wild bluish yonder
as you liked to state, or ditched me, instead
in the trough. . . good, I turned the corner.
Now I ‘ve scotched that ‘he was like a male parent
to me ‘ rumor, sacked it, blown the screen
on that ‘he was like an senior brother ‘
narrative, allow the cat out on that caper
with the married adult female, how you took her
business district on disbursals in the motor.
I ‘m non playing ball boy any longer
Batman, now I ‘ve doffed that off-the-shoulder
Sherwood-Forest-green and red figure
for a brace of denims and crew cervix jumper ;
now I ‘m taller, harder, stronger, older.
Batman, it makes a fantastic image ;
you without a shadow, grizzling over
lily-livered giblets in the force per unit area cooker,
following to nil in the walk-in larder,
pluging the thenar of your manus all winter,
you baby, now I ‘m a existent male child admiration.
Poem ‘s background:
In this poem Armitage negotiations about Batman, that is a amusing hero who was popular in Television and movies. The verse form shows a conflict of Batman and his felon of Gotham City.
The verse form has a 10 syllable lines and all of them end with the sound “ -er ” . The linguistic communication used can retrieve the linguistic communication of telecasting shows and besides it has some sense of wit.
The symbol that I find in the verse form is that Armitage do a gag about Batman and I think that this means that super heroes are non perfect and besides have their bad yearss, or possibly that super heroes do n’t be.
The linguistic communication in the verse form is idiomatic and besides it has looks of Batman. This type of linguistic communication is sometimes used to reflect a pathetic look.
In my sentiment the chief subject of the verse form is the turning and the independency. The other subject that I found is that our imaginativeness or our perfect believes are non true. When we are childs we think that the ace heroes exist but so when we grow up we realized that it was n’t true. He besides do humourous commentaries about celebrated people.
Homecoming ( by Simon Armitage )
Think, two things on their ain and both at one time.
The first, that exercise in trust, where those in forepart
base with their random-access memories spread broad and free-fall
backwards, blind and those buttockss take all the weight.
The 2nd, one canary-yellow cotton jacket
on a cloakroom floor, uncoupled from its hook,
going scuffed and blackened underfoot. Back place
the really theoretical account of a theoretical account of a female parent, yours, puts
two and two together, makes a proper fist of it
and points the finger. Temper, pique. Question
in the house. You seeing ruddy. Blue slaying. Bed.
Then midnight when you slip the latch and sneak
no further than the call-box at the corner of the street ;
I ‘m waiting by the phone, although it does n’t peal
because it ‘s 16 old ages or so before we ‘ll run into.
Retrace that walk towards the garden gate ; in silhouette
a male parent figure waits at that place, wants to put things directly.
These ribs are plaits or seams. These weaponries are arms.
These fingertips are buttons, or these custodies can turn up
into a clasp, or else these fingers make a nothing
or buckle, you say which. Measure backwards into it
and seek the same canary-yellow cotton jacket, there
like this, for size once more. It still fits.
The construction of this verse form is simple and regular but in my sentiment is hard to understand. It is divided in four stanzas of different lengths but about all have the same beat.
Possibly the xanthous jacket can stand for the yesteryear and how easy is to retrieve it. Besides it can intend that the yesteryear is ever in our head or that it is easy to hold in head our past memories.
The linguistic communication that Armitage uses is easy, simple and familiar, and sometimes idiomatic. It besides has a alteration of clip there is a alteration between the yesteryear and the present for illustration in stanza three.
He besides use poesy characteristics as initial rhyme, vowel rhyme or different types of beat
In this verse form is more hard to understand the subject that Armitage negotiations approximately. There is non a clear message. The subject that I find is the construct of clip and memory. The verse form shows how person remembers his/her yesteryear, and in the last portion of the verse form brings it to their present life with the illustration of the jacket.
Other subject that could be found in this verse form is the relationships between household and how a new life can alter them.
Havisham ( by Carol Ann Duffy )
Beloved sweetheart bastard. Not a twenty-four hours since so
I have n’t wished him dead. Prayed for it
so difficult I ‘ve dark green pebbles for eyes,
ropes on the dorsum of my custodies I could strangulate with.
Spinster. I stink and remember. Whole yearss
in bed cawing Nooooo at the wall ; the frock
yellowing, trembling if I open the closet ;
the slewed mirror, full length, her, myself, who did this
to me? Puce curses that are sounds non words.
Some darks better, the lost organic structure over me,
my fluid lingua in its oral cavity in its ear
so down boulder clay I all of a sudden bite awake. Love ‘s
hatred behind a white head covering ; a ruddy balloon bursting
in my face. Bang. I stabbed at a wedding-cake.
Give me a male cadaver for a long slow honeymoon.
Do n’t believe it ‘s merely the bosom that b-b-b-breaks.
The verse form is divided in four stanzas with four lines each of them. The verse form does n’t hold a rime or a regular meter.
The colourss are of import symbols in this verse form, for illustration, the white reflects the marrying frock or the ruddy the treachery.
As I said before the verse form has n’t a regular meter and it can be related to the instability of the personality of the character.
Carol Ann Duffy writes in first individual. She uses inquiries and exclaimings and gives diverseness to the lines.
In the verse form we can besides happen initial rhyme, for illustration in the last line of the verse form the B.
The first lines are written to do an accent on her defeat and besides her choler.
The verse form negotiations about the treachery or green-eyed monster and besides the harm that this can do in a relationship. The supporter, Miss Havisham, acquire insane because of the treachery. All the feelings and ideas of Miss Havisham are presented in the verse form.
Anne Hathaway ( by Carol Ann Duffy )
‘Item I gyve unto my married woman my 2nd best bedaˆ¦ ‘
( from Shakespeare ‘s will )
The bed we loved in was a spinning universe
of woods, palaces, torchlight, clifftops, seas
where he would plunge for pearls. My lover ‘s words
were hiting stars which fell to earth as busss
on these lips ; my organic structure now a softer rime
to his, now echo, vowel rhyme ; his touch
a verb dance in the Centre of a noun.
Some darks, I dreamed he ‘d written me, the bed
a page beneath his author ‘s custodies. Love affair
and play played by touch, by aroma, by gustatory sensation.
In the other bed, the best, our invitees dozed on,
trickling their prose. My life express joying love
I hold him in the coffin of my widow ‘s caput
as he held me upon that following bed.
Background to the verse form:
The rubric of this verse form refers to the married woman of Shakespeare.
The verse form is a riming sonnet which has 14 lines. In my sentiment she tried to follow the verse form with other stoping or other account.
Carol Ann Duffy attempt to rewrite a sonnet by Shakespeare but in the manner his married woman would make it, so she does n’t follow the regulations of Shakespeare ‘s plants, possibly because she wants to mention that Anne Hatheway was n’t every bit good as him composing verse forms.
The linguistic communication that Carol Ann Duffy uses is related to things about Shakespeare. It is written in first individual and with the voice of a adult female. She uses different literary resources as initial rhyme ( in line 12 ) or metaphor in line 15, that means that she keep him in her ideas.
Subjects and links:
The verse form is a sonnet that talks about love ( sonnets usually do so ) and the absence of person that she loved, in this instance Shakespeare.
It is related with Shakespeare ‘s “ Sonnet 130 ”
We Remember Your Childhood Well ( by Carol Ann Duffy )
Cipher hurt you. Cipher turned off the visible radiation and argued
with person else all dark. The bad adult male on the Moors
was merely a film you saw. Cipher locked the door.
Your inquiries were answered to the full. No. That did n’t happen.
You could n’t sing anyhow, cared less. The minute ‘s a fuzz, a Film Fun
express joying itself to decease in the coal fire. Anyone ‘s conjecture.
Cipher forced you. You wanted to travel that twenty-four hours. Begged. You chose
the frock. Here are the images, look at you. Look at us all,
smiling and beckoning, younger. The whole thing is inside your caput.
What you recall are feelings ; we have the facts. We called the melody.
The secret constabulary of your childhood were older and wiser than you, bigger
than you. Name back the sound of their voices. Boom. Boom. Boom.
Cipher sent you off. That was an excess vacation, with people
you seemed to wish. They were house, there was nil to fear.
There was none but yourself to fault if it ended in cryings.
What does it count now? No, no, cipher left the skidmarks of wickedness
on your psyche and laid you broad unfastened for Hell. You were loved.
Always. We did what was best. We remember your childhood good.
The construction of this verse form is six stanzas with three lines each of them. It has rhyme and half rime.
In the construction I have found that the rubric is repeated at the terminal of the verse form like an stoping of the subject.
I think that the repeat of the rubric in the last line of the verse form is like an stoping of the memory, possibly like if the individual does n’t desire to retrieve it any longer.
It is a simple linguistic communication and sometimes insistent. The negative signifier is compressed. The linguistic communication that she uses ( you, yourself, etc ) makes me believe of it as a one-sided conversation, there is no 1 in the other side.
It talks about the maltreatments in the relationship of an grownup and a kid and how the memories can be remember in different ways and they are non ever true.
In this portion of the paper I ‘m traveling to give a brief decision about the writers but chiefly about the verse forms and their manner.
As you can see this two writers are late writers of the 20 century so they are closed to our society because they live in our society ( both of them are still alive and with non excessively many old ages ) . Thankss to this fact I think that the verse forms that they wrote are related more or less with our presents society, for illustration, the last verse form by Carol Ann Duffy refers to a subject that unluckily is happening presents, the kids maltreatment.
Talking about their manner and the manner that they write I can state that the huge bulk of their verse forms are easy to read because they have a simple linguistic communication and besides because they are related to subjects that are known for all of us. I think that the bulk of their verse forms are rather simple and what we read is what the writer wants to state.
Stevenson, R. The Oxford English Literary History. Volume 12: 1960-2000: The last of England? Oxford University Press, United States, 2006
Hamilton, I. The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-century Poetry in English. Oxford University Press, United States, 1996.
Bradbury, M. The modern British novel. Penguin Books, London, 1994
Medina Casado, C. Poetas ingleses del siglo XX. Sintesis, Madrid, 2007
Contemporary Writers – British Council. Carol Ann Duffy ( 20 November, 2010 ) : hypertext transfer protocol: //www.contemporarywriters.com/authors/ ? p=auth104
Contemporary Writers – British Council. Simon Armitage. ( 20 November, 2010 ) : hypertext transfer protocol: //www.contemporarywriters.com/authors/ ? p=auth165
Simon Armitage ‘s Website ( 20 November, 2010 ) :
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.simonarmitage.com/