Social Policy is the development of social management and policies the government use for social protection. Social policy is related to the government approach of development of social services towards formation of a welfare state (Alcock, 2003) British welfare state is associated with ‘poor laws’ established to cater to the needs of the poor. Social policy is not just a mere academic subject but relates to social and economic conditions of a country, how to promote these conditions for the development of a welfare state. Social policy is aimed at the management of welfare within areas which may be of concern, which include, health, education and employment services, community care, crime and disability. Social policy looks at issues related to education, health, employment, and social security and race Krysik et al (1998) suggest that social policy is about decision making and choosing different courses of action.
To give overview of ‘poor law’, the old poor law was a system, that was designed to help to give help to the poor, which occurred in England and wales, It relied on the help of the parish as the unit of government. Parishes were small, and their finances were weak. From the earliest days, and including the original 1601 Act, poor laws had always emphasized this distinction between the ‘deserving’ poor and the ‘undeserving’ poor. However, nineteenth-century critics of the old system for helping the poor pointed out that it did not have a sufficiently deterrent effect. Under the ‘New’ Poor Law, individuals were expected to submit to degrading and shameful procedures to receive any benefit. Therefore, only the truly deserving, the completely destitute, would be prepared to come forward for help. It is for this reason that we link the poor laws with stigmatization. The poor law amendment meant that no able-bodied person could claim relief unless they went to live and work within work houses. Historyhome.co.uk (2016) “After the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act had been passed, the Poor Law Guardians had to provide accommodation for paupers. They did this by building “workhouses”. The purpose of the workhouse was to discourage people from claiming poor relief and conditions were to be made as forbidding as possible”. Children would be entered into the work houses for a number of reasons, once they entered the work houses they were quite often split up from their families, Roberts (1963) claimed that in 1938 it was noted that the children that usually entered the work house were normally orphans, children that had been deserted or of felens.
There was no legal status in terms of adoption before 1926, according to Keating (2009) before 1926 adoption was usually informal and carried this on well into the 1930’s. In the 1920’s the National Adoption Society (NAS) and the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child (NCUMC) called for a new legislation to be introduced, claiming the adoption was still occurring regardless of the legislation being in place, by putting this legislation in place it would therefore better safeguard children. Throughout the Second World War adoption was still an area of concern, and because of this war meant the 1939 act became delayed, the act then came into force in June 1943. There were to be two other alterations in legislation, the 1949 Adoption of Children Act and a consolidating Act passed in 1950.
In 190 Parliament passed a new Education Act, which written by A.J, this dramatically changed education at local level. It eradicated the school boards in England and Wales, Schools were then put in the hands of local education authorities under the control of the county and county borough councils. Educationengland (1944) cited in education act 1944 states “It shall be lawful for His Majesty to appoint a Minister Appointment , whose duty it shall of Minister be to promote the education of the people of England and Wales in charge of and the development of institutions devoted to that education and progressive establishment purpose, and to secure the effective execution by local authorities, Of Ministry of under his control and direction, of the national policy for pro- Education. Providing a varied and comprehensive educational service in every area”.
How has education changed over time including Warnock
The first act of parliament to be passed to protect children was in 1889, which was known as the children’s charter, Batty (2005) “Police could arrest anyone found ill-treating a child and enter a home if a child was thought to be in danger. The act included guidelines on the employment of children and outlawed begging”. The Children Act 1948 created a committee to protect children and an officer in each local authority, this followed the death of a 13-year-old child who was being cared for by foster parents, Gillard (2018) “The appropriate local authority shall, for the purposes of the provisions of this Act relating to the making of orders committing a child or young person to the care of a fit person”. Batty (2005) The Children Act 1989 states that have children has the right to be protected from abuse and to safeguarded. It also claimed that children are generally better looked after when they are kept within their family. This act came into force in England and Wales in 1991 and – with some differences – in Northern Ireland in 1996. The UN convention on the right rights of the child state that, children have the right to be heard and to be able to express their views freely, to be free from abuse and neglect, to a good standard of living, they have the right to education, and to be treated with dignity and respect within the justice system.
Before the NHS, many of the sick relied on the help of religious communities, according to Smart (2008) “Many hospitals used for specific purposes such as leper hospitals, or as refuges for the poor and it was not until later did hospitals become multi-functional”.